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Revista Archai, Issue: 25, Published: 2019
  • Scholarship Overview on Gnosticism and Early Jewish-Christian Writings: (re)mantling Categories about Ancient Religious Phenomena Artigos

    Assis, Jean Felipe de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Gnosticism as an organized social movement with a coherent and uniform message is an ambiguous terminology. However, the existence of distinct elements that are simultaneously present in texts established as gnostic and New Testament writings is unquestionable. There is a primeval milieu shared among particular communities based on several literary receptions in which diverse ancient religious phenomena, gradually, became consolidated. Critical studies reveal a mandatory revaluation of modern scholarship categories, including essential terms such as Gnosticism and Gnosis; terminological references and religious expressions in the first century do not exclude the presence of shared ideas within the Christian Testament and other Jewish mythic configurations. There are multiple understandings and applications of the term Gnosticism in contemporary scholarship, including those which deliberate evident issues of definition. As a result, a brief scholarship review regarding selected dimensions of Gnostic ideas in the ancient Mediterranean context provides historical and literary grounds for textual analysis in the Jewish-Christian mythmaking and the reception processes of biblical writings in the ancient world. Consequently, by dis-mantling and re-mantling these ancient religious horizons, scholars consider a comprehensive approach of the ancient Hellenistic religious phenomena in which elements from Gnosticism, Apocalypticism, Ancient Magic and Mystery Religions share historical contexts and furnish complex symbolic communications in their specific textual expressions.
  • The Reception of Classical Latin Literature in Early Modern Philosophy: the case of Ovid and Spinoza Artigos

    Pugliese, Nastassja

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Although the works of the authors of the Golden Age of Latin Literature play an important formative role for Early Modern philosophers, their influence in Early Modern thought is, nowadays, rarely studied. Trying to bring this topic to light once again and following the seminal works of Kajanto (1979), Proietti (1985) and Akkerman (1985), I will target Spinoza’s Latin sources in order to analyze their place in his philosophy. On those grounds, I will offer an overview of the problems of the reception of classical literature in Early Modernity and then dwell on the particular case of Ovid and Spinoza. The present paper will argue that although Spinoza’s references to Ovid fill a rhetorical purpose as suggested by the existing literature, these mentions have a prior philosophical motivation. That is, the references in the Ethics are not merely illustrative; instead, they indicate that Spinoza acknowledges Ovid’s beliefs about human experiences and deliberately elaborates on Ovid’s view to construct and defend his own theses. To this end, the paper will analyze some citations mapped by Proietti (1985) and add a new one in an attempt to enlarge the list of places and topics that merit further investigation. To conclude, I will point out how the references to Ovid are part of Spinoza’s own defense of the powers of imagination.
  • The Persian Empire and Classical Political Thought: A Panoramic View Artigos

    Araujo, Matheus Treuk Medeiros de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: A Pérsia aquemênida teve um impacto longo e duradouro no pensamento político da Grécia clássica. Após a submissão dos gregos jônicos e as Guerras Médicas, a ideia de império territorial, originalmente uma realidade estrangeira, se tornou crescentemente relevante entre os historiógrafos gregos e teria enorme importância para o surgimento de uma identidade helênica. Nos períodos tardo-clássico e helenístico a oposição entre gregos “livres” e persas “servis” com base em distinções constitucionais se tornou tão intensa que penetrou amplamente as obras de Aristóteles e a propaganda política de Alexandre. A avaliação das virtudes (e vícios) de monarcas persas tomados individualmente foi central nos modelos gregos de liderança política e enseja questionamentos de grande interesse aos especialistas modernos. Uma visão panorâmica de alguns dos principais temas nas obras políticas gregas é, portanto, necessária a fim de destacar a importância da Pérsia como estímulo e preocupação do pensamento clássico.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Achaemenid Persia had a deep and enduring impact in classical Greek political thought. After the submission of the Ionian Greeks and the Persian Wars, the idea of a territorial empire, originally a foreign reality, became increasingly important among Greek historiographers and would be of paramount importance to the rise of Hellenicity. During the Late Classical and Hellenistic Period, the opposition between “free” Greeks and “slavish” Persians on the ground of constitutional differences became so strong that it pervasively permeated the works of Aristotle and the political propaganda of Alexander. Evaluation of individual Persian monarch’s virtues (and vices) was central in Greek examples of political leadership and raises many interesting questions to modern scholars. A panoramic view of some of the main subjects in Greek political works is therefore needed to highlight the importance of Persia as a stimulus and concern of classical thought.
  • The pre-history of the significance of ousia: An analysis of the heideggerian interpretation of ousia as presentness (Anwesenheit) Artigos

