• The quest for a metabolic theory of everything Editorial

    Giuffrida, Fernando M. A.
  • Association of polymorphisms within the Renin-Angiotensin System with metabolic syndrome in a cohort of Chilean subjects Original Articles

    Herrera, Christian L.; Castillo, Wilma; Estrada, Patricia; Mancilla, Bárbara; Reyes, Gerardo; Saavedra, Nicolás; Guzmán, Neftalí; Serón, Pamela; Lanas, Fernando; Salazar, Luis A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia. Thus, genetic variants related with these conditions may modulate its development. We evaluated the effect of polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) on metabolic syndrome risk in a cohort of Chilean subjects. Subjects and methods A total of 152 subjects, 83 with MetS (51.2 ± 9.6 years) and 69 without MetS (49.5 ± 9.3 years) of both genders were included, according to the ATP III update criteria. The rs4340 Insertion/Deletion (I/D), rs699 (T>C) and rs5186 (A>C) of the ACE, AGT and AGTR1 genes, respectively, were genotyped. Results After adjusting for age and gender, we observed the DD genotype of rs4340 associated with MetS (p = 0.02). Specifically, the DD genotype was associated with MetS risk in women (OR = 4.62, 95%CI, 1.41 – 15.04; p < 0.01). In males, the AA genotype for rs5186 variant was associated with an increased risk for developing MetS when compared with women carrying the same genotype (OR = 3.2; 95%CI, 1.03 – 9.89; p = 0.04). In subjects without MetS, DD genotype was associated with increased waist circumference (p = 0.023) while subjects with MetS carrying the rs5186 TT genotype showed higher levels of HDL-cholesterol (p = 0.031). Conclusion The present study contributes data highlighting the role for RAS polymorphisms in predisposing to metabolic syndrome in Chilean subjects.
  • Metabolic syndrome in infertile women with polycystic ovarian syndrome Original Articles

    Madani, Tahereh; Hosseini, Roya; Ramezanali, Fariba; Khalili, Gholamreza; Jahangiri, Nadia; Ahmadi, Jila; Rastegar, Fatemeh; Zolfaghari, Zahra

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in infertile Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) using the ATPIII criteria. Subjects and methods In this cross-sectional study, 624 women with PCOS were enrolled at a tertiary referral center in Tehran, Iran, between April, 2012 and March, 2013. Diagnosis of MS was according to ATPIII criteria. Also, we divided PCOS patients into following two main groups: (i) with MS (n = 123) and (ii) without MS (n = 501), and then compared variables between two groups. Results The mean age, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were 28.6 ± 4.3 years, 26.7 ± 3.7 kg/m2 and 85.2 ± 8.7 cm, respectively. The prevalence of MS was 19.7%. Our findings showed that age, BMI, waist circumference and all metabolic parameters were higher in PCOS women with MS than related values in those without MS. The most and least prevalent forms of MS were low level of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and hypertension, respectively. Conclusion It seems the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our country isn’t as high as western countries. The prevalence rate of MS increased with age and BMI. One of the major cardiovascular risk factors, low level of HDL-C, is the most prevalent metabolic abnormality in our participants.
  • Clustering of risk factors for cardiometabolic diseases in low-income, female adolescents Original Articles

    Melo, Elza M. F. S. de; Azevedo, George D.; Silva, João B. da; Lemos, Telma M. A. M.; Maranhão, Técia M. O.; Freitas, Ana K. M. S. O.; Spyrides, Maria H.; Costa, Eduardo C.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the prevalence and clustering patterns of cardiometabolic risk factors among low-income, female adolescents. Materials and methods Cross-sectional study involving 196 students of public schools (11-19 years old). The following risk factors were considered in the analysis: excess weight, central obesity, dyslipidemia, high blood pressure, and high fasting glucose. The ratio between observed and expected prevalence and its confidence interval were used to identify clustering of risk factors that exceeded expected prevalence in the population. Results The most prevalent risk factors were dyslipidemia (70.9%), and central obesity (39.8%), followed by excess weight (29.6%), and high blood pressure (12.8%). A total of 42.9% of adolescents had two or more risk factors, and 24% had three or more. Excess weight, central obesity, and dyslipidemia were common risk factors in the clustering patterns that showed higher-than-expected prevalence. Conclusions Clustering of risk factors (≥ two factors) among the adolescents showed considerable prevalence, and there was a non-casual coexistence of excess weight, central obesity, and dyslipidemia (mainly low HDL-cholesterol).
  • Percutaneous ethanol injection versus conservative treatment for benign cystic and mixed thyroid nodules Original Articles

