Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk factors for mortality related to myocardial revascularization when performed in association with coronary endarterectomy. METHODS: We assessed retrospectively 353 patients who underwent 373 coronary endarterectomies between January '89 and November '98, representing 3.73% of the myocardial revascularizations in this period of time. The arteries involved were as follows: right coronary artery in 218 patients (58.45%); left anterior descending in 102 patients (27.35%); circumflex artery in 39 patients (10.46%); and diagonal artery in 14 patients (3.74%). We used 320 (85.79%) venous grafts and 53 (14.21%) arterial grafts. RESULTS: In-hospital mortality among our patients was 9.3% as compared with 5.7% in patients with myocardial revascularizations without endarterectomy (p=0.003). Cause of death was related to acute myocardial infarction in 18 (54.55%) patients. The most significant risk factors for mortality identified were as follows: diabetes mellitus (p=0.001; odds ratio =7.168), left main disease (<0.001; 9.283), female sex (0.01; 3.111), acute myocardial infarction (0.02; 3.546), ejection fraction <35% (<0.001; 5.89), and previous myocardial revascularization (<0.001; 4.295). CONCLUSION: Coronary endarterectomy is related to higher mortality, and the risk factors involved are important elements of a poor outcome.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the behavior of blood pressure during exercise in patients with hypertension controlled by frontline antihypertension drugs. METHODS: From 979ergometric tests we retrospectively selected 49 hipertensive patients (19 males). The age was 53±12 years old and normal range rest arterial pressure (<=140/90 mmHg) all on pharmacological monotherapy. There were 12 on beta blockers; 14 on calcium antagonists, 13 on diuretics and 10 on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. Abnormal exercise behhavior of blood pressure was diagnosed if anyone of the following criteria was detected: peak systolic pressure above 220 mmHg, raising of systolic pressure > or = 10 mmHg/MET; or increase of diastolic pressure greater than 15 mmHg. RESULTS: Physiologic response of arterial blood pressure occurred in 50% of patients on beta blockers, the best one (p<0.05), in 36% and 31% on calcium antagonists and on diuretics, respectively, and in 20% on angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, the later the leastr one (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Beta-blockers were more effective than calcium antagonists, diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in controlling blood pressure during exercise, and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors the least effective drugs.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To report about a group of physicians' understanding of the recommendations of the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, and about the state of the art of primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Through the use of a questionnaire on dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis prevention, and recommendations for lipid targets established by the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias, 746 physicians, 98% cardiologists, were evaluated. RESULTS:Eighty-seven percent of the respondents stated that the treatment of dyslipidemia changes the natural history of coronary disease. Although most of the participants followed the total cholesterol recommendations (<200mg/dL for atherosclerosis prevention), only 55.8% would adopt the target of LDL-C <100 mg/dL for secondary prevention. Between 30.5 and 36.7% answered, in different questions, that the recommended level for HDL-C should be <35mg/dL. Only 32.7% would treat their patients indefinitely with lipid- lowering drugs. If the drug treatment did not reach the proposed target, only 35.5% would increase the dosage, and 29.4% would change the medication. Participants did not know the targets proposed for diabetics. CONCLUSION: Although the participating physicians valued the role played by lipids in the prevention of atherosclerosis, serious deficiencies exist in their knowledge of the recommendations given during the II Brazilian Guidelines Conference on Dyslipidemias.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluated the clinical diagnostic, efficiency for basic death causes in patients dying of circulatory disease and de relative frequency of those diseases. METHODS: Analysis of medical record data of 82 patients, ages from 16 to 84 years old (68 over 40 years old), whose died of circulatory disease and had undergone necropsy in the period from 1988 to 1993 years in the University Hospital of Medicine Faculty of Botucatu-UNESP, Br. RESULTS: The functional class of patients were III or IV, in 78%, and 81.7% needed urgent hospitalization. By the clinical judgment the death were by ischemic heart disease in 32 (21 acute myocardial infarction), Chagas'disease in 12, valvopathy in 11, cardiomyopathy in 7, heart failure with no specification of cardiopathy in 11 and other causes in 9. At the necropsy the death cause was ischemic heart disease in 34 patients, valvopathy in 10, Chagas'disease in 10, cardiomyopathy in 5, and heart failure with no specification of cardiopathy in 2.The concordance taxes were in thhe same order: 94,6%, 90,0%, 83.3%, 71.4% and 28.5%. CONCLUSION: There was a great efficiency of clinical diagnosis for death cause in a general university hospital. The ischemic heart disease were the main causes of death.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the impact of acute renal failure (ARF) on the evolution of infants undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: We assessed 15 infants undergoing cardiac surgery who developed (ARF). Their demographic, clinical and surgical data, and evolution were analyzed. RESULTS: Their mean age was 4.4±4.0 months (8 days to 24 months). Twelve infants were males, and 4 patients already had ARF at surgery. The primary cause of ARF was immediate acute cardiac dysfunction in 10 infants, cardiac dysfunction associated with sepsis in 2 infants, and isolated sepsis in 3 infants. All children depended on mechanical ventilation during their postoperative period, 14 infants used vasoactive drugs, and 11 had an infectious process associated with ARF. Thirteen infants required dialytic treatment. Eleven infants developed oluguric ARF, and all had to undergo peritoneal dialysis; of the 4 patients with non-oliguric, 2 required dialysis, the main indication being hypervolemia. Of these 13 dialyzed infants, 4 died in the first 24 hours because of the severity of the underlying cardiac disease (mean urea level of 49±20 mg/dl). The mortality rate for the entire group was 60% , and it was higher among the patients with oliguria ARF (73% vs 25%, p<0.001). The cause of death was acute cardiac dysfunction in 6 infants (early type-1ARF) and sepsis in the 3 remaining infants (late type-2 ARF). CONCLUSION: The mortality rate of ARF associated with cardiac surgery in infants was hight, being higher among children with oliguria; peritoneal dialysis was indicated due to clinically uncontrolled hypervolemia and not to the uremic hypercatabolic state.
Abstract in English:Cantrell syndrome is characterized by defects that involve the diaphragm, abdominal wall, pericardium, heart, and lower region of the sternum. It is a rare entity, usually diagnosed at birth and accompanied by high mortality due to the complexity and gravity of the anomalies. In this report, we present a 32-year-old male patient, who was diagnosed in infancy but who reached adult age asymptomatic.
Abstract in English:Cardiac dysfunction in heart failure is widely recognized as a progressive process, regardless of the clinical signs and symptoms. An increase in cardiac sympathetic drive is one of the earliest neurohormonal responses occurring in patients with heart failure and may be one of the major causes of the progressive remodeling leading to the decline in myocardial function, and responsible for the poor prognosis of patients with heart failure. Therefore, recent data provided by several appropriately designed clinical trials clearly indicate the benefits of beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents, combined with diuretics, ACE inhibitors, and digoxin in chronic heart failure class II to IV due to systolic ventricular dysfunction. The benefits are related to symptoms, functional capacity, remodeling, and improvement in left ventricular function, reduction in cardiovascular hospitalization, a decrease in the overall and sudden cardiac death rate, and are similar in patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy, independent of age, gender, or functional class. In this review we describe the cardiovascular effects of the increase in sympathetic drive, the pharmacological properties of the beta-blockers most evaluated in heart failure therapy (metoprolol, bisoprolol, and carvedilol), the major clinical trials related to these agents in heart failure, the recommendations for their appropriate use in clinical practice, the precautions to be adopted, and how to handle the more common adverse reactions.