High phosphorus concentrations in industrial wastewaters is one of the main causes of the eutrophication of water bodies, leading to a growing concern with the management of phosphorus loads from industrial wastewaters. In addition to the environmental aspects of containment, it is strategically desirable that the treatment processes enable the recovery and reuse of this element, which is considered to be of high biological demand. For these reasons, this review describes and critically analyzes the current state of phosphorus management technologies for industrial wastewaters, with emphasis on the reuse of the element. The technologies considered include chemical approaches (chemical precipitation and adsorption), biological (bacterial systems, microalgae and macroalgae) plus fertigation techniques.
phosphorus species; eutrophication; treatment technologies; reuse