Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the level of satisfaction with body weight and the self-perception of the weight/height ratio and to verify the influence of the frequency of present and past physical activity on these variables. METHODS: Using questionnaires or interviews, we obtained height data, reported and desired weight, self-perception of the weight/height ratio, and the frequency of current physical activity in 844 adults (489 women). Of these, evaluated the frequency of physical activity during high school of 193 individuals,and we measured their height and weight. RESULTS: Less than 2/3 of the individuals had body mass index between 20 and 24.9 kg/m2. A tendency existed to overestimate height by less than 1 cm and to underestimate weight by less than 1kg. Desired weight was less than that reported (p<0.001), and only 20% were satisfied with their current weight. Only 42% of men and 25% of women exercised regularly. No association was found between the frequency of physical activity and the variables height, weight, and body mass index, and the level of satisfaction with current weight. CONCLUSION: Height and weight reported seem to be valid for epidemological studies, and great dissatisfaction with body weight and a distorted self-perception of height/weight ratio exists, especially in women, regardless of the frequency of physical activity.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE:To verify the influence of moderate- or high-pressure balloon inflation during primary coronary stent implantation for acute myocardial infarction. METHODS: After successful coronary stent implantation, 82 patients were divided into 2 groups according to the last balloon inflation pressure: group 1 (<FONT FACE=Symbol>³</FONT>12 to <16 atm) and group 2 (<FONT FACE=Symbol>³</FONT>16 to 20 atm), each with 41 cases. All patients underwent late coronary angiography. RESULTS: In group 1, the mean stent deployment pressure was 13.58±0.92 atm, and in the group 2 it was 18.15±1.66 atm. Stents implanted with moderate pressures (<FONT FACE=Symbol>³</FONT>12 to <16 atm) had a significantly smaller postprocedural minimal lumen diameter, compared to with those with higher pressure, with lesser acute gain (2.7± 0.4 mm vs 2.9±04 mm; p=0.004), but the late lumen loss (0,9±0,8 mm vs 0,9±0,6 mm) and the restenosis (22% vs. 17.1%) and target-vessel revascularization rates (9.8% vs 7.3%) were similar between the groups. CONCLUSION: During AMI stenting, the use of high pressures (<FONT FACE=Symbol>³</FONT>16 atm) did not cause a measurable improvement in late outcome, either in the late loss, its index, and the net gain, or in clinical and angiographic restenosis rates.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze the frequency and prevalence of congenital heart defects in a tertiary care center for children with heart diseases. METHODS: We carried out an epidemiological assessment of the first medical visit of 4,538 children in a pediatric hospital from January 1995 to December 1997. All patients with congenital heart defects had their diagnoses confirmed at least on echocardiography. The frequency and prevalence of the anomalies were computed according to the classification of sequential analysis. Age, weight, and sex were compared between the groups of healthy individuals and those with congenital heart defects after distribution according to the age group. RESULTS: Of all the children assessed, 2,017 (44.4%) were diagnosed with congenital heart disease, 201 (4.4%) with acquired heart disease, 52 (1.2%) with arrhythmias, and 2,268 (50%) were healthy children. Congenital heart diseases predominated in neonates and infants, corresponding to 71.5% of the cases. Weight and age were significantly lower in children with congenital heart defects. Ventricular septal defect was the most frequent acyanotic anomaly, and tetralogy of Fallot was the most frequent cyanotic anomaly. CONCLUSION: Children with congenital heart defects are mainly referred during the neonatal period and infancy with impairment in gaining weight. Ventricular septal defect is the most frequent heart defect.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To determine the immediate behavior and the prognostic value in terms of late survival of serum troponin I measurement in patients undergoing myocardial revascularization surgery with extracorporeal circulation. METHODS: We studied 88 random patients, 65 (73.8%) of the male sex, who underwent myocardial revascularization surgery with extracorporeal circulation. Troponin measurements were performed as follows: in the preoperative period, right after intensive care unit admission, and on the first and second postoperative days. Values below 0.1 nanogram per milliliter (ng/mL) were considered normal. The cut points for late prognostic assessment were 0.5 ng/mL; 1 ng/mL; 2.5 ng/mL; and 5 ng/mL. RESULTS: The serum troponin I levels were elevated on the first postoperative day, suggesting the occurrence of specific myocardial damage. Patients with a poor prognosis could be identified, because the serum levels above 2.5 ng/mL and 5 ng/mL in the postoperative period resulted, respectively, in mortality rates of 33% and 50% in a maximum 6-month follow-up. CONCLUSION: Troponin I values around 2.5 ng/mL in the postoperative period should call attention to the need for more aggressive diagnostic or therapeutical measures.