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Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology, Volume: 73, Issue: 6, Published: 2023
  • Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia: present trends and future directions Editorial

    Amaral, Sara; Pawa, Amit
  • Opioid administration and rescue dose: exploring the effects of opioid combinations Editorial

    Kraychete, Durval C.; Schmidt, André P.; Souza, Anna Karla N.; Barros, Guilherme A.M. de
  • Supra-inguinal fascia iliaca block in older-old patients for hip fractures: a retrospective study Original Investigation

    Bali, Cagla; Ozmete, Ozlem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Pain management in hip fracture patients is of great importance for reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality. Multimodal techniques, including peripheral nerve blocks, are preferred for postoperative analgesia. Older-old hip fracture patients with high ASA scores are highly sensitive to the side effects of NSAIDs and opioids. Our aim was to investigate the effectiveness of the recently popularized Supra-Inguinal Fascia Iliaca Block (SIFIB) in this population. Methods: Forty-one ASA III-IV patients who underwent SIFIB + PCA (G-SIFIB) or PCA alone (Group Control: GC) after general anesthesia were evaluated retrospectively. In addition to 24-hour opioid consumption, Visual Analog Scale (VAS) scores, opioid-related side effects, block-related complications, and length of hospital stay were compared. Results: Twenty-two patients in G-SIFIB and 19 patients in GC were evaluated. The postoperative 24-hour opioid consumption was lower in G-SIFIB than in GC (p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant reduction in VAS scores at the postoperative 1st, 3rd, and 6th hours at rest (p < 0.001) and during movement (p < 0.001 for the 1st and 3rd hours, and p = 0.02 for the 6th hour) in G-SIFIB compared to GC. There was no difference in pain scores at the 12th and 24th hours postoperatively. While there was no difference between the groups in terms of other side effects, respiratory depression was significantly higher in GC than in G-SIFIB (p = 0.01). Conclusion: The SIFIB technique has a significant opioid-sparing effect and thus reduces opioid-related side effects in the first 24 hours after hip fracture surgery in older-old patients.
  • Efficacy of ultrasound-guided infiltration with levobupivacaine and triamcinolone for myofascial pain syndrome of the quadratus lumborum: a retrospective observational study Original Investigation

    Silva, Anabela Barreto; Malheiro, Nuno; Oliveira, Belinda; Pereira, Diamantino; Antunes, Filipe; Borges, Joana; Cunha, Ana Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction and objectives: Myofascial Pain Syndrome (MPS) of the Quadratus Lumborum muscle (QL) is a frequent cause of chronic low back pain. With this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided infiltration with 0.25% levobupivacaine and 40 mg triamcinolone for MPS of the QL. Methods: Observational and retrospective study of participants submitted to ultrasound-guided infiltration of the QL muscle from January 1, 2015 to June 31, 2019. Pain intensity was assessed using the five-point pain Numeric Rating Scale (NRS): pre-intervention, at 72 hours, 1 month, 3 months and 6 months post-intervention. Additional data collected were demographic characteristics, opioid consumption, and adverse effects. Results: We assessed 90 participants with mean age of 55.2 years. Sixty-eight percent of participants were female. Compared to the pre-intervention assessment, there was an improvement in pain at 72 hours (Mean Difference [MD = 3.085]; 95% CI: 2.200-3.970, p < 0.05), at the 1st month (MD = 2.644; 95% CI: 1.667-3.621, p < 0.05), at the 3rdmonth (MD = 2.017; 95% CI: 0.202-2.729, p < 0.05) and at the 6th month (MD = 1.339; 95% CI 0.378-2.300, p < 0.05), post-intervention. No statistically significant differences in opioid consumption were observed. No adverse effects associated with the technique were reported. Conclusions: Ultrasound-guided infiltration of the QL muscle is a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of pain in the QL MPS within 6 months post-intervention.
  • Effectiveness and safety of ultra-low-dose spinal anesthesia versus perineal blocks in hemorroidectomy and anal fistula surgery: a randomized controlled trial Original Investigation

