Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze in out clinic elderly patients of both sexes for the prevalence of risk factors for atherosclerosis and study their association with the complications of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Five hundred and sixteen outpatients, 152 men and 364 women, 60 years or older, were studied. The prevalences of hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking and obesity were determined in both sexes and compared using the chi-square test. The association between these factors and the presence of atherosclerotic complications was analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: The comparative analysis of the factors in both sexes showed that hypertension, total cholesterol > or = 240mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol > or = 160mg/dL, and body mass index >27.5 were more frequent among women, but HDL-cholesterol <35mg/dL and cigarette smoking were more frequent among men, and no difference occurred between sexes in relation to the frequency of triglycerides > or = 250mg/dL and diabetes mellitus. After adjustment of the variables in the regression model, we observed that in the total of elderly patients, risk factors for complications of atherosclerosis were: triglycerides > or = 250mg/dL, hypertension, and male sex. Among men, the risk factors were: LDL-cholesterol > or = 160mg/dL, diabetes mellitus, HDL-cholesterol <35mg/dL and hypertension. Among women, the risk factors were: tryglicerides > or = 250mg/dL and hypertension. CONCLUSION: The results showed that, in the elderly, the risk factors for atherosclerosis persist, but with different behaviors between men and women. The study suggests that the relative importance of the risk factors can change with the aging process.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess intermediate-term outcome in children who have undergone orthotopic heart transplantation. METHODS: We carried out a longitudinal and prospective study between October '92 and June '99 comprising 20 patients with ages ranging from 12 days to 7 years (mean of 2.8 years). We employed a double immunosuppression protocol with cyclosporine and azathioprine and induction therapy with polyclonal antithymocyte serum. Survival and complications resulting from the immunosuppression protocol were analyzed. RESULTS:<FONT FACE=Symbol></FONT>The double immunosuppression protocol and the induction therapy with polyclonal antithymocyte serum resulted in an actuarial survival curve of 90% and 78.2% at 1 and 6 years, respectively, with a mean follow-up period of 3.6 years. One patient died due to acute rejection 40 days after transplantation; another patient died 2 years after transplantation due to lymphoproliferative disorder; a third patient died because of primary failure of the graft; and a fourth patient died due to bronchopneumonia. The major complications were as follows: acute rejection, infection, nephrotoxicity, and systemic hypertension. The means of rejection and infection episodes per patient were 2.9 and 3.4, respectively. After one year of transplantation, a slight reduction in the creatinine clearance and systemic hypertension were observed in 7 (38.9%) patients. CONCLUSION: Heart transplantation made life possible for those patients with complex congenital heart diseases and cardiomyopathies in refractory congestive heart failure constituting a therapeutical option for this group of patients in the terminal phase.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of a new feed soy product fermented by Enterococcus faecium and Lactobacillus jugurti on the serum lipid levels of rabbits with induced hypercholesterolemia. METHODS: Thirty-two rabbits were divided into 4 groups as follows: 1) control (C); 2) hypercholesterolemic (H); 3) hypercholesterolemic + fermented product (HPF); and 4) control + fermented product (CPF). The H and HPF groups were fed with a diet with 0.15% (p/p) cholesterol in the first 15 days. C and CPF groups received regular food preparation. The HPF and CPF groups received 10 mL daily of the fermented 30 days. Blood samples were drawn at the beginning of the study and at the 15th and 30th days. Concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides were analyzed. RESULTS: After 15 days, the HPF group showed a total cholesterol concentration lower (18.4%) than that of the H group (p=0.05), but this difference disappeared after 30 days. No change was observed in total cholesterol levels of C and CPF groups. After 15 days, the HDL-cholesterol was higher (17.8%) in the HPF group, but the triglyceride levels remained unchanged in all groups during the same period of time. CONCLUSION: The soy fermented product caused an 18.4% reduction in total cholesterol and a 17.8% increase in the HDL-fraction. It may, therefore, be a possible coadjutor in the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical aspects causes and evolution of infectious endocarditis. METHODS: The patients analyzed were treated at the University Hospital of the Faculdade de Medicina of Ribeirão Preto-USP and had a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis defined by Duke's criteria, which classifies infectious endocarditis as native, prosthetic valve or that occurring in intravenous drug users. RESULTS: One hundred and eighty episodes of infectious endocarditis in 168 patients were observed. Echocardiograms in 132 (73.3%) provided a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis in 111 (84%) patients; mitral valves were affected in 55 (30.5%), tricuspid valves in 30 (16.6%) and the aortic valve in 28 (15.5%) patients. Hemocultures were performed in 148 (93.8%) episodes of IE. The most commonly isolated infectious organisms were Staphylococcus aureus in 46 (27.2%) patients and Streptococcus viridans in 27 (15.9%). Complications occurred in 116 (64.4%) patients and 73 (40.5%) of the patients died. CONCLUSION: The general profile of the observed infectious endocarditis was similar to that reported in studies performed in other countries and included users of intravenous drugs. The high degree of mortality observed is not compatible with progress in diagnosis and treatment of infectious endocarditis and is probably due to the absence of diagnostic suspicion. The high frequency of fatal cases of septicemia (45.1% of deaths) in the patients studied indicates that unnoticed cases of infectious endocarditis had only been diagnosed at necropsy.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of carvedilol in patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. METHODS: In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, 30 patients (7 women) with functional class II and III heart failure were assessed. Their ages ranged from 28 to 66 years (mean of 43±9 years), and their left ventricular ejection fraction varied from 8% to 35%. Carvedilol was added to the usual therapy of 20 patients; placebo was added to the usual therapy of 10 patients. The initial dose of carvedilol was 12.5 mg, which was increased weekly until it reached 75 mg/day, according to the patient's tolerance. Clinical assessment, electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and radionuclide ventriculography were performed in the pretreatment phase, being repeated after 2 and 6 months of medication use. RESULTS: A reduction in heart rate (p=0.016) as well as an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction (p=0.02) and in left ventricular ejection fraction (p=0.017) occurred in the group using carvedilol as compared with that using placebo. CONCLUSION: Carvedilol added to the usual therapy for heart failure resulted in better heart function.
Abstract in English:We report here a case of coronary artery fistula in a neonate with clinical signs of heart failure. The electrocardiogram showed signs of left ventricular hypertrophy and diffuse alterations in ventricular repolarization. Chest X-ray showed an enlargement of the cardiac silhouette with an increase in pulmonary flow. After echocardiographic diagnosis and angiographic confirmation, closure of the fistulous trajectory was performed with a detachable balloon with an early and late successful outcome.
Abstract in English:We report the case of a 42-year-old female with fatigue on exertion and palpitation consequent to the existence of isolated noncompaction of the myocardium. We discuss clinical and familial findings, diagnostic possibilities, and prognostic and therapeutical implications of this rare disorder of endomyocardial morphogenesis.
Abstract in Portuguese:OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia terapêutica do verapamil COER-24 180/240 mg, em dose única, ao deitar, como monoterapia para a hipertensão arterial leve a moderada. MÉTODOS: Estudo multicêntrico, aberto, não comparativo com 81 pacientes de ambos os sexos, com idade >20 anos e hipertensão arterial essencial leve e moderada. Medimos a pressão arterial no consultório e com a monitorização ambulatorial (MAPA) durante 24h antes e ao final de 8 semanas do uso da medicação. RESULTADOS: Verificou-se diminuição (p<0,0001) das pressões sistólicas e diastólicas medidas no consultório às semanas 3 e 8. A MAPA demonstrou que tanto a pressão sistólica, diastólica, média e freqüência cardíaca, quando as cargas pressóricas médias de 24h apresentaram reduções após 8 semanas de tratamento, além da redução do duplo-produto, especialmente pela manhã. A tolerabilidade foi boa, 68% dos pacientes não apresentaram eventos adversos. CONCLUSÃO: A monoterapia com o verapamil COER-24 180/240mg em dose única é eficaz para o controle da pressão arterial em hipertensos leves e moderados, com redução tanto na pressão casual quanto na MAPA/24h, além de apresentar boa tolerabilidade.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive effecft of verapamil COER-24 180/240 mg in a single dose at bedtime as single therapy in mild to moderate hypertensives. METHODS: A multicentric, open, placebo controlled study of 81 hypertensive patients older than 20 years-old followed to 8 weeks. Blood pressure was measured in doctor's office and by 24h ambulatory monitoring (ABPM). RESULTS: We observed a decreased in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in doctor's office at 4th and 8th weeks. ABPM showed that both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure, heart rate and the mean 24-hour blood pressure load decreased after the 8-week treatment. In addition, there was a reduction of the double-product, especially in the morning and 68% of the patients didn't have any adverse events. CONCLUSION: The theraphy verapamil COER-24 180/240mg in a single dose is useful for mild and moderate hypertensive patients, with significant pressure decrease in both office blood pressure measurements and in the ABPM/24 hours, as well as showing good tolerability.