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To study the distribution and inter-relationship among constitutional and biochemical variables with blood pressure (BP) in an population of Yanomami indians. To compare these findings with those of other populations. METHODS: The Yanomami indians were part of the INTERSALT, a study comprising 10,079 males and females, aged from 20 to 59 years, belonging to 52 populations in 32 countries in Africa, the Americas, Asia, and Europe. Each of the 52 centers was required to accrue 200 individuals, 25 participants in each age group. The variables analyzed were as follows: age, sex, arterial BP, urinary sodium and potassium excretion (24-hour urine), body mass index, and alcohol ingestion. RESULTS: The findings in the Yanomami population were as follows: a very low urinary sodium excretion (0.9 mmol/24h); mean systolic and diastolic BP levels of 95.4 mmHg and 61.4 mmHg, respectively; no cases of hypertension or obesity; and they have no knowledge of alcoholic beverages. Their BP levels do not elevate with age. The urinary sodium excretion relates positively and the urinary potassium excretion relates negatively to systolic BP. This correlation was maintained even when controlled for age and body mass index. CONCLUSION: A positive relation between salt intake and blood pressure was detected in the analysis of a set of diverse populations participating in the INTERSALT Study, including populations such as the Yanomami Indians. The qualitative observation of their lifestyle provided additional information.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To analyze parameters of respiratory system mechanics and oxygenation and cardiovascular alterations involved in weaning tracheostomized patients from long-term mechanical ventilation after cardiac surgery. METHODS: We studied 45 patients in their postoperative period of cardiac surgery, who required long-term mechanical ventilation for more than 10 days and had to undergo tracheostomy due to unsuccessful weaning from mechanical ventilation. The parameters of respiratory system mechanics, oxigenation and the following factors were analyzed: type of surgical procedure, presence of cardiac dysfunction, time of extracorporeal circulation, and presence of neurologic lesions. RESULTS: Of the 45 patients studied, successful weaning from mechanical ventilation was achieved in 22 patients, while the procedure was unsuccessful in 23 patients. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in regard to static pulmonary compliance (p=0.23), airway resistance (p=0.21), and the dead space/tidal volume ratio (p=0.54). No difference was also observed in regard to the variables PaO2/FiO2 ratio (p=0.86), rapid and superficial respiration index (p=0.48), and carbon dioxide arterial pressure (p=0.86). Cardiac dysfunction and time of extracorporeal circulation showed a significant difference. CONCLUSION: Data on respiratory system mechanics and oxygenation were not parameters for assessing the success or failure. Cardiac dysfunction and time of cardiopulmonary bypass, however, significantly interfered with the success in weaning patients from mechanical ventilation.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: Detect of cardiac alterations in children with AIDS and compare their evolution with the administration of only one anti-retroviral and the recent cases who received drugs in combination. METHODS: We prospectively studied 47 children in 3 groups: group 1, 20 cases treated only with zidovudine; group 2, 10 patients treated initially with zidovudine and later with a combination of drugs and in group 3, 17 patients, who receiced two or three since the beginning. In all patients it was done chest X-ray, EKG and echocardiography every 6 months and after death complete pathological study. RESULTS: Among the 45 patients cases 26 (57%) were index cases. Malnutrition, diarrhea tachycardia, signs of congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion, abnormal ventricular repolarization and arrhythmias were more frequent in group 1. Echocardiographic abnormalities were present in 10 (50%) children of group 1. They were less frequent in the others two groups. In regard to the outcome in group 1, two patients had worsening of sings of cardiomyopaty and 4 died. Cardiac dysfunction in all cases of group 2 and 3 improved with the medication. CONCLUSION:- The children who received combination and their cardiac alterations had more favorable outcome than those who received only one drug.
Abstract in English:OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for acute myocardial infarction during the postoperative period after myocardial revascularization. METHODS: This was a case-control study paired for sex, age, number, type of graft used, coronary endarterectomy, type of myocardial protection, and use of extracorporeal circulation. We assessed 178 patients (89 patients in each group) undergoing myocardial revascularization, and the following variables were considered: dyslipidemia, systemic hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, previous myocardial revascularization surgery, previous coronary angioplasty, and acute myocardial infarction. RESULTS: Baseline clinical characteristics did not differ in the groups, except for previous myocardial revascularization surgery, prevalent in the case group (34 patients vs. 12 patients; p = 0.0002). This was the only independent predictor of risk for acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period, based on a multivariate logistic regression analysis (p=0.0001). Mortality and the time of hospital stay of the case group were significantly higher (19.1% vs. 1.1%; p<0.001 and 15.7 days vs. 10.6 days; p<0.05 respectively) than those of the control. CONCLUSION: Only previous myocardial revascularization was an independent predictor of acute myocardial infarction in the postoperative period, based on multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Abstract in English:This report concerns a patient with articular and cardiac manifestations of Whipple's disease. The disease was diagnosed only when gastrointestinal symptoms had appeared, because all cardiac symptoms were attributed exclusively to myocardial bridging. After 18 months of treatment with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, the patient is fully asymptomatic with a normal echocardiogram.