Abstract in English:PURPOSE: To evaluate left ventricular mass (LVM) index in hypertensive and normotensive obese individuals. METHODS: Using M mode echocardiography, 544 essential hypertensive and 106 normotensive patients were evaluated, and LVM was indexed for body surface area (LVM/BSA) and for height² (LVM/h²). The 2 indexes were then compared in both populations, in subgroups stratified according to body mass index (BMI): <27; 27-30; > or = 30kg/m². RESULTS: The BSA index does not allow identification of significant differences between BMI subgroups. Indexing by height² provides significantly increased values for high BMI subgroups in normotensive and hypertensive populations. CONCLUSION: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been underestimated in the obese with the use of LVM/BSA because this index considers obesity as a physiological variable. Indexing by height² allows differences between BMI subgroups to become apparent and seems to be more appropriate for detecting LVH in obese populations.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: The initial site of myocardial infarction (MI) may influence the prevalence of ventricular late potentials (VLP), high-frequency signals, due to the time course of ventricular activation. The prevalence of VLP in a period of more than 2 years after acute MI was assessed focusing on the initially injured wall . METHODS: The prevalence of VLP in a late phase after MI (median of 924 days) in anterior/antero-septal and inferior/infero-dorsal wall lesion was analyzed using signal-averaged electrocardiogram in time domain. The diagnostic performance of the filters employed for analysis on was tested at high-pass cut-off frequencies of 25 Hz, 40 Hz and 80 Hz. RESULTS: The duration of the ventricular activation and its terminal portion were larger in inferior than anterior infarction, at high-pass cut-off frequencies of 40 Hz and 80 Hz. In patients with ventricular tachycardia, these differences were more remarked. The prevalence of ventricular late potentials was three times greater in inferior than anterior infarction. CONCLUSION: Late after myocardial infarction, the prevalence and the duration of ventricular late potentials are greater in lesions of inferior/infero-dorsal than anterior/antero-septal wall confirming their temporal process, reflecting their high-frequency content.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE:To assess the changes in the medicamentous treatment of elderly patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction occurring over an 8-year period. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 379 patients above the age of 65 years with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the coronary unit of a university-affiliated hospital from 1990 to 1997. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the period of time of hospital admission as follows: group 1 - from 1990 to 1993; and group 2 - from 1994 to 1997. RESULTS:The use of beta-blockers (40.8%chi 75.2%, p<0.0001) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (42% chi59.5%, p=0.001) was significantly greater in group 2, while the use of calcium antagonists (42% chi 18.5%, p<0.0001) and general antiarrhythmic drugs (19.1% chi 10.8%, p=0.03) was significantly lower. No significant difference was observed in regard to the use of acetylsalicylic acid, thrombolytic agents, nitrate, and digitalis in the period studied. The length of hospitalization was shorter in group 2 (13.4±8.9 days chi 10.5±7.5 days, p<0.001). The in-hospital mortality was 35.7% in group 1 and 26.6% in group 2 (p=0.07). CONCLUSION: Significant changes were observed in the treatment of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, with a greater use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and a lower use of calcium antagonists and antiarrhythmic drugs in group 2. The length of hospitalization and the mortality rate were also lower in group 2, even though the reduction in mortality was not statistically significant.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence of late thromboembolism after surgical repair of chronic atrial fibrillation (AF) simultaneously with repair of mitral valve using the Cox-Maze procedure. METHODS: 69 patients underwent Cox 3 procedure, with no cryoablation simultaneously with mitral valvuloplasty or prosthesis. Mean age was 49.9±13.2 years. Mean follow-up was of 31.7±19 months. Types of lesion were as follows: 33 (48%) stenoses, 23 (33%) insufficiencies, and 13 (19%) double lesions. Procedures were: 64 (93%) valvuloplasties, 3 (4%) biological and 2 (3%) mechanical prosthesis placement. There were 9 (13%) patients with previous systemic embolism and 2 (3%) had left atrial thrombi. RESULTS: Early mortality was 7% and late 1%. 2 patients (3%) were reoperated for mitral placement. At last evaluation, 10 patients (15%), were in AF. The remaining 59 (85%) were either in sinus / atrial rythm (74%) or under pacing (12%). There were no occurrence of early or late, systemic or pulmonary embolism. Permanent anticoagulation was employed in 16 cases, 10 in regular rythm and 6 in AF. The remaining 47 (75%), 2 in AF and 45 in regular rythm, did not receive anticoagulants. CONCLUSIONS: These results are in accordance with others series, where the occurrence of embolism was rare after maze procedure. Permanent systemic anticoagulation seems to be unnecessary in those cases.