    Santos, Rafael Peterson Soares; Oliveira-Filho, Alfredo Dias de; Lins Neto, Manoel Álvaro de Freitas; Lins, Lucas Correia; Barbosa, Fabiano Timbó; Neves, Sabrina Joany Felizardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Ultra-low-dose Spinal Anesthesia (SA) is the practice of employing minimal doses of intrathecal agents so that only the roots that supply a specific area are anesthetized. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of ultra-low-dose spinal anesthesia with that of Perineal Blocks (PB). Methods: A two-arm, parallel, double-blind randomized controlled trial comparing two anesthetic techniques (SA and PB) for hemorrhoidectomy and anal fistula surgery was performed. The primary outcomes were postoperative pain, complementation and/or conversion of anesthesia, and hemodynamic changes. Results: Fifty-nine patients were included in the final analysis. The mean pain values were similar in the first 48 h in both groups (p > 0.05). The individuals allocated to the SA group did not need anesthetic complementation; however, those in the PB group required it considerably (SA group, 0% vs. PB group, 25%; p = 0.005). Hemodynamic changes were more pronounced after PB: during all surgical times, the PB group showed lower MAP values and higher HR values (p < 0.05). Postoperative urinary retention rates were similar between both groups (SA group 0% vs. PB group 3.1%, p = 0.354). Conclusion: SA and PB are similarly effective in pain control during the first 48 h after hemorrhoidec-tomy and anal fistula surgery. Although surgical time was shorter among patients in the PB group, the SA technique may be preferable as it avoids the need for additional anesthesia. Furthermore, the group that received perineal blocks was under sedation with a considerable dose of propofol.
  • Dexmedetomidine versus sufentanil as adjuvants to bupivacaine for brachial plexus block during upper extremity surgery: a randomized clinical trial Original Investigation

    Ghasemi, Ali; Chamanara, Mohsen; Paknejad, Babak; Yousefizoshk, Mojtaba; Hazrati, Ebrahim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Brachial plexus block (BPB) has been accepted as a reliable alternative for general anesthesia in upper limb surgeries. Adding adjuvant drugs like dexmedetomidine and sufentanil has been shown to have clinical and pharmacologic advantages. In this randomized parallel clinical trial, we aim to compare the effects of these two adjuvants for bupivacaine in BPB. Methods: In this double-blinded study, by using computer-assisted block randomization, 40 patients ranged from 20 to 65 years old and scheduled for elective upper limb surgeries were assigned to two equal study groups (n = 20), receiving 1 mL of 5 μg.mL-1 sufentanil (group S) or 1 mL of 100 μg.mL-1 dexmedetomidine (group D) in adjunction to 30 mL of 0.5% bupivacaine for supraclavicular BPB under the guidance of ultrasonography. Characteristics of local anesthesia and postoperative analgesia were evaluated (n = 40). Results: The duration of blocks significantly improved in group S (sensory: estimated median difference (EMD) [95%CI] = 100.0 [70.0~130.0], p < 0.001; motor: EMD [95%CI] = 120.0 [100.0~130.0], p < 0.001). Group S also had significantly longer postoperative analgesia and lower opioid consumption within 24 hours after the surgery (EMD [95%CI] = 4.0 [3.0~7.0], p < 0.001; EMD [95%CI] = -5.0 [-5.0~-5.0], p < 0.001; respectively). None of the patients showed adverse effects concerning vital signs, nausea, or vomiting. Conclusion: Our study showed that during ultrasound-guided supraclavicular BPB, sufentanil is a fairly better choice than dexmedetomidine as an adjuvant for bupivacaine and can provide preferable sensory and motor blocks. No significant side effects were seen in either of the study groups.
  • Perineural low dexamethasone dose as adjuvant in supraclavicular brachial plexus block for arteriovenous fistula creation in end stage renal disease: a randomized controlled trial Original Investigation

