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Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, Volume: 80, Issue: 6, Published: 2003
  • Distribution of risk factors in parents and siblings of patients with early coronary artery disease Original Articles

    Mansur, Antonio de Padua; Mattar, André P. L.; Rolim, Anderson L.; Yoshi, Fábio R.; Marin, José F.G.; César, Luíz Antonio M.; Ramires, José Antonio F.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: Early coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with risk factors (RF). Offspring of parents with a RF have a greater prevalence of them. However, the distribution of RF in parents and siblings of patients with early CAD is unknown. METHODS: The study comprised the parents and siblings of 42 patients with early CAD (< 45 years), 29 males. Their mean age was 39.5±3.7 years. The following major RF were analyzed: smoking (> 5 cigarretes/day), hypercholesterolemia (total cholesterol > 200 mg/dL), hypertension (diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg), and diabetes (glycemia > 126 mg/dL). RESULTS: Of a total of 102 RF, 4, 3, 2, and 1 were observed in, respectively, 5, 15, 15, and 7 patients with early CAD, the most prevalent being smoking (86%) and hypercholesterolemia (83%). Diabetes was observed in 15 (36%) and hypertension in 16 (38%) patients. Smoking was more prevalent in the fathers (76%) and hypercholesterolemia in the mothers (30%). In 183 siblings, 131 RF were observed (1 patient with the disease had a mean of 4.7 siblings). The prevalences of smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes in the siblings were, respectively, 32%, 18%, 14%, and 9%. The incidence of RF was as follows: 72 (39%) siblings had 1 RF, 25 (14%) siblings had 2 RF, and 3 (2%) siblings had 3 RF. In parents and their offspring, smoking was moderately correlated (r=0.43; P=0.02) with CAD. CONCLUSION: Smoking habit of parents is passed on to offspring, and, in association with hypercholesterolemia, it was the major cause of early CAD in offspring. High prevalence of smoking in offspring shows the potential responsibility of parents in the incidence of the disease in offspring.
  • Association between coronary artery atherosclerosis and the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery measured on ultrasonography Original Articles

    Rosa, Eduardo Maffini da; Kramer, Caroline; Castro, Iran

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery of patients with coronary artery disease is greater than that of individuals without that disease. METHODS: Case-control prospective study of prevalence assessing the thickness of the intima and media layers of 29 patients with coronary artery disease and 29 individuals without that disease by using ultrasonography of the carotid arteries. Diabetic patients and those with peripheral artery and cerebral vasculopathies were excluded from the study. RESULTS: The mean age was 51±7.5 years. Fifty-five per cent of the patients were males. Acute myocardial infarction was present in 62%; cardiac catheterization in 72%; saphenous bypass in 5%; and coronary angioplasty in 24%. The intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery in case patients and in control patients was, respectively, 0.81±0.25 mm and 0.62±0.18 mm (P=0.001). CONCLUSION: Intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery was significantly greater in patients with coronary artery disease.
  • Acute myocardial infarction: clinical and epidemiological profile and factors associated with in-hospital death in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro Original Articles

    Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Portela, Margareth Crisóstomo; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Vasconcellos, Maurício Teixeira Leite de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To study the factors associated with the risk of in-hospital death in acute myocardial infarction in the Brazilian public health system in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. METHODS: Sectional study of a sample with 391 randomly drawn medical records of the hospitalizations due to acute myocardial infarction recorded in the hospital information system in 1997. RESULTS: The diagnosis was confirmed in 91.7% of the cases; 61.5% males; age = 60.2 ± 2.4 years; delta time until hospitalization of 11 hours; 25.3% were diabetic; 58.1% were hypertensive; 82.6% were in Killip I class. In-hospital mortality was 20.6%. Thrombolysis was used in 19.5%; acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) 86.5%; beta-blockers 49%; angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors 63.3%; calcium channel blockers 30.5%. Factors associated with increased death: age (61-80 years: OR=2.5; > 80 years: OR=9.6); Killip class (II: OR=1.9; III: OR=6; IV: OR=26.5); diabetes (OR=2.4); ventricular tachycardia (OR=8.5); ventricular fibrillation (OR=34); recurrent ischemia (OR=2.7). The use of ASA (OR=0.3), beta-blockers (OR=0.3), and ACE inhibitors (OR=0.4) was associated with a reduction in the chance of death. CONCLUSION: General lethality was high and some interventions of confirmed efficacy were underutilizated. The logistic model showed the beneficial effect of beta-blockers, and ACE inhibitors on the risk of in-hospital death.
  • Acute myocardial infarction: predictors of mortality at a public hospital in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state Original Articles

    Ribeiro, Demóstenes Gonçalves Lima; Andrade, Pedro José Negreiros de; Paes Júnior, José Nogueira; Saraiva, Lurildo Ribeiro

