Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Evaluate early and late evolution of patients submitted to primary coronary angioplasty for acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: A prospective study of 135 patients with acute myocardial infarction submitted to primary transcutaneous coronary angioplasty (PTCA). Success was defined as TIMI 3 flow and residual lesion <50%. We performed statistical analyses by univariated, multivariated methods and survival analyze by Kaplan-Meier. RESULTS: PTCA success rate was 78% and early mortality 18,5%. Killip classes III and IV was associated to higher mortality, odds ratio 22.9 (95% CI: 5,7 to 91,8) and inversely related to age <75 years (OR = 0,93; 95% CI: 0.88 to 0.98). If we had chosen success flow as TIMI 2 and had excluded patients in Killip III/IV classes, success rate would be 86% and mortality 8%. The survival probability at the end or study, follow-up time 142 ± 114 days, was 80% and event free survival 35%. Greater survival was associated to stenting (OR = 0.09; 0.01 to 0.75) and univessel disease (OR = 0.21; 0.07 to 0.61). CONCLUSION: The success rate was lower and mortality was higher than randomized trials, however similar to that of non randomized studies. This demonstrated the efficacy of primary PTCA in our local conditions.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To compare inverted-L mini-sternotomy performed above the sternal furcula with conventional sternotomy in patients with aortic valve diseases who undergo surgical treatment. METHODS: We operated upon 30 patients who had aortic valve lesions that had clinical and hemodynamic findings. All patients underwent inverted-L sternotomy, which extended from above the manubrium of the sternum to the 3rd right intercostal space, without opening the pleural cavity. Their ages ranged from 32 to 76 years, and 18 were males and 12 were females. We used negative pressure in a venous ¼-inch cannula, and the patients were maintained in Trendelemburg's position. Twenty-seven patients received bioprostheses with diameters ranging from 23 to 29mm. Three patients underwent only removal of the calcifications of the aortic valve leaflets and aortic commissurotomy. RESULTS: The mean duration of anoxic cardiac arrest was 63.11min. Access was considered good in all patients. One death was due to pulmonary and renal problems not related to the incision. All patients had a better recovery in the intensive care unit, got out of bed sooner, coughed more easily, and performed prophylactic physiotherapeutic maneuvers for respiratory problems more easily and with less pain in the incision. Early ambulation was more easily carried out by all patients. CONCLUSION: Mini-sternotomy proved to be better than the conventional sternotomy because it provided morecomfort for the patients in the early postoperative period, with less pain and greater desire for early ambulation and all its inherent advantages.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To study the arrangement of the myocardial fiber bundles at the pulmonary venous left atrial junction in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and to discuss the pathophysiological importance of this element in the etiology of acute pulmonary edema. METHODS: We obtained 12 hearts and their pulmonary vein extremities from postmortem examinations of patients with the anatomicopathological diagnosis of acute pulmonary edema. The specimens, which had no grossly visible morphological cardiac alterations, were fixed in 10% formalin, and the muscular arrangement of the pulmonary venous left atrial junctions was analyzed. This material was then isolated, embedded in paraffin, underwent serial cutting (50 µm of thickness), and was stained with Azam's trichrome. RESULTS: We observed in our specimens that: a) the myocardial fiber bundles that originate in the atrial wall and involve the openings of the pulmonary veins were fewer than those observed in healthy material; b) the myocardial fiber bundles that extend into the pulmonary veins were shorter than those found in material originating from individuals with no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Anatomical changes that result in a reduction in the amount of myocardial fiber bundles in the pulmonary venous left atrial junction, isolated or associated with other factors, may be the cause of disorders in pulmonary circulation, leading to an increase in pulmonary venous pressure, and, consequently, to acute pulmonary edema.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of laser-assisted extraction of permanent pacemaker and defibrillator leads. METHODS: We operated upon 36 patients, whose mean age was 54.2 years, and extracted 56 leads. The reasons for extracting the leads were as follows: infection in 19 patients, elective replacement in 13, and other causes in 4 patients. The mean time of catheter placement was 7.5±5.5 years. Forty-seven leads were from pacemakers, and 9 were from defibrillators. Thirty-eight leads were in use, 14 had been abandoned in the pacemaker pocket, and 4 had been abandoned inside the venous system. RESULTS: We successfully extracted 54 catheters, obtaining a 96.4% rate of success and an 82.1% rate for complete extraction. The 2 unsuccessful cases were due to the presence of calcium in the trajectory of the lead. The mean duration of laser light application was 123.0±104.5 s, using 5,215.2±4,924.0 pulses, in a total of 24.4±24.2 cycles of application. Thirty-four leads were extracted from the myocardium with countertraction after complete progression of the laser sheath, 12 leads came loose during the progression of the laser sheath, and the remaining 10 were extracted with other maneuvers. One patient experienced cardiac tamponade after extraction of the defibrillator lead, requiring open emergency surgery. CONCLUSION: The use of the excimer laser allowed extraction of the leads with a 96% rate of success; it was not effective in 2 patients who had calcification on the lead. One patient (2.8%) had a complication that required cardiac surgery on an emergency basis.