    Pande, Aparna; Sen, Indu Mohini; Gupta, Aakriti; Gupta, Ankur; Sharma, Ashish

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background and aims: Dexamethasone as adjunct to local anesthetic solution improves the quality of brachial plexus block (BPB). However, evidence for its efficacy at low doses (< 4 mg) is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the duration of analgesia attained with low dose dexamethasone as adjuvant to local anesthetic for creation of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) under BPB. Methods: Sixty-six patients scheduled for AVF creation were randomly allocated to receive either saline (control) or 2 mg dexamethasone, together with 0.5% ropivacaine and 0.2% lignocaine. The primary outcome was duration of analgesia, defined as time from performing the block to the first analgesic request. The secondary outcomes were time from injection to complete sensory block, time from injection to complete motor block, duration of motor block, postoperative analgesic consumption, and fistula patency at three months. Results: All the blocks were effective. In the group that received dexamethasone, the time to first analgesic request was significantly delayed (432 ± 43.8 minutes vs. 386.4 ± 40.2 minutes; p < 0.01). The onset of sensory and motor blockade occurred faster in dexamethasone group and overall analgesic consumption was also reduced. However, dexamethasone addition did not prolong the duration of motor block. There was no statistically significant difference in the patency of fistulas between the two groups at three months. (p = 0.34). Conclusion: Addition of low-dose perineural dexamethasone to local anesthetic solution significantly prolonged the duration of analgesia. Further trials are warranted to compare the adverse effects between dexamethasone doses of 4 mg and lower.
  • Safety and efficacy of target-controlled infusion versus intermittent bolus administration of propofol for sedation in colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial Original Investigation

    Cuiabano, Igor Seror; Garbin, Priscila de Miranda; Módolo, Norma Sueli Pinheiro; Nascimento Junior, Paulo do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Our objective was to compare the safety and efficacy of Target-Controlled Infusion (TCI) versus intermittent bolus of propofol for colonoscopy sedation. Methods: We conducted a randomized (1:1), single-blind, parallel-group superiority trial with fifty ASA I or II patients, both sexes, aged 18 to 65 years, Body Mass Index ≤ 30 kg.mr-2, undergoing colonoscopy, allocated to receive propofol by TCI (effect-site, 2 μg.mL-1 plus 0.5 μg.mL-1 until unconsciousness and as necessary for agitation) or intermittent bolus (1 mg.kg-1 plus 0.5 mg.kg-1 every 5 minutes or as above). The primary safety outcome was the need for airway maneuvers and the primary efficacy outcome was the need for interventions to adjust the level of sedation. Secondary outcomes included incidence of agitation, propofol dose, and time to recovery. Results: The median (IQR) number of airway maneuvers and interventions needed to adjust sedation was 0 (0-0) vs. 0 (0-0) (p = 0.239) and 1 (0-1) vs. 3 (1-4) (p < 0.001) in the TCI and control groups, respectively. Agitation was more common in the intermittent bolus group - 2 (0-2) vs. 1 (0-1), p < 0.001. The mean ± SD time to recovery was 4.9 ± 1.4 minutes in the TCI group vs. 2.3 ± 1.6 minutes in the control group (p < 0.001). The total propofol dose was higher in the TCI group (234 ± 46 μg.kg-1.min-1 vs. 195 ± 44 μg.kg-1.min-1 (p = 0.040)). Conclusions: During colonoscopy, TCI is as safe as intermittent bolus of propofol while reducing the incidence of agitation and the need for dose adjustments. However, intermittent bolus administration was associated with lower total propofol dose and earlier recovery.
  • Rider sitting position widens lumbar intervertebral distance: a prospective observational study Original Investigation

    Toker, Melike Korkmaz; Altiparmak, Basak; Uysal, Ali Ihsan; Turan, Mustafa; Demirbilek, Semra Gumus