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the clinical and demographic predictors of in-hospital mortality in acute myocardial infarction with elevation of the ST segment in a public hospital, in the city of Fortaleza, Ceará state, Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective study of 373 patients experiencing their first episode of acute myocardial infarction was carried out. Of the study patients, 289 were discharged from the hospital (group A) and 84 died (group B). Both groups were analyzed regarding: sex; age; time elapsed from the beginning of the symptoms of myocardial infarction to assistance at the hospital; use of streptokinase; risk factors for atherosclerosis; electrocardiographic location of myocardial infarct; and Killip functional class. RESULTS: In a univariate analysis, group B had a greater proportion of the following parameters as compared with group A: non-Killip I functional class; diabetes; age >70 years; infarction of the inferior wall associated with right ventricular impairment; time between symptom onset and treatment at the hospital >12 h; anteroseptal or extensive anterior infarction; no use of streptokinase; and no tobacco use. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only non-Killip I functional class, diabetes, and age >70 years persisted as independent factors for death. CONCLUSION: Non-Killip I functional class, diabetes, and age >70 years were independent predictors of mortality in acute myocardial infarction with elevation of the ST segment.
  • Endothelium-dependent relaxation in response to poly-L-arginine in canine coronary arteries: implications about hyperpolarization as a mechanism of vasodilatation Original Articles

    Evora, Paulo R. B.; Pearson, Paul J.; Rodrigues, Alfredo José; Viaro, Fernanda; Schaff, Hartzell V.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism by which poly-L-arginine mediates endothelium-dependent relaxation. METHODS: Vascular segments with and without endothelium were suspended in organ chambers filled with control solution maintained at 37ºC and bubbled with 95% O2 / 5% CO2. Used drugs: indomethacin, acetycholine, EGTA, glybenclamide, ouabain, poly-L-arginine, methylene blue, N G-nitro-L-arginine, and verapamil and N G-monomethyl-L-arginine. Prostaglandin F2á and potassium chloride were used to contract the vascular rings. RESULTS: Poly-L-arginine (10-11 to 10-7 M) induced concentration-dependent relaxation in coronary artery segments with endothelium. The relaxation to poly-L-arginine was attenuated by ouabain, but was unaffected by glybenclamide. L-NOARG and oxyhemoglobin caused attenuation, but did not abolish this relaxation. Also, the relaxations was unaffected by methylene blue, verapamil, or the presence of a calcium-free bathing medium. The endothelium-dependent to poly-L-arginine relaxation was abolished only in vessels contracted with potassium chloride (40 mM) in the presence of L-NOARG and indomethacin. CONCLUSION: These experiments indicate that poly-L-arginine induces relaxation independent of nitric oxide.
  • National alert campaign about increased cholesterol: determination of cholesterol levels in 81,262 Brazilians Original Articles

    Martinez, Tania L. Rocha; Santos, Raul D.; Armaganijan, Dikran; Torres, Kerginaldo P; Loures-Vale, Andréia; Magalhães, Maria Eliane; Lima, José Carlos; Moriguchi, Emilio; Amodeo, Celso; Ortiz, Juarez

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the levels of total cholesterol in a significant sample of the Brazilian population. METHODS: Blood cholesterol was determined in 81.262 individuals > 18 years old (51% male, 44.7 ± 15.7 years), using Accutrend equipment, in the cities São Paulo, Campinas, Campos do Jordão, São José dos Campos, Santos, Santo André, Ribeirão Preto, Porto Alegre, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Curitiba, Brasília, Salvador and documented in the presence of other risk factors (RF) for coronary artery disease (CAD) (systemic hypertension, CAD in the family, smoking, and diabetes). Participants were classified according to sex, age, and the presence or absence of RF, respectively, as 0 RF, 1 RF and > 2 RF. The percentage of individuals with cholesterol > 200 mg/dL and > 240 mg/dL was evaluated. RESULTS: The prevalence of individuals with 0, 1, and > 2 risk factors was 30% (n = 24,589), 36% (n =29,324), and 34% (n = 27,349) respectively, (P=0.657), and the mean total cholesterol of the population was 199.0 ± 35.0 mg/dL. Cholesterol levels above 200 and 240 mg/dL were found, respectively, in 40% (n = 32,515) and 13% (10.942) of individuals. The greater the number of risk factors the higher the levels of cholesterol (P<0.0001) and the greater the proportion of individuals with cholesterol > 200 mg/dL (P=0.032). No difference existed in the proportion of individuals with cholesterol > 240 mg/dL (P=0.11). CONCLUSION: A great percentage of individuals with cholesterol levels above those recommended to prevent coronary artery disease was found.
  • Hemarthrosis of the knees following streptokinase therapy for acute myocardial infarction Case Report

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Anti, Sônia M. A.

    Abstract in English:

    A sixty-four-year-old male patient was studied who had acute coronary syndrome with ST segment elevation experienced bilateral hemarthrosis of the knees after administration of streptokinase and acetylsalicylic acid.
  • Caso 3/2002 - Mulher de 82 anos, portadora de hipertensão arterial sistêmica, fibrilação atrial e que apresentou acidente vascular cerebral recorrente e fatal (Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP, São Paulo) Correlação Anatomoclínica

    Bastos, Jaime Freitas; Benvenuti, Luiz Alberto
  • Caso 6/2003 - Instituto do Coração do Hospital das Clínicas da FMUSP Correlação Clínico-Radiográfica

  • Comunicação interatrial do tipo ostium secundum: Do tratamento cirúrgico ao percutâneo e os dinossauros do futuro Atualização

    Pedra, Carlos A. C.; Pedra, Simone R. F. Fontes; Fontes, Valmir Fernandes
  • Cirurgia de revascularização miocárdica sem circulação extracorpórea: uma técnica em busca de evidências Atualização

    Blacher, Celso; Ribeiro, Jorge Pinto
  • Errata Atualização

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