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Ichthyofauna of the upper Juruena river on Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso, Brazil

Ictiofauna do alto rio Juruena na Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso, Brasil

Abstract

The fishes herein included were collected in four small streams of the upper rio Tapajós basin. Through fieldwork carried out in 2011, 2013 and 2014 during the low water season 1.728 specimens belonging to 22 species distributed in 11 families, and five orders were captured. Characidae was the most representative family both in number of species and specimens captured. The most abundant species were Hyphessobrycon melanostichos, H. hexastichos, and H. notidanos. Five species are recognized as new, and four as endemic to the upper rio Tapajós basin. This study represents the first fish inventory for the region and will provide valuable information for the conservation of the poorly known diversity of fishes of the Chapada dos Parecis, in the headwaters of the upper rio Tapajós basin.

Keywords
South America; Neotropical fish; Amazon; endemism

Resumo

Os peixes registrados aqui foram coletados em quatro igarapés da bacia do alto rio Tapajós. Expedições realizadas em 2011, 2013 e 2014 durante a estação de seca resultaram na coleta de 1.728 indivíduos pertencendo à 22 espécies distribuídas em 11 famílias e cinco ordens. Characidae foi a família com o maior número de espécies e espécimes capturados. As espécies com maior abundância foram Hyphessobrycon melanostichos, H. hexastichos e H. notidanos. Cinco espécies são reconhecidas como novas e quatro como endêmicas da bacia do alto rio Tapajós. Este trabalho representa o primeiro inventário sobre os peixes da região e fornecerá informações valiosas para a conservação da diversidade pouco conhecida de peixes da Chapada dos Parecis, nas cabeceiras da bacia do alto rio Tapajós.

Palavras-chave
América do Sul; peixe Neotropical; Amazônia; endemismo

Introduction

The Neotropical region, that includes the South and part of Central America, harbours the most diverse freshwater fish fauna in the world including 5.400 registered species (Reis 2013REIS, R.E. 2013. Conserving the freshwater fishes of South America. International Zoo Yearbook 47:65-70.), with estimates of a final number between 8.000 – 9.000 species (Schaefer 1998SCHAEFER, S.A. 1998. Conflict and resolution: impact of new taxa on phylogenetic studies of the Neotropical cascudinhos (Siluroidei: Loricariidae). In Phylogeny and classification of Neotropical fishes: 375-400. Malabarba, L. R., Reis, R. E., Vari, R. P., Lucena, Z. M. S. & Lucena, C. A. S. (Eds). Porto Alegre: Edipucrs., Reis et al. 2016REIS, R.E., ALBERT, J.S., DIDARIO, F., MINCARONE, M.M., PETRY, P. & ROCHA, L.A. 2016. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America. Journal of Fish Biology, in press.). Most of this ichthyofaunal diversity is located in the Amazon basin (Amazon, Orinoco and Guiana basins), in which 2.354 (Albert et al. 2011ALBERT, J., PETRY, P. & REIS, R.E. 2011. Major biogeographic and phylogenetic patterns. In Historical Biogeography of Neotropical Freshwater Fishes (J.S. Albert & R.E. Reis, org.). University of California Press, Berkeley, v.1, p.21-57.) or 2.411 (Reis et al. 2016REIS, R.E., ALBERT, J.S., DIDARIO, F., MINCARONE, M.M., PETRY, P. & ROCHA, L.A. 2016. Fish biodiversity and conservation in South America. Journal of Fish Biology, in press.) valid fish species are included. Most of the major tributaries of the Amazon river basin, still lack an inventory of their fish species, including the rio Tapajós.

Located in the Brazilian Shield the 1.784 km long, rio Tapajós is one of the largest tributaries of rio Amazonas (Costa 2007COSTA, W.J.E.M. 2007. Redescription of Rivulus luelingi and R. haraldsiolii (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), two valid killifish species from the Atlantic forest of the coastal plains of southern Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 18(2):175-182.). Its upper portion was until recently virtually unknown by ichthyologist (Britski & Lima 2008BRITSKI, H.A. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2008. A new species of Hemigrammus from the upper Rio Tapajós basin in Brazil (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia (3):565-559.). However, on the last decades, the collecting activity largely increased in the area, 97 of the 109 species presently known from the rio Tapajós basin having been described in the past 30 years. Currently, approximately 300 fishes are registered from the rio Tapajós basin (Ferreira et al. 1998FERREIRA, E.J.G., ZUANON, J.A.S. & SANTOS, G.M. 1998. Peixes comerciais do médio Amazonas: Região de Santarém, Pará. Divisão de Divulgação Técnico-Científica IBAMA, Brasília., Camargo et al. 2005CAMARGO, M., GIARIZZO, T. & CARVALHO Jr., J. 2005. Levantamento ecológico rápido da fauna ictica de tributários do Médio-baixo Tapajós e Curuá. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 1(2):213-231., Silva-Oliveira et al. 2016), but collecting efforts have mostly concentrated on the lower and middle portions of the basin, so that a catalogue of fishes of the upper rio Tapajós basin is still lacking. This contribution represents the first attempt to survey the fish species of the upper rio Tapajós basin and will certainly provide valuable information for future studies especially on conservation of the poorly known diversity of fishes of the rio Tapajós basin.