    Cruz, Estevão Lemos

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Como compreendiam os gregos o significado de οὐσία antes de ela se tornar uma expressão dominada pelo pensamento platônico e aristotélico? Heidegger tem razão em interpretar esta compreensão pré-filosófica como presentidade constante (ständige Anwesenheit) ou será tal interpretação uma distorção característica do pensador alemão? Através do estabelecimento de critérios etimológicos, filológicos e do uso filosófico da palavra οὐσία buscou-se não só clarificar seu uso cotidiano, isto é, pré-filosófico, mas pôr à prova a interpretação heideggeriana. Do exame empreendido resultou que a compreensão pré-filosófica de οὐσία carrega o significado de “posse”, “bens”, “morada”, “fortuna”. Entretanto, a inquirição dessa significação também demonstrou que ela só é possível enquanto tal e em coerência com o uso filosófico do termo se tal compreensão cotidiana já se orientar desde uma pré-compreensão de οὐσία enquanto presentidade constante. A conclusão obtida é que a interpretação heideggeriana de modo algum constitui um falseamento ou distorção do termo em análise, mas uma autêntica imersão na língua grega e, sobretudo, uma apropriação legitima do pensamento e do vocabulário grego.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: How did the Greeks understand the significance of οὐσία before it became an expression dominated by the platonic and aristotelic thought? Is Heidegger correct to interpret this pre-philosophical comprehension as constant presentness (ständige Anwesenheit) or is such interpretation a characteristic distortion from the German thinker? Through the establishment of etymological and philological criteria and of the philosophical use of the word οὐσία, it is aimed not only to clarify its daily use, that means, pre-philosophical, but also to prove the heideggerian interpretation. From the undertaken examination it resulted that the pre-philosophical comprehension of οὐσία carries the meanings of “ownership”, “goods”, “residence”, “fortune”. However, the undertaken examination also demonstrated that it is only possible as such and in coherence to the philosophical use of the term if such a daily comprehension is already orientated from a pre-comprehension of οὐσία as constant presentness. The reached conclusion is that the heideggerian interpretation under no circumstances constitutes a misrepresentation or distortion of the analysed term, but an authentic immersion in the Greek language and, above all, a legitimate appropriation of the Greek thought and vocabulary.
  • Some indirect testimonies about Plato’s personal character and their connection with passages of the written dialogues Artigos

    Spinassi, Miguel Ángel

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: Este artículo pretende contribuir a la imagen del Platón histórico. A tal fin he seleccionado de la tradición indirecta favorable a Platón nueve testimonios que arrojan cierta luz sobre su carácter personal. Considero que esta tradición favorable nos presentaría más fielmente al filósofo de Atenas que aquella hostil. Por ello he intentado llamar la atención en la segunda parte del artículo sobre la posible conexión entre aquellos testimonios indirectos y algunos pasajes extraídos de los diálogos escritos. En efecto, la benevolencia y buena disposición de Platón para con otras personas se corresponderían con aquellas actitudes que son requeridas del interlocutor como condiciones previas para la conversación dialéctica. Sugiero, en fin, que tanto la personalidad de Platón como su obra estarían en armonía y que un aspecto clave de esta armonía lo representa la predisposición positiva y favorable para con el otro.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: This article aims to contribute to the image of the historical Plato. For this purpose, I have selected from the indirect tradition favorable to Plato nine testimonies, which shed some light on his personal character. I believe that this favorable tradition would represent more faithfully the philosopher of Athens than the hostile one. That is why I have tried to draw attention in the second part of the article on the possible connection between those indirect testimonies and some passages from the written dialogues. In fact, Plato’s benevolence and good disposition towards other people would correspond to those attitudes that are required from the interlocutor as preconditions for dialectic conversation. I suggest, finally, that both the personality of Plato and his work would be in harmony and that a key aspect of this harmony is represented by the positive and favorable predisposition towards others.
  • Some Considerations about the Relationship between Science and Philosophy in Ptolemaic Writings: An Analysis from Its Teleological Model of Explanation Artigos

    Gargiulo, María Teresa

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Resumen: Existe en nuestros días abundante bibliografía que se ha ocupado de presentar al astrónomo alejandrino como un científico empirista abocado a la tarea de salvar las apariencias y desvinculado de todo tipo de reflexión filosófica. En oposición a esta línea de lectura, nos limitaremos a estudiar en su Almagesto y en su Armónica la unidad científico-filosófica que atraviesa tanto su imagen normativa de la ciencia como su misma práctica científica. Dicha unidad, a nuestro entender, nos permite comprender la noción de ciencia de Ptolomeo desde coordenadas más comprehensivas que las que ofrece el empirismo.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: There is abundant bibliography today that has been concerned with presenting the astronomer as an empiricist scientist focused on the task of saving appearances and disconnected from all kinds of theological or metaphysical reflection. In opposition to this line of reading, we will limit ourselves to study in his Almagest and in his Harmonics the scientific-mythological unit that crosses both its normative image of science and its own scientific practice. This unity, in our view, allows us to understand Ptolemy’s notion of science from more comprehensive coordinates than empiricism offers.
  • There is, evidently, a “Parmenides physikos ”, but… (About Livio Rossetti, Un altro Parmenide , 2017) Artigos

