Bullous keratopathy is characterized by corneal stromal edema with epithelial or subepithelial bullae due to cell loss and endothelial decompensation. In more advanced cases, subepithelial fibrosis, formation of a posterior collagenous layer or retrocorneal fibrous membrane, and corneal vascularization can occur. Decreased vision is present because the loss of corneal transparency with symptoms like tearing and pain caused by epithelial bullae that can rupture. Currently, bullous keratopathy is the most common indication for penetrating keratoplasty and regraft. The main etiology is the endothelial cell loss after ophthalmic surgeries as cataract surgery. Cataract affects approximately 20 million people worldwide, and this complication can occur in 1 to 2% of cataract surgeries. This study revised bullous keratopathy etiopathogenesis, clinical and surgical treatment available for this corneal disease.
Corneal diseases; Corneal diseases; Corneal transplantation; Cataract extraction