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze associations between levels of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, dietary content, and risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Sixty-two individuals aged between 20 and 45 years were evaluated. Levels of physical activity were established by estimates of energy demand corresponding to everyday activity; indices for cardiorespiratory fitness were obtained from estimates of maximal oxygen consumption; information about dietary content was obtained from dietary records kept on seven consecutive days. To indicate risk factors that cause a predisposition towards cardiovascular disease, use was made of body mass indexes, waist-hip circumference relationships, levels of arterial pressure and of plasma lipid-lipoprotein concentration. To establish associations between the variables studied, multiple regression analysis was used. RESULTS: Physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness levels were inversely correlated with the amount and distribution of body fat and arterial pressure. Taken together, the two variables were responsible for between 16% and 19% of the variation in arterial pressure. Total and saturated fat ingestion was associated with higher serum lipid levels. Both dietary components were responsible for between 49% and 61% of the variation in LDL-cholesterol. CONCLUSION: High ingestion of food rich in total and saturated fat and decreased levels of physical activity and of cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which supports previous data.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate elastic properties of conduit arteries in asymptomatic patients who have severe chronic aortic regurgitation. METHODS: Twelve healthy volunteers aged 30±1 years (control group) and 14 asymptomatic patients with severe aortic regurgitation aged 29±2 years and left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.61±0.02 (radioisotope ventriculography) were studied. High-resolution ultrasonography was performed to measure the systolic and diastolic diameters of the common carotid artery. Simultaneous measurement of blood pressure enabled the calculation of arterial compliance and distensibility. RESULTS: No differences were observed between patients with aortic regurgitation and the control group concerning age, sex, body surface, and mean blood pressure. Pulse pressure was significantly higher in the aortic regurgitation group compared with that in the control group (78±3 versus 48±1mmHg, P<0.01). Arterial compliance and distensibility were significantly greater in the aortic regurgitation group compared with that in the control group (11.0±0.8 versus 8.1±0.7 10-10 N-1 m4, P=0.01 e and 39.3±2.6 versus 31.1±2.0 10-6 N-1 m², P=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSION: Patients with chronic aortic regurgitation have increased arterial distensibility. Greater vascular compliance, to lessen the impact of systolic volume ejected into conduit arteries, represents a compensatory mechanism in left ventricular and arterial system coupling.
Abstract in English:Intracoronary brachytherapy using beta or gamma radiation is currently the most efficient type of therapy for preventing the recurrence of coronary in-stent restenosis. Its implementation depends on the interaction among interventionists, radiotherapists, and physicists to assure the safety and quality of the method. The authors report the pioneering experience in Brazil of the treatment of 2 patients with coronary in-stent restenosis, in whom beta radiation was used as part of the international multicenter randomized PREVENT study (Proliferation REduction with Vascular ENergy Trial). The procedures were performed rapidly and did not require significant modifications in the traditional techniques used for conventional angioplasty. Alteration in the radiological protection devices of the hemodynamic laboratory were also not required, showing that intracoronary brachytherapy using beta radiation can be incorporated into the interventional tools of cardiology in our environment.
Abstract in English:We report the case of a 3-year-old female patient, who, since birth, had cyanosis difficult to explain with usual diagnostic tests. The only findings on physical examination were cyanosis and clubbing of her fingers. Chest computerized tomography showed images of excessive attenuation in the right lung, which resembled arteriovenous fistulae that were later confirmed on cardiac catheterization. The fistulous trajectories were then embolized with 7 Gianturco coils, which resulted in an immediate increase in the arterial saturation of blood oxygen.