    Cordero, Nestor-Luis

    Abstract in French:

    Résumé : Comme tous les Présocratiques, Parménide s’est intéressé à la phúsis; donc, considérer qu’il était un phusikós, c’est tout à fait naturel. L. Rossetti, dans son cappolavoro en deux volumes Un altroParmenide (Diogenes Multimedia, Bologne, 2017), a étudié d’une manière très détaillée la question. Cependant, la perspective à partir de laquelle Rossetti a envisagé la question n’a pas pu se dégager de deus obstacles principaux : la place dans laquelle se trouvent les textes « physiques » (à l’intérieur de la « doxa ») et le caractère négatif que la « doxa » a aux yeux de Parménide. En effet, en fonction d’une division arbitraire du Poème en deux parties, proposée par G.G. Fülleborn, en 1795, les textes « physiques » de Parménide seraient à l’intérieur d’ « un ordre trompeur de mots », qui commence au vers 8.51 et se termine au fr. 19, ce qui anéantie la valeur d’une physique parménidienne. La seule façon de revendiquer une physique chez Parménide consisterait à séparer ses textes physiques de la « doxa des mortels », critique par la Déesse. Évidemment, cette possibilité suppose une critique d’une partie de la tradition doxographique, initiée par Aristote.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: As all the pre-Socratic, Parmenides became interested in the study of the phusis, and consider he as a philosopher phusikos is natural. L. Rossetti, in his cappolavoro in two volumes Un altro Parmenide (Diogene Multimedia, Bologne, 2017), studied exhaustively the question. However, the perspective from which Rossetti faces the problem, not solve two major obstacles: the place of the “physical” texts in the so- called “doxa of mortals”, and the negative character that it has to Parmenides. Dependent on the arbitrary division of the poem in two sections, proposed in 1795 by G.G. Fülleborn, “physical” texts of Parmenides would thus correspond to a “deceiver speech of words” , which begins in verse 8.51 and ends in the Br. 19, speech that would diminish the positive character that physics has for Parmenides. The only way to claim the existence of a “Parmenides phusikos” consists of take off the fragments “physical” of those in which the goddess exposes “the opinions of mortals”, which criticizes. Obviously, this hypothesis implies a critical review of the doxographical tradition, that begins with Aristotle.
  • Translation of Diogenes Laërtius’ Vitae Philosophorum, Book IV (on the Academics) Artigos

    Brito, Rodrigo Pinto de; Dinucci, Aldo Lopes

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Tradução do quarto livro de Vidas, de Diógenes Laércio, tratando dos pensadores da Academia após Platão.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Translation of Diogenes Laërtius’ Lives, book 4, dealing with the Academic thinkers after Plato.
  • Against the Grammarians by Sextus Empiricus: annotated translation, part three (M 1. 169-247) Artigos

    Prezotto, Joseane Mara

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Resumo: Tradução anotada de parte (M 1. 169-247) do tratado Contra os Gramáticos do filósofo cético pirrônico Sexto Empírico (séc. II d.C.). Nesta passagem, o filósofo dá continuidade ao ataque contra a parte técnica da gramática, abordando o tratamento gramatical da ortografia, helenismo e etimologia e advogando, contra o critério técnico dos gramáticos, pelo critério prático do uso comum. O espaço que ele destina a argumentos que, muito provavelmente, são de origem epicurista, e não cética, é considerável. Isso poderia sugerir que sua fonte principal fosse uma obra de ataque à doutrina gramatical, nos moldes daquelas ligadas à tradição epicurista de polêmica contra disciplinas que teriam a pretensão de se antepor à filosofia. As notas da tradução buscam esclarecer questões subjacentes ao argumento sextiano, justificar nossas escolhas tradutórias e disponibilizar informações que viabilizem traçar paralelos entre a passagem em questão e outras obras do autor ou do período.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: Annotated partial translation (M 1. 169-247) of the treatise Against the Grammarians written by the Pyrrhonian skeptical philosopher Sextus Empiricus (II C.E.). In this section, the philosopher continues his attack against the technical part of grammar, addressing the grammatical treatment of orthography, Hellenism and etymology and advocating, against the technical criterion of the grammarians, the practical criterion of common use. The space he assigns to arguments that are most likely to be of epicurean origin rather than skeptical is considerable. This might suggest that its main source was a work of attack on grammatical doctrine, along the lines of the epicurean tradition of polemic against disciplines that would claim to be at the forefront of philosophy. The notes of the translation seek to clarify questions underlying the Sextian argument, to justify our translational choices, and to provide information that makes it possible to draw parallels between the passage in question and other works by the author or the period.
  • Plato and the (Timely) Untimeliness of Normative Utopia. A Profile of Mario Vegetti Notas

    Ferrari, Franco
  • N. S. Galgano, I Precetti della Dea: Non Essere e Contraddizione in Parmenide di Elea (2017, Diogene Multimedia) Resenhas

    Privitello, Lucio Angelo
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