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Reduced lumbar lordosis may make the process of identifying the intervertebral distance easier. The primary aim of this study was to measure the L3-L4 intervertebral space in the same patients undergoing spinal anesthesia in three different sitting positions, including the classic sitting position (CSP), hamstring stretch position (HSP) and rider sitting position (RSP). The secondary aim was to compare ultrasonographic measurements of the depth of the ligamentum flavum and intrathecal space in these three defined positions. Methods: This study is a single-blinded, prospective, randomized study. Ninety patients were included in final analysis. the patients were positioned on the operating table in three different positions to perform ultrasonographic measurements of the spinal canal. The intervertebral distance (IVD), the distance between the skin and the ligamentum flavum (DBSLF) and the intrathecal space (IS) were measured in the L3 -L4 intervertebral space in three different positions. Results: The RSP produced the largest mean distance between the spinous processes. The RSP yielded a significantly larger IVD than did the CSP (p < 0.001) and HSP (p < 0.001). The DBSP was larger in the CSP than in the HSP (p = 0.001). The DBSLF was significantly larger in the RSP than in the HSP (p = 0.009). Conclusions: Positioning the patient in the RSP significantly increased the intervertebral distance between L3 -L4 vertebrae compared to the CSP and HSP, suggesting easier performance of lumbar neuraxial block.
  • Association between telomere length in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes and the propofol dose in anesthesia induction: an observational study Original Investigation

    Xu, Yan; Xie, Chuang Bo; Yang, Jing; Xing, Yong Ji; Xia, Wei Ping; Liu, Yang; Xi, Wen Bin; Li, Zhao Ju; Tu, Wei Feng; Zhang, Jun Long

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction: Propofol is a widely used anesthetic and its dose is closely related to aging. Telomere length (TL) is a unique heritable trait, and emerging as a biomarker of aging, health and disease. Telomerase RNA component (TERC) plays an important role in maintaining TL. We proposed a hypothesis that propofol dose in general anesthesia can be predicted by measuring TL before operation, which greatly reduced the risk of anesthesia, especially the elderly. Methods: The association between the propofol dose in anesthesia induction and: TL in the DNA of peripheral blood leukocytes; body weight; sex; difference of the Bispectral Index (BIS) before and after anesthesia induction in patients was evaluated by multivariable linear regression analyses. The mutation at the 5’end or 3’end of TERC was detected. We recruited 100 patients of elective surgery. Results: We found that propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated significantly with TL (r = 0.78, p < 0.001), body weight (r = 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p= 0.84, p = 0.004), sex (r = 0.83, p = 0.004), and difference of BIS before and after anesthesia induction (r = 0.85, p = 0.029). By comparing the absolute values of standardized regression coefficients (0.58, 0.21, 0.19, and 0.12) of the four variables, it can be seen that TL contributes the most to the propofol dose in anesthesia induction. However, the mutation at the 5’ end or 3’ end of TERC was not found. Conclusions: These findings provide preliminary evidence that the propofol dose in anesthesia induction was clearly correlated with genetically determined TL. TL may be a promising predictor of the propofol dose, which is beneficial to improve the safety of anesthesia and reduce perioperative complications.
  • The effects of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) application on optic nerve sheath diameter in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a randomized trial Original Investigation

    Yanatma, Seher; Polat, Reyhan; Sayın, Mehmet Murat; Karabayırlı, Safinaz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can overcome respiratory changes that occur during pneumoperitoneum application in laparoscopic procedures, but it can also increase intracranial pressure. We investigated PEEP vs. no PEEP application on ultrasound measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (indirect measure of increased intracranial pressure) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: Eighty ASA I-II patients aged between 18 and 60 years scheduled for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included. The study was registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials (ACTRN12618000771257). Patients were randomly divided into either Group C (control, PEEP not applied), or Group P (PEEP applied at 10 cmH20). Optic nerve sheath diameter, hemodynamic, and respiratory parameters were recorded at six different time points. Ocular ultrasonography was used to measure optic nerve sheath diameter. Results: Peak pressure (PPeak) values were significantly higher in Group P after application of PEEP (p = 0.012). Mean respiratory rate was higher in Group C at all time points after application of pneumoperitoneum (p < 0.05). The mean values of optic nerve sheath diameters measured at all time points were similar between the groups (p > 0.05). The pulmonary dynamic compliance value was significantly higher in group P as long as PEEP was applied (p = 0.001). Conclusions: During laparoscopic cholecystectomy, application of 10 cmH2O PEEP did not induce a significant change in optic nerve sheath diameter (indirect indicator of intracranial pressure) compared to no PEEP application. It would appear that PEEP can be used safely to correct
  • Investigating preoperative myoglobin level as predictive factor for acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a retrospective observational study Original Investigation

    Lee, Kuen Su; Kim, Hyun Joong; Lee, Yoon Sook; Choi, Yoon Ji; Yoon, Sang Min; Kim, Woon Young; Kim, Jae Hwan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: Early identification of patients at risk of AKI after cardiac surgery is of critical importance for optimizing perioperative management and improving outcomes. This study aimed to identify the association between preoperative myoglobin levels and postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing valve surgery or coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: This retrospective study included 293 patients aged over 17 years who underwent valve surgery or CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass. We excluded 87 patients as they met the exclusion criteria. Therefore, 206 patients were included in the final analysis. The patients’ demographics as well as intraoperative and postoperative data were collected from electronic medical records. AKI was defined according to the Acute Kidney Injury Network classification system. Results: Of the 206 patients included in this study, 77 developed AKI. The patients who developed AKI were older, had a history of hypertension, underwent valve surgery with concomitant CABG, had lower preoperative hemoglobin levels, and experienced prolonged extracorporeal circulation (ECC) times. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that preoperative myoglobin levels and ECC time were correlated with the development of AKI. A higher preoperative myoglobin level was an independent risk factor for the development of cardiac surgery-associated AKI. Conclusions: Higher preoperative myoglobin levels may enable physicians to identify patients at risk of developing AKI and optimize management accordingly.
  • Trans-nasal sphenopalatine ganglion block for post-dural puncture headache management: a meta-analysis of randomized trials Review Article

    Dwivedi, Priyanka; Singh, Pratibha; Patel, Tejas K.; Bajpai, Vijeta; Kabi, Ankita; Singh, Yashpal; Sharma, Santosh; Kishore, Surekha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of trans-nasal Sphenopalatine Ganglion (SPG) block over other treatments for Post-Dural Puncture Headache (PDPH) management. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted on databases for Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing trans-nasal SPG blockade for the management of PDPH over other treatment modalities. All outcomes were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel method and random effect model. Analyses of all outcomes were performed as a subgroup based on the type of control interventions (conservative, intranasal lignocaine puffs, sham, and Greater Occipital Nerve [GON] block). The quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. Results: After screening 1748 relevant articles, 9 RCTs comparing SPG block with other interventions (6 conservative treatments, 1 sham, 1 GON and 1 intranasal lidocaine puff) were included in this meta-analysis. SPG block demonstrated superiority over conservative treatment in pain reduction at 30 min, 1 h, 2 h, 4 h after interventions and treatment failures with “very low” to “moderate” quality of evidence. The SPG block failed to demonstrate superiority over conservative treatment in pain reduction beyond 6 h, need for rescue treatment, and adverse events. SPG block demonstrated superiority over intranasal lignocaine puff in pain reduction at 30 min, 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h after interventions. SPG block did not show superiority or equivalence in all efficacy and safety outcomes as compared to sham and GON block. Conclusion: Very Low to moderate quality evidence suggests the superiority of SPG block over conservative treatment and lignocaine puff for short-term pain relief from PDPH. PROSPERO Registration: CRD42021291707.
  • Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) block versus fascia iliaca compartment (FI) block for hip surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Review Article