Material and Methods

Study Area

The rio Tapajós is formed by the confluence of the Teles Pires and Juruena rivers. The rio Juruena is about 1.240 Km long and is formed by several tributaries draining from the Chapada dos Parecis, an important watershed between three river systems (Madeira, Paraguai and Tapajós river basins) with moderate altitude (750 m), located at the western border of the Brazilian Shield. The rivers in Chapada dos Parecis, tributaries of the rio Juruena (i.e. Mutum, 12 de Outubro, Primavera, Camararezinho, Sacre, Formiga, Juína, Sangue), where samples were obtained for this study, are generally rectilinear, embedded and deep, characterized by turbulent waters and presence of many waterfalls. The studied area is about 500 to 510 meters a.s.l., and is located between Comodoro and Vilhena towns, near BR 364 (Figure 1) on the Chapada dos Parecis and are considered headwater streams entering the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin.

Figure 1
Map of the study area showing the four stations sampled (indicated by number) from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Station 1 (13°05'08"S, 59°53'32"W) - igarapé Mutum located near BR 364, 3-6 m wide and 0.5-2.5 m deep, preserved riparian vegetation, swift current, and sand, pebbles and dead leaves on the bottom (Fig. 2a).

Figure 2
Habitats of three stations sampled from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil. (a) igarapé Mutum; (b) headwaters of igarapé Mutum; (c) igarapé 12 de Outubro; (d) tributary of 12 de Outubro.

Station 2 (13°13'23"S, 59°54'42"W) - Headwater of igarapé Mutum in flooded portions of the stream due to damming caused by road, 6-8 m wide and 0.5-1.5 m deep, lentic environment, mud and decomposed organic matter on the bottom.

Station 3 (12°58'41"S, 60°00'34"W) - igarapé 12 de Outubro located near BR 364, 2-4 m wide and 0.5-2 m deep, few preserved riparian vegetation, swift current, and sand and dead leaves on the bottom (Fig. 2b).

Station 4 (12°57'50"S, 60°01'40"W) - Tributary of 12 de Outubro located near BR 364, 1-2 m wide and 0.5-1.7 m deep, preserved riparian vegetation, swift current, subaquatic vegetation and sand on the bottom (Fig. 2c).

Sampling

Samples were taken in November 2011, July and August 2013, September and November 2014 in four stations. Sampling took one hour long, and four were undertaken during the day and one during the nocturnal period. The following gears were used: trapezoid hand-nets with area of 1 m2 and internode distance of 0.1 cm, seine-nets 3-5 m wide, 1.5-2.5 m deep and internode distance of 1 cm and casting-nets 2.5 m deep, 22 m of circumference and internode distance of 1.5 cm. Photographs were taken in three stations that were was georeferenced with a GPS device. Abiotic data such as depth, water transparency and soil were observed in situ. No sazonal differences were detected in the abiotic data. Collection permit was granted by Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (registration number IBAMA 83/2012, May 2012-September 2013).

The sampled fishes were anesthetized with clove-oil (1ml/liter), put in plastic bags, fixed in 10% formalin for 48 hours and transferred to 70% ethanol. The material was then counted and identified to the lowest possible level using revisionary studies by Bertaco & Malabarba (2007)BERTACO, V.A. & MALABARBA, L.R. 2007. A new species of Hasemania from the Upper Rio Tapajós drainage, Brazil (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia 2007(2):350-354., Bertaco & Carvalho (2005 a, bBERTACO, V.A. & CARVALHO, T.P. 2005b. New characid fish, Hemigrammus skolioplatus (Characiformes: Characidae) from upper Rio Tapajós drainage, central Brazil. Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Série Zoologia 18(2):141-150.), Carvalho & Bertaco (2006)CARVALHO, T.P. & BERTACO, V.A. 2006. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(3):301-308., Costa (2001), Queiroz et al. (2013)QUEIROZ, L.J., TORRENTE-VILARA, G., OHARA, W.M., PIRES, T., ZUANON, J.A. & DORIA, C.R. 2013. Peixes do rio Madeira. 1 ed. v.3. Dialeto, São Paulo., Reis et al. (2005)REIS, R.E., LE BAIL, P.-Y. & MOL, J.H.A. 2005. New arrangement in the synonymy of Megalechis Reis, 1997 (Siluriformes: Callichthyidae). Copeia (3):678-682., and comparisons with identified material deposited in the fish collections whenever needed. The classification adopted follows Reis et al. (2003)REIS, R.E., KULLANDER, S.O. & FERRARIS, C.J. 2003. Check list of the freshwater fishes of South and Central America. Edipucrs, Porto Alegre., Wiley & Jonson (2010)WILEY, E.O. & JOHNSON, G.D. 2010. A teleost classification based on monophyletic groups. In Origin and Phylogenetic Relationships of Teleosts (J.S. Nelson, H.-P. Schultze & M.V.H. Wilson, eds.). Verlag Dr. Pfiel, Munich, p.123-182., and Van Der Laan et al. (2014)VAN DER LAAN R., ESCHMEYER, W.N., FRICKE, R. 2014. Family-group names of recent fishes. Zootaxa 3882:1–230., with genera listed in alphabetical order within each family. Voucher specimens were deposited in the fish collections of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP) and the Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Ictiologia (UFRO-I). Species and specimens were counted for each registered species with data organized in Table 1 and Figures 3 and 4.

Table 1
List of species registered in four stations from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Figure 3
Characiformes registered from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Figure 4
Cyprinodontiformes, Gymnotiformes Siluriformes, and Labriformes registered from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

Results

The species recorded from the upper rio Tapajós basin are listed in Table 1 and the corresponding photos are provided in Figures 3 and 4. A total of 1.728 specimens representing 22 species distributed in 11 families, and five orders were collected in four stations in both the igarapé Mutum and the igarapé 12 de Outubro. Characiformes (55%, 12 species) was the predominant group, followed by Siluriformes (28%, 6 species), Gymnotiformes (9%, 2 species), Labriformes (4%, 1 species) and Cyprinidontiformes (4%, 1 species) in number of recorded species (Figure 5).

Figure 5
Relative diversity of species among the five orders registered from the upper rio Tapajós basin.

The most representative families considering number of species collected were Characidae (seven species), and Heptapteridae (five species). In terms of captured specimens Characiformes prevailed again (1.498 specimens collected = 86%), followed by Siluriformes (129 specimens collected = 7%), Gymnotiformes and Labriformes (49 specimens each = 3%) and Cyprinodontiformes (3 specimens = 1%) (Figure 6). Characidae includes the three most abundant species recorded from the upper rio Tapajós basin: Hyphessobrycon melanostichos Carvalho & Bertaco, 2005, Hyphessobrycon hexastichos Bertaco & Carvalho, 2005, and Hasemania nambiquara Bertaco & Malabarba, 2007, with 610, 305 and 205 captured specimens respectively, representing 65% of the total captured specimens. On the other hand one single specimen of Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus and Pimelodella sp. were recorded. Moenkhausia sp. and Melanorivulus modestus (Costa, 2001) also presented low abundance, with two and three captured specimens, respectively.

Figure 6
Relative abundance of number of species and number of individuals registered in each sample station in the four stations sampled, upper rio Tapajós basin.

A total of 1.104 specimens belonging to 20 species were recorded from the igarapé Mutum (Stations 1 and 2). The fish fauna is composed by Characiformes (12 species, 913 specimens), Siluriformes (6 species, 118 specimens), Gymnotiformes (1 species, 40 specimens) and Labriformes (1 species, 33 specimens). No Cyprinodontiformes species was captured in the igarapé Mutum. The most representative families in number of species and specimens were Characidae (seven species), and Heptapteridae (five species). Characidae includes the three most abundant species registered in the igarapé Mutum, Hyphessobrycon hexastichos, Hasemania nambiquara, and Hyphessobrycon melanostichos, with 358, 205 and 189 captured specimens respectively.

Twenty species (90%) with 1.068 captured specimens (62%) were registered in the Station 1. A low number of species and specimens were registered in all the other three stations. The Station 2, the headwater of igarapé Mutum, was represented by eight species (38%) and 36 captured specimens (2%), the lowest values of captured species and specimens herein recorded. Stations 3 and 4 are located in the igarapé 12 de Outubro basin. A total of 624 specimens belonging to 11 species were collected. The fish fauna is composed by Characiformes (6 species, 585 specimens), Siluriformes (2 species, 11 specimens), Gymnotiformes (1 species, 9 specimens), Labriformes (1 species, 16 specimens) and Cyprinodontiformes (1 species, 3 specimens). The most representative family in number of species and specimens was Characidae, with four recorded species, including the two most abundant species registered in the igarapé 12 de Outubro basin: Hyphessobrycon melanostichos and H. notidanos, with 421 and 99 captured specimens respectively.

Nine captured species (43%) were identified as "sp.", including two Characiformes, five (all) Heptapteridae and two (all) Gymnotiformes. Three of the Heptapteridae species, and the two Gymnotiformes species were herein recognized as undescribed species, however more undescribed species herein registered could be recognized in the future with additional research. Moreover, Cetopsorhamdia sp.1, Cetopsorhamdia sp.2 (Heptapteridae), Brachyhypopomus sp.n. and Eigenmannia sp.n. (Gymnotiformes) are currently under taxonomic revisions and preliminary examination indicates that they could represent new species endemic for the rio Juruena (Bockmann pers. communication for Heptapteridae and Ohara. personal observation for Gymnotiformes). Other four species (19%) were tentatively identified indicating that more taxonomic studies on the neotropical ichthyofauna are needed.

No threatened species were found, however four endemic species to the upper rio Tapajós basin were recorded. Melanorivulus modestus, and H. nambiquara are only known from the igarapé Mutum and Hyphessobrycon notidanos is only known from the igarapé 12 de Outubro. Even though Hemigrammus skolioplatus is known from both the igarapé Mutum and the igarapé 12 de Outubro, it occurs only in a small restricted area.

Discussion

Available literature records about the ichthyofauna of the rio Tapajós basin are primarily concerned with the description of new species (Bertaco & Malabarba 2007BERTACO, V.A. & MALABARBA, L.R. 2007. A new species of Hasemania from the Upper Rio Tapajós drainage, Brazil (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia 2007(2):350-354., Bertaco & Carvalho 2005aBERTACO, V.A. & CARVALHO, T.P. 2005a. A new characid fish, Hyphessobrycon hexastichos (Characiformes: Characidae) from Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 3(3):439-443., bBERTACO, V.A. & CARVALHO, T.P. 2005b. New characid fish, Hemigrammus skolioplatus (Characiformes: Characidae) from upper Rio Tapajós drainage, central Brazil. Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Série Zoologia 18(2):141-150., Bertaco & Garutti 2007BERTACO, V.A. & GARUTTI, V. 2007. New Astyanax from the upper rio Tapajós drainage, central Brazil (Characiformes: Characidae). Neotropical Ichthyology 5(1):25-30., Birindelli et al. 2008BIRINDELLI, J.L.O., L.M. SOUSA & SABAJ-PEREZ, M.H. 2008. New species of thorny catfish, genus Leptodoras Boulenger (Siluriformes: Doradidae), from Tapajós and Xingu basins, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 6(3):465-480., Birindelli & Britski 2013BIRINDELLI, J.L.O. & BRITSKI, H.A. 2013. Two new species of Leporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from the Brazilian Amazon, and redescription of Leporinus striata Kner 1858. Journal of Fish Biology 83(5):1128-1160., Birindelli et al. 2013BIRINDELLI, J.L.O., BRITSKI, H.A. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2013. New species of Leporinus from the rio Tapajós basin, Brazil, and redescription of L. moralesi (Characiformes: Anostomidae). Copeia (2):238-247., Britski & Garavello 1980BRITSKI, H.A.& GARAVELLO, J.C. 1980. Sobre uma nova espécie de Leporinus da bacia amazônica (Pisces, Anostomidae) com considerações sobre L. striatus Kner, 1859 e espécies afins. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 33(15):253-262., 1993BRITSKI, H.A. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 1993. Descrição de duas espécies novas de Leporinus da bacia do Tapajós (Pisces, Characiformes). Comunicações do Museu de Ciências de PUCRS, Série Zoologia 6:29-40., 2005BRITSKI, H.A. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 2005. Uma nova espécie de Leporinus Agassiz,1829, da bacia Amazónica (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Anostomidae). Comunicações do Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Série Zoologia 18(2):75-83., 2007BRITSKI, H.A. & GARAVELLO, J.C. 2007. Description of two new sympatric species of the genus Hisonotus Eigenmann and Eigenmann, 1889, from upper