    Ferreira, Mari Cassol; Piaia, Camila; Cadore, Ana Carolina

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in reducing the volume of cystic and mixed thyroid nodules. Materials and methods A total of 36 patients with nodules treated with PEI and 13 individuals who declined PEI and were followed clinically or received other non surgical treatment (control group). Assessments were performed at baseline (immediately before treatment in the PEI group or evaluation of the nodule on ultrasonography in the control group) at short-term (on average 30 days after the last injection in the PEI group), and long-term (on average 14 months after baseline in the PEI group or 26 months after baseline in the control group). Results In the PEI group, the mean baseline volume of 10.4 ± 9.8 cm3 reduced at short-term follow-up to 2.9 ± 3.1 cm3 (67.7 ± 19.9%, p < 0.001) and at long-term follow-up to 2.0 ± 2.5 cm3 (78.2 ± 19.5%, p < 0.01 versus baseline and p = 0.009 versus short-term follow-up). Both types of nodules showed similar degrees of reduction. In the control group, mean volume was 5.8 ± 3.4 cm3 at baseline and 6.2 ± 3.0 cm3 at long-term follow-up (p = 0.507). Compared with the control group, the PEI group showed larger reduction (p < 0.001). Conclusions PEI is effective in reducing the volume of cystic and mixed benign thyroid nodules, with sustained long-term efficacy and better outcome when compared with conservative therapies. Treatment with PEI is a safe alternative, with minimal, transient and self-limited adverse events.
  • Differences in the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and hip fractures in nursing home residents and independently living elderly Original Articles

    Shinkov, Alexander; Borissova, Anna-Maria; Dakovska, Lilia; Vlahov, Jordan; Kassabova, Lidia; Svinarov, Dobrin; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and fracture history in nursing home residents and community-dwelling elderly subjects and to explore the association of vitamin D levels with various characteristics. Materials and methods Sixty-six nursing home residents and 139 community-dwelling elderly subjects participated. Marital status, medical history, medication including vitamin D supplements, smoking, past fractures were assessed. Weight and height were measured and body mass index calculated. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD), PTH, Ca, phosphate, creatinine and eGFR were determined. Results In the nursing home residents 25-OHD was lower (17.8 nmol/l, [9.4-28.6] vs. 36.7 nmol/l, [26.9-50], p < 0.001), PTH was higher (5.6 pmol/l, [3.9-8.9] vs. 4.7 pmol/l [3.6-5.8], P = 0.003) and 25-OHD deficiency was more prevalent (65.2% [53.7-76.7] vs. 22.3% [15.4-29.2], p < 0.001) as was elevated PTH (23% [12.8-33] vs. 5.8% [2-10], p = 0.001). 25-OHD correlated negatively with PTH (institutionalized r = -0.28, p = 0.025 and community-dwelling r = -0.36, p < 0.001). Hip fractures were reported by 8% of the residents and 2% of the independent elderly. The only predictor for hip fracture was elevated PTH (OR = 7.6 (1.5-36.9), p = 0.013). Conclusion The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism was high in the institutionalized subjects. Hip fracture risk was associated with elevated PTH and not directly with vitamin D levels or the residency status.
  • Male-female differences in 6-sulfatoxymelatonin excretion in hypopituitary patients Original Articles

    Fideleff, Hugo L.; Fideleff, Gabriel; Boquete, Hugo R.; Suárez, Martha; Azaretzky, Miriam