    Andrade, Priscila P.; Lombardi, Rafael A.; Marques, Isabela R.; Braga, Anna Carla Di Napoli Andrade e; Isaias, Beatrice R.S.; Heiser, Nicholas E.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Background: This study compares Fascia Iliaca compartment (FI) block and Pericapsular Nerve Group (PENG) block for hip surgery. Methods: Pubmed, Embase and Cochrane were systematically searched in April 2022. Inclusion criteria were: Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs); comparing PENG block versus FI block for hip surgery; patients over 18 years of age; and reporting outcomes immediately postoperative. We excluded studies with overlapped populations and without a head-to-head comparison of the PENG block vs. FI block. Mean-Difference (MD) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were pooled. Trial Sequential Analyses (TSA) were performed to assess inconsistency. Quality assessment and risk of bias were performed according to Cochrane recommendations. Results: Eight RCTs comprising 384 patients were included, of whom 196 (51%) underwent PENG block. After hip surgery, PENG block reduced static pain score at 12h post-surgery (MD = 0.61 mm; 95% CI 1.12 to -0.09; p = 0.02) and cumulative postoperative oral morphine consumption in the first 24h (MD = -6.93 mg; 95% CI -13.60 to -0.25; p = 0.04) compared with the FI group. However, no differences were found between the two techniques regarding dynamic and static pain scores at 6 h or 24 h post-surgery, or in the time to the first analgesic rescue after surgery. Conclusion: The findings suggest that PENG block reduced opioid consumption in the first 24 h after surgery and reduced pain scores at rest at 12 h post-surgery. Further research is needed to fully understand the effects of the PENG block and its potential benefits compared to FI block. PROSPERO registration: CRD42022339628 PROSPERO registration: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/display_record.php? RecordID=339628
  • Prevention of drug diversion and substance use disorders among anesthesiologists: a narrative review Review Article

    Fitzsimons, Michael G.; Sousa, Gabriel Soares de; Galstyan, Arpine; Quintão, Vinícius Caldeira; Simões, Cláudia Marquez

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Diversion of substances from the care of the intended patient is a significant problem in healthcare. Patients are harmed by the undertreatment of pain and suffering, transmission of disease, as well as the risk associated with impaired vigilance. Healthcare providers may be harmed by the physical and mental impact of their addictions. Healthcare systems are placed in jeopardy by the legal impact associated with illegal routes of drug release including sanction and financial liability and loss of public trust. Healthcare institutions have implemented many measures to reduce diversion from the perioperative area. These efforts include education, medical record surveillance, automated medication dispensing systems, urine drug testing, substance waste management systems, and drug diversion prevention teams. This narrative review evaluates strengths, weaknesses, and effectiveness of these systems and provides recommendations for leaders and care providers.
  • Quadratus Lumborum block as primary anesthetic technique for colostomy procedure: a case report Case Report

    Vieira, Inês; Pereira, Carla; Silva, Andreia; Almeida, Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract An elderly patient was admitted to the hospital due to an enterovesical fistula and a terminal colostomy was proposed. The patient had a high anesthetic risk and thus a quadratus lumborum block was chosen as the sole anesthetic technique. This block has been described to provide both somatic and visceral analgesia to the abdomen. In fact, it yielded good anesthetic conditions to perform the procedure and allowed the patient to be hemodynamically stable and comfortable throughout the case. The postoperative period was uneventful.
  • Anatomic barriers to paraspinal blocks: a cadaver case series Case Report

    Diwan, Sandeep; Sala-Blanch, Xavier; Nair, Abhijit

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The paraspinal space is intriguing in nature. There are several needle tip placements described in compact anatomical spaces. This has led to an incertitude regarding the appropriate anatomic locations for needle tip positions. Through our cadaver models we try to resolve the issues surrounding needle tip positions clarifying anatomical spaces and barriers. Further we propose an anatomical classification based on our findings in cadaveric open dissections and cross and sagittal sections.
  • Medication adherence in treating non-oncologic chronic pain: a problem to solve? Letter To The Editor

    Pedreira, Emilie de Magalhães; Mineiro, Viviane Borges Passos; Knop, Luciana Maria Pondé Bastianelli; Lins-Kusterer, Liliane Elze Falcão; Kraychete, Durval Campos
  • Genetic specification of malignant hyperthermia susceptibility is warranted for assessing fatigue, depression, and exercise intolerance Letter To The Editor

    Finsterer, Josef; Scorza, Fulvio A.; Scorza, Carla A.
  • Brazilian version of the Heidelberg Peri-Anaesthetic Questionnaire Letter To The Editor

    Bonfim, Luana Caroline Miantti Ghellere; Moritz, Nicole Morem Pilau; Buffon, Luiza Daux; Traebert, Eliane; Traebert, Jefferson
  • Tension pneumocephalus Clinical Images

    Khanna, Sandeep; Trombetta, Carlos; Ruetzler, Kurt; Argalious, Maged
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