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To compare the heart weight and the heart weight/body weight coefficient of adults with and without chronic malnutrition. METHODS: In an initial case series of 210 autopsies performed in adults, we recorded body and heart weights and calculated the heart weight/body weight coefficients (HW/BW x 100). The exclusion criteria were as follows: positive serology for Chagas' disease, edema, obesity, heart diseases, hepatopathies, nephropathies, and systemic arterial hypertension. Malnutrition was characterized as a body mass index <18.5kg/m². Differences with p<0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: Individuals in the malnourished (n=15) and control (n=21) groups were statistically different, respectively, in regard to body mass index (15.9±1.7 versus 21.3±2.5kg/m²), heart weight (267.3±59.8 versus 329.1±50.4g), and the HW/BW coefficient (0.64±0.12 versus 0.57±0.09%). A positive and significant correlation was observed between heart weight and body mass index (r=0.52), and between heart weight and body weight (r=0.65). CONCLUSION: Malnourished individuals have lighter hearts and a greater HW/BW coefficient than non-malnourished individuals do. These findings indicate a possible preservation of the myocardium in relation to the intensity of weight loss associated with the probable relative increase in cardiac connective tissue and heart blood vessels.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors and acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease, correlating them with coronary angiographic findings. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of 104 patients with previous acute myocardial infarction, who were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of angina prior to acute myocardial infarction. We assessed the presence of angina preceding acute myocardial infarction and risk factors, such as age >55 years, male sex, smoking, systemic arterial hypertension, lipid profile, diabetes mellitus, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and familial history of ischemic heart disease. On coronary angiography, the severity of coronary heart disease and presence of left ventricular hypertrophy were assessed. RESULTS: Of the 104 patients studied, 72.1% were males, 90.4% were white, 73.1% were older than 55 years, and 53.8% were hypertensive. Acute myocardial infarction was the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease in 49% of the patients. The associated risk factors were systemic arterial hypertension (RR=0.19; 95% CI=0.06-0.59; P=0.04) and left ventricular hypertrophy (RR=0.27; 95% CI=0,.8-0.88; P=0.03). The remaining risk factors were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Prevalence of acute myocardial infarction as the first manifestation of ischemic heart disease is high, approximately 50%. Hypertensive individuals more frequently have symptoms preceding acute myocardial infarction, probably due to ventricular hypertrophy associated with high blood pressure levels.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical profiles, predictors of 30-day mortality, and the adherence to international recommendations for the treatment of myocardial infarction in an academic medical center hospital. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 172 patients with acute myocardial infarction, admitted in the intensive care unit from January 1992 to December 1997. RESULTS: Most patients were male (68%), white (97%), and over 60 years old (59%). The main risk factor for coronary atherosclerotic disease was systemic blood hypertension (63%). Among all the variables studied, reperfusion therapy, smoking, hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and age were the predictors of 30-day mortality. Most commonly used medications were: acetylsalicylic acid (71%), nitrates (61%), diuretics (51%), angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (46%), thrombolytic therapy (39%), and beta-blockers (35%). CONCLUSION: The absence of reperfusion therapy, smoking status, hypertension, cardiogenic shock, and advanced age are predictors of 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. In addition, some medications that are undoubtedly beneficial have been under-used after acute myocardial infarction.
Abstract in English:We report here 2 cases of sinus arrhythmia considered to be a form of nonrespiratory sinus arrhythmia because they did not have variances in the RR interval sequence within the oscillations modulated by respiration. Because the patients had pulsus alternans similar that observed in bigeminy, and because they did not have signs or symptoms of heart failure, we believe the arrhythmias represent intrinsic alterations of the electric activity of the sinus node
Abstract in English:A 38-year-old man with acute myocardial infarction in the lower wall affecting the right ventricle underwent thrombolytic treatment with streptokinase. Approximately 2 hours after the thrombolytic treatment started, he presented with signs of coronary reocclusion. He underwent emergency cineangiocoronariography that revealed that his right coronary artery was completely occluded by a clot. He unsuccessfully underwent angioplasty and stent implantation. After the concomitant use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, coronary TIMI III flow was achieved without additional dilations, and he was discharged from the hospital 5 days later with no further complications.