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Swine leptospirosis is an important cause of economic loss in reproductive herds, and it occurs all over the world. Swine l eptospirosis can be presented in basically the two types acute and chronic. Fever, focal mastitis and leptospiruria are observed in the acute infection of adult animals. In the chronic type, infertility, abortions, stillborn and weak piglets are common. The serovars Canicola, Pomona and Icterohaemorrhagiae are the most important in the epidemiology of this disease. Although there are many available diagnostic techniques and others which are being developed, the microscopic agglutination test is the most commonly used, especially in swine and it is considered a serogroup specific test with a complex interpretation. Swine leptospirosis control is based on the immunization of susceptible swine in conjunction with actions related to infection sources, in order to reduce the quantity of leptospiras spread to the environment and to identify and eliminate factors which amplify the pathogenic agent’s survival. Swine anti-leptospira polyvalent vaccines are composed of whole inactivated bacteria. The most frequently used serovars are: Canicola, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Copenhageni, Pomona, Grippotyphosa and Bratislava. Proteins from external membrane and from the surface of pathogenic leptospiras are effective antigens for anti-leptospira vaccine production and have become particularly interesting for the development of new anti-leptospira vaccines.

Swine leptospirosis; epidemiology; pathogeny; diagnosis; control; prevention

Instituto Biológico Av. Conselheiro Rodrigues Alves, 1252 - Vila Mariana - São Paulo - SP, 04014-002 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil