This paper describes the composition and abundance of Drosophila species found in three forest remnants in the State of São Paulo. A well-standardized sampling procedure applied on four collecting trips to the same sites on four areas resulted on 944 samples. All males collected were identified by analyses of the genitalia, this being the only data set used. One hundred and twenty five species were detected amongst the 29,289 males analyzed. From them 57,6% could be identified as described species. Thirteen of the species found were absent from the previous species list for the state of São Paulo State, thus represent an increase of 13% on the number known. We argue that the majority of the 53 unidentified species are in fact undescribed. The sites studied did not differ significantly in the proportion of identified species. On average identified species were almost seven times more abundant than unidentified ones, and this difference was significant. Rarefaction curve analysis confirmed that the proportion of unidentified species increase with sample size, and did not reach a plateau with our data set. These results illustrate the large richness of Drosophila species in forest remnants of São Paulo State. It also indicates that about half of the species in this region remain to be described. This conclusion is particularly important when one considers that this is a well studied genus of Diptera, on the best sampled region of Brazil.
composition; diversity; richness; inventory; atlantic forest; neotropical region