Diretivas antecipadas de vontade: benefícios, obstáculos e limites

The advance directive: benefits, obstacles and limits

Directivas anticipadas de voluntad: beneficios, obstáculos y limitaciones

Maria Inês Nunes Márcio Fabri dos Anjos Sobre os autores

Resumos

O conceito de diretivas antecipadas de vontade emergiu em resposta ao avanço tecnológico e ao tratamento médico agressivo empregados em situações ambíguas, como no caso de um prognóstico ruim. O cerne do presente documento é o exercício da autonomia do paciente. A Resolução 1.995/12 do Conselho Federal de Medicina estabelece os critérios para que qualquer pessoa - desde que maior de idade e plenamente consciente - possa definir junto ao seu médico quais os limites terapêuticos na fase final de sua vida. O documento é facultativo e poderá ser elaborado em qualquer momento da vida e da mesma maneira modificado ou revogado a qualquer tempo. Este artigo tem por propósito discorrer sobre seus benefícios, obstáculos e limites, considerando o vasto número de pesquisas realizadas sobre o tema e as experiências positivas e negativas de outros países no intuito de contribuir para a discussão de sua efetiva utilização no Brasil.

Diretivas antecipadas de vontade; Autonomia pessoal; Bioética


The concept of advance directives emerged in response to the technological progress and aggressive medical treatment being employed in ambiguous situations, as in the case of a bad prognosis. The core of this document is the exercise of the patients´ autonomy. The Federal Council of Medicine´s 1.995/2012 Resolution establishes the criteria for anyone - provided that the patient is legally old enough and fully aware - to be able to choose together with his/her doctor the therapeutic limits at the end of life. The document is optional and may be completed at any time in life and, in the same way it can be modified or cancelled at any time. The purpose of this article is to consider its benefits, obstacles and limits considering the vast amount of researches carried out on this theme and the positive and negative experiences from other countries in order to contribute to the discussion about its effective use in Brazil.

Advanced directives; Personal autonomy; Bioethics


El concepto de directivas anticipadas de voluntad surgió en respuesta al avance tecnológico y al tratamiento médico agresivo, utilizándoselo en situaciones ambiguas, como ante un pronóstico negativo. El núcleo de este documento consiste en el ejercicio de la autonomía del enfermo. La Resolución 1.995/2012 del Consejo Federal de Medicina establece los criterios para que cualquier persona - mayor de edad y plenamente consciente - pueda definir, junto con su médico, los límites terapéuticos en la fase final de su vida. El documento es opcional y puede llevarse a cabo en cualquier momento de la vida y la misma manera modificada o revocada en cualquier forma y tiempo. El propósito de este artículo es discutir los beneficios, obstáculos y las limitaciones considerando la gran cantidad de investigaciones realizada sobre el tema y las experiencias positivas y negativas de otros países, con el fin de aportar a la discusión sobre su utilización de manera efectiva en Brasil.

Directivas anticipadas; Autonomía personal; Bioética


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Datas de Publicação

  • Publicação nesta coleção
    19 Ago 2014
  • Data do Fascículo
    Ago 2014

Histórico

  • Aceito
    25 Jun 2014
  • Revisado
    08 Maio 2014
  • Recebido
    23 Fev 2014
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