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate melatonin secretion in adult hypopituitary patients with Growth Hormone deficiency (AGHD) on and off replacement therapy. Subjects and methods We studied 48 subjects: 12 (6 males) untreated AGHD (AGHDnt), 20 (10 males) treated AGHD (AGHDt) and 16 healthy subjects (8 males) as control group (CG). We measured urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (6-SM) in total (24 h samples), nocturnal (6-SMn): 1800-0800 and diurnal samples (6-SMd): 0800-1800. Results Significant differences were observed among the 3 groups of male subjects, in total 6-SM (p < 0.05), nocturnal 6-SM (p < 0.02) and nighttime-daytime delta values (p < 0.003). CG had significantly higher values than the AGHDnt in total 6-SM (p < 0.01), nocturnal 6-SM (p < 0.05) and nighttime-daytime delta values (p < 0.01). AGHDt patients showed significantly higher levels in nighttime-daytime delta values than AGHDnt patients (p < 0.05). In females, no significant differences were found among the 3 groups studied in total, nocturnal, diurnal or nighttime-daytime delta values. In males, significant correlations were found among total 6-SM (r = 0.58; p = 0.029), nocturnal 6-SM (r = 0.70; p = 0.006) and nighttime-daytime delta values (r = 0.71; p = 0.004) vs. serum IGF-1 levels in subjects evaluated. In females, significant correlations were found among total 6-SM (r = 0.57; p = 0.02) vs. serum IGF-1 levels in subjects evaluated. A tendency towards a significant correlation was found in diurnal 6-SM (r = 0.48; p = 0.07). Conclusions Our findings show a sexual dimorphism in 6-SM excretion in AGHD patients and provide an interesting approach to a further understanding of some chronobiological disorders involved in GH deficiency.
  • Importance of ectopic thyroid tissue detected in the midline of the neck: single center experience Original Articles

    Oguz, Ayten; Tuzun, Dilek; Ozdemir, Elif; Ersoy, Reyhan; Yazgan, Aylin Kilic; Cakir, Bekir

    Abstract in English:

    Objective Ectopic thyroid tissue (ETT) is a rare abnormality of the thyroid gland and the true prevalence and importance is not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate ultrasonography (US) guided fine needle aspiration biposy (FNAB) results, sonographic features, and frequency of ETT detected in the midline of the neck. Subjects and methods Five thousand five hundred and twenty outpatients who were referred to our thyroid clinic between September 2010 and April 2012 and underwent thyroid US, were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with ETT, detected in the midline of the neck in US were included in the study. Thyroid functions, sonographic features, and US guided FNAB results were evaluated. Results There were 81 (81.8%) female and 18 (18.2%) male patients with a mean age of 50.9 ± 11.7. The ETT in the midline was present in 1.79% (99/5,520) of the patients. In the majority of the patients, benign sonographic features (isoechoic, regular margin, type 1 vascularization) were detected. There were 92 (92.9%) patients with a previous history of thyroidectomy and all were histopathologically benign. In 7 (7.1%) patients, there was no history of thyroid operation. FNAB results of ETT were benign. Conclusion This study evaluated the importance of ETT detected incidentally in the midline of the neck. Especially in patients with a history of thyroidectomy, the thyroid masses in the midline of the neck can be found as incidental with imaging methods. Our results suggests that the incidence of malignancy in this group is much lower than orthotopic thyroid nodules and they are often benign.
  • Does low serum TSH within the normal range have negative impact on physical exercise capacity and quality of life of healthy elderly people? Original Articles

    Chachamovitz, Dhiãnah Santini de Oliveira; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos; Carvalho, Rafael Cavalcante; Silvestre, Diego Henrique da Silva; Moerbeck, Ana Eduarda Vieira; Soffientini, Mariana Guimarães; Luna, Érika Luciana Gomes; Rosemberg, Clara Werner; Mainenti, Míriam Raquel Meira; Vaisman, Mário; Teixeira, Patricia de Fátima dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Objective Investigate the differences in cardiopulmonary (CP) capacity and Quality of Life (QOL) between healthy elderly (≥ 65 years) with different TSH levels (< 1.0 and ≥ 1.0 μIU/mL) both within the normal range. Also, evaluate the effects of TSH elevation on CP test and QOL, by administering methimazole to subjects with initial lower-normal TSH, in order to elevate it to superior-normal limit. Materials and methods Initially, a cross-sectional study was performed to compare CP capacity at peak exercise and QOL (using WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire) between healthy seniors (age ≥ 65 years) with TSH < 1.0 μIU/mL vs. TSH ≥1.0 μIU/mL. In the second phase, participants with TSH < 1.0 μIU/mL were included in a non-controlled-prospective-interventional study to investigate the effect of TSH elevation, using methimazole, on QOL and CP capacity at peak exercise. Results From 89 elderly evaluated, 75 had TSH ≥ 1 μIU/mL and 14 TSH < 1 μIU/mL. The two groups had similar basal clinical characteristics. No difference in WHOQOL-OLD scores was observed between groups and they did not differ in terms of CP function at peak exercise. QOL and CP variables were not correlated with TSH levels. Twelve of 14 participants with TSH < 1.0 μIU/mL entered in the prospective study. After one year, no significant differences in clinical caracteristics, QOL, and CP variables were detected in paired analysis before and after methimazole intervention. Conclusions We found no differences in CP capacity and QOL between health elderly with different TSH levels within normal range and no impact after one year of methimazole treatment. More prospective-controlled-randomized studies are necessary to confirm or not the possible harm effect in normal low TSH.
  • Design of an allele-specific PCR assay to genotype the rs12255372 SNP in a pilot study of association between common TCF7L2 polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes in Venezuelans Original Articles

    Moran, Yeinmy; Labrador, Luis; Camargo, María Eugenia; Fernández, David; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    Abstract in English:

    Objective The global burden of diabetes mellitus will impact strongly American countries in the coming decades. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a multifactorial disease and the basis for its genetic susceptibility remains not fully understood. Different population studies have demonstrated that variants of the TCF7L2 gene are strongly associated with an increased risk of T2DM. Moreover, institutions or countries with limited budget to conduct genetic research need cost effective methods for detecting DNA variants. Subjects and methods We standardized a rapid and simple allele-specific PCR method for genotyping the rs12255372 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in a pilot study exploring the association of three TCF7L2 polymorphisms (rs7903146, rs12255372 and DG10S478) with T2DM in 70 patients and 73 controls from Venezuela. Results The performance of the designed allele-specific PCR reaction for rs12255372 genotyping was reliable and accurate. Patients carrying the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T allele (CT + TT genotypes) and heterozygous CT genotype had a significantly higher risk for T2DM (OR = 2.9 and 2.3, respectively). Although rs12255372 and DG10S478 risk alleles predominated in T2DM group no statistical significance was found. Conclusions We developed a novel allele-specific PCR method for easier and rapid detection of rs12255372 polymorphism without the use of expensive instrumentation and reagents. Our study in a relatively small sample of the Venezuelan population replicated the association of the rs7903146 SNP with T2DM. Further studies with larger sample size and more biochemical data should be conducted to explore the genetic basis of T2DM susceptibility in Venezuela.
  • Calcium intake: good for the bones but bad for the heart? An analysis of clinical studies Review

    Lima, Guilherme Alcantara Cunha; Lima, Priscilla Damião Araújo; Barros, Maria da Glória Costa Reis Monteiro de; Vardiero, Lívia Paiva; Melo, Elisa Fernandes de; Paranhos-Neto, Francisco de Paula; Madeira, Miguel; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The proper dietary calcium intake and calcium supplementation, when indicated, are important factors in the acquisition of peak bone mass during youth and in the prevention of fractures in old age. In addition to its deposition in bone, calcium confers an increase in its resistance and exhibits important activities in different enzymatic pathways in the body (e.g., neural, hormonal, muscle-related and blood clotting pathways). Thus, calcium supplementation can directly or indirectly affect important functions in the body, such as the control of blood pressure, plasma glucose, body weight, lipid profile and endothelial function. Since one publication reported increased cardiovascular risk due to calcium supplementation, many researchers have studied whether this risk actually exists; the results are conflicting, and the involved mechanisms are uncertain. However, studies that have evaluated the influence of the consumption of foods rich in calcium have reported no increase in the cardiovascular risk, which suggests that nutritional intake should be prioritized as a method for supplementation and that the use of calcium supplements should be reserved for patients who truly need supplementation and are unable to achieve the recommended daily nutritional intake of calcium.
  • Gender differences in insulin and C-peptide concentrations at birth using cord blood collection Brief Report

    Kuchay, Mohammad Shafi; Kudyar, Rattan P.; Gupta, Anil; Pandita, Kamal Kishor; Ganie, Mohammad Ashraf

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To study gender differences in insulin and C-peptide concentrations at birth using cord blood collection. Subjects and methods This study was conducted in a maternity hospital, in Jammu province of Jammu and Kashmir, India. All women with pregnancy who were hospitalized for delivery were followed. All pregnant ladies who had no medical condition affecting insulin levels, as per history and routine antenatal blood testing, were included in the study. The test for cord plasma insulin and C-peptide was done in 60 (30 males) full-term (≥ 37 completed weeks) normal delivery babies within 4 hours of the collection of samples using the electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) on Roche elecsys module immunoassay analyzer. Weight of the babies was taken immediately after birth using digital scales. Results Cord plasma insulin and C-peptide measured in EDTA were compared between boys and girls and also related to birth weight. Girls were lighter (2,830 ± 37 vs. 3,236 ± 46 g; p = < 0.001) but had higher cord insulin (16.48 ± 4.88 vs. 10.53 ± 4.04 µU/mL; p = < 0.001), and C-peptide (2.47 ± 0.66 vs. 0.834 ± 0.26 ng/mL; p = < 0.001) concentrations than newborn boys. Conclusion Female newborn babies have higher cord plasma insulin and C-peptide concentrations than male newborns, despite being smaller, suggesting intrinsic insulin resistance in girls.
  • Recommendations of the Neuroendocrinology Department of the Brazilian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism for the diagnosis of Cushing’s disease in Brazil Consensus

    Machado, Márcio Carlos; Fragoso, Maria Candida Barisson Vilares; Moreira, Ayrton Custódio; Boguszewski, César Luiz; Vieira, Leonardo; Naves, Luciana A.; Vilar, Lucio; Araújo, Luiz Antônio de; Czepielewski, Mauro A.; Gadelha, Monica R.; Musolino, Nina Rosa Castro; Miranda, Paulo Augusto C.; Bronstein, Marcello Delano; Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Although it is a rare condition, the accurate diagnosis and treatment of Cushing’s disease is important due to its higher morbidity and mortality compared to the general population, which is attributed to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and infections. Screening for hypercortisolism is recommended for patients who present multiple and progressive clinical signs and symptoms, especially those who are considered to be more specific to Cushing’s syndrome, abnormal findings relative to age (e.g., spinal osteoporosis and high blood pressure in young patients), weight gain associated with reduced growth rate in the pediatric population and for those with adrenal incidentalomas. Routine screening is not recommended for other groups of patients, such as those with obesity or diabetes mellitus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary, the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) test and the high-dose dexamethasone suppression test are the main tests for the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing’s syndrome. Bilateral and simultaneous petrosal sinus sampling is the gold standard method and is performed when the triad of initial tests is inconclusive, doubtful or conflicting. The aim of this article is to provide information on the early detection and establishment of a proper diagnosis of Cushing’s disease, recommending follow-up of these patients at experienced referral centers. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2016;60(3):267-86
  • Radio-contrast agent-induced hyperthyroidism: case report and review of the literature Case Reports

    Iakovou, Ioannis; Zapandiotis, Apostolos; Mpalaris, Vassileios; Goulis, Dimitrios G.

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY A 66 year-old woman with a history of a euthyroid multinodular goiter underwent a head and neck computed tomography (CT) scan (total iodine load of 35 g) in order to evaluate the extent of retrosternal expansion. Less than 24 h after the iodine-based contrast media (ICM) administration, she presented with symptoms and laboratory findings typical of thyrotoxicosis. She was treated successfully with antithyroid medications. This is the shortest time reported in the literature and it is of clinical importance, as it may have an impact to the recommendations given by the attending physician. Given the fact that a large number of ICM examinations are performed in everyday practice, physicians should be aware of this possible thyroid-specific effect. Prophylactic drugs could be considered in high-risk populations, such as administration of perchlorate and a thionamide class drug to elderly patients with suppressed TSH and/or palpable goiter, started the day before and continued for two weeks after ICM administration.
  • Anti-thyroid drug-induced lupus: a case report and review of the literature Case Reports

    Mei, Xi; Li, Yao; Qiu, Ping; Tang, Ming-Wei; Lan, Tian

    Abstract in English:

    We report a case of drug-induced lupus (DIL) on a Chinese woman caused by methimazole (MMI). This report discusses DIL associated with MMI and briefly reviewed the literature concerning to anti-thyroid DIL.
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