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Exposure to occupational dust and changes in pulmonary function among cobblestone paving workers of Jimma, Ethiopia

Exposição à poeira e alterações na função pulmonar entre trabalhadores de pavimentação com pedregulhos em Jimma, Etiópia

Abstracts

The classic diseases of "dusty" occupations may be on decline, but they are not yet extinct. Studies have found associations between changes in ambient particulate air pollution and increased cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional comparative study design was employed on 127 male nonsmoker cobblestone paving workers and 194 matched employed office workers as a reference in order to assess changes in pulmonary function related to dust exposure among cobblestone road paving workers of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and spirometric measurements after ethical clearance was obtained. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-tests to examine the differences between the groups. P-values equal or less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant; odds were calculated at a 95% confidence interval. Cobblestone road paving workers had significantly higher odds of respiratory symptoms, dry cough (p < 0.05), cough (p < 0.01) and sore throat (p< 0.001) compared to the reference. The FEV1 for workers exposed to cobblestone road paving workers ranged between 3.12 - 4.73 L, with a mean of 3.96 ± 0.6 L, significantly lower than the reference groups who had a range of 3.3 - 4.78 L and a mean of 4.01 ± 0.6 L (p < 0.05). The mean value of the ratio of FEV1/FVC was significantly decreased in the cobblestone road paving workers compared to the controls (87.2 (SD 4.3) v 89.5 (SD 5.4), p = 0.01). In conclusion, the study revealed clear evidence of the need for health education and for the promotion of activities directed towards mitigating respiratory hazards in order to foster a safe and healthy work environment.

air pollution; dust exposure; particulate matter; pulmonary function


As doenças clássicas associadas com trabalhos em ambientes empoeirados podem estar diminuindo, porém ainda não extintas. Estudos realizados associaram mudanças na poluição do ar em ambientes empoeirados com o aumento da morbidade e mortalidade cardiorrespiratória. Neste estudo comparativo transversal foram analisados 127 trabalhadores masculinos de pavimentação de estradas com pedregulhos, não fumantes e que foram comparados com 194 trabalhadores de escritório utilizados como referência para avaliar as alterações da função pulmonar relacionadas à exposição ao pó na zona de Jimma, Etiópia. Os dados foram coletados por meio de questionário estruturado após a autorização do Comitê de Ética e realizada a mensuração espirométrica. Os dados foram analisados utilizando-se o teste t não pareado para analisar a diferença entre os grupos. Valores de p igual ou menor que 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos e as razões de possibilidades foram calculadas com intervalo de confiança de 95%. Trabalhadores de pavimentação de estrada tiveram uma razão de possibilidade significativamente maior de sintomas respiratórios, como tosse seca (p < 0,05), tosse (p < 0,01) e dor de garganta (p < 0,001) em relação ao grupo de referência. O FEV1 para trabalhadores expostos ao trabalho de pavimentação de estrada variou entre 3,12 ‑ 4,73 L com uma média de 3,96 ± 0,6 L significativamente menor do que os grupos de referência que apresentaram um intervalo de 3,3 - 4,78 L e média de 4,01±0,6 L (p<0,05). O valor médio da relação de FEV1/FVC foi significativamente menor para trabalhadores de pavimentação de estrada em comparação com o grupo de controle (87,2(dp4,3) contra 89,5 (dp 5,4); p = 0,01). Em conclusão, o estudo revelou evidências claras da necessidade de educação e promoção da saúde voltada para riscos respiratórios para promover um ambiente de trabalho seguro e saudável.

poluição do ar; exposição à poeira; partículas em suspensão; função pulmonar


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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    07 Apr 2014
  • Date of issue
    Mar 2014

History

  • Received
    22 Oct 2013
  • Accepted
    08 Mar 2014
Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas Instituto de Pesquisas Ambientais em Bacias Hidrográficas (IPABHi), Estrada Mun. Dr. José Luis Cembranelli, 5000, Taubaté, SP, Brasil, CEP 12081-010 - Taubaté - SP - Brazil
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