Abstract in English:The pedigree of chickens homozygous for black plumage and naked and now obtained in the Poultry Department of the "Luiz de Queiroz" School of Agriculture, was traced in this paper. The animals will be used in the formation of the new local breed called "Piracicaba PPPP", (Pescoço Pelado Preta de Piracicaba), which we propose to start with selection of others morphological characters and mainly the economical ones: egg laying, early maturing and soft-meated chickens.
Abstract in English:This paper deals with the inheritance of black, blue and blue-splashed plumage in poultry. The material analysed had its origin in the State of Goias, Brazil and the genetical data seems to indicate the interaction of a single pair of genes as in the Andalusian fowls and other blue breeds. The dominant gene for blue egg is also present in the material and selection is now being directed to isolate a breed with blue plumage and blue eggs, named "Tudo Azul", what in Portuguese means all blue (plumage and eggs) and corresponds, in braziliian slang, to the expression "O. K." used in the United States. The commercial possibility of the chickens, as judging by its, laying capacity, is emphasized.
Abstract in English:The authors tried to check in this experiment the minimum of yellow corn necessary for preventing avitaminosis A in chickens. It was observed, in balanced ration with 50% of corn, that: a) 20% of dent and yellow grains and 30% of flint and white grains were insuficient to prevent avitaminosis A. b) 20% of flint and orange grains and 30% of flint and white grains or 40% of either colored grains and 10% of flint, and white grains did not show evident signs of avitaminosis A during the 12 weeks of the experiment. The ration containing 20% of flint and orange grains is pratically equivalent to the ration containing 40% of dent and yellow grains, regarding the content of pro-vitamina A. However, it was not possible to conclude if these dosage are sufficient to give the necessary vitamina A for normal development of the chickens since the table 3 seems to indicate a negative correlation between the amount of pigment in the ration and the mortality of the animals.
Abstract in English:The author studied in this paper the influence of liquid whey in feeding Pekin ducklings. Wet mash, either by liquid whey or water, was given to the ducklings during the whole day. Green feed was added to the ration just once a day. The statistical analysis did not show significant differences between the use of water and liquid whey but the results obtained with wet mash proved to be statistically better than the results obtained with dry mash.
Abstract in Portuguese:Visando a obtenção dum método fácil e rápido para calcular rações para animais, o Autor deduz e apresenta uma fórmula que dará a quantidade dum alimento a ser acrescentada a uma mistura para balanceá-la. Sugere a necessidade de tabelas apropriadas para facilitar o uso da fórmula.
Abstract in English:Looking for a short and quick method for calculating animal ration, the Author deduces and presents a formula which gives the amount of a particular food to be added to the mixture for a balanced diet. The necessity of proper tables to facilitate the use of the formula is pointed out.
Abstract in English:Material: Studies were made mainly with Ascaris megalocephála Cloq. univalens and bivalens, and also with Tityus bahiensis Perty. 1) Somatic pairing of heterochromatic regions. The heterochromatic ends of the somatic chromosomes in Ascaris show a very strong tendency for unspecifical somatic pairing which may occur between parts of different chromosomes (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, 18,), between the two ends of the same chromosome either directly (Figs. 4, 5, 7, 8, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18) or inversely (Fig. 8, in the arrow) and also within a same chromosomal arm (Fig. 6). 2) During the early first cleavage division the chomosomes are an isodiametric cylinder (Figs. 6, 9, 11, 13, 14). But in later metaphase the ends become club shaped (Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10) which is interpreted as the beginning of migration of chromatic substance from the central euchromatic region towards the heterochromatic regions. This migration becomes more and accentuated in anaphase (Figs. 19, 22, 23) and in the vegetative cells where euchromatic region looses more and more staing power, especially in the intersititial zones between the individual small spherical chromosomes into which the euchromatic region desintegrates. The emigrated chromatin material is finally eliminated with the heterochromatic chromosome ends (Fig. 23 and 24). 3) It seems a general rule that during mitotic anaphase all chromosomes with diffuse or multiple spindle fiber attachement (Ascaris, Tityus, Luzula, Steatococcus, Homoptera and Heteroptera in general) move to the poles in the form of an U with precedence of the chromosomal ends. In Ascaris, the heterocromatic regions are pulled passively towards the poles and only the euchromatic central portion may be U-shaped (Fig. 19, 22, 25). While in the other species this U-shape is perfect since the beginning of anaphase, giving the impression that movement towards the poles begins at both ends of a chromosome simultaneously, this is not the case in Ascaris. There the euchromatic region is at first U-shaped, passing then to form a straight or zig-zag line and becoming again U-shaped during late anaphase. This is explained by the fact that the ends of the euchromatic regions have to pull the weight of the passive heterochromatic portions. 4) While it is generally accepted that, during first meio-tic division untill second anaphase, all attachement regions remain either undivided or at least united closely, this is not the case in chromosomes with diffused or multiple attachment. Here one clearly sees in all cases so far studied four parallel chromatids at first metaphase. In Luzula and Tityus (for Tityus all figs. 26 to 31) this division is allready quite clear in paraphase (pro-metaphase) and it cannot be said wether in other species the division in sister chromatids is allready present, but not visible at this stage. During first anaphase the sister chromatids of Titbits remain more or less in contact, while in Luzula and especially in Ascaris they are quite separated. Thus one can count in late anaphase or telophase of Ascaris megalocephala bivalens, nearly allways, four separate chromosomes near each pole, or a total of eight chromatids per division figure (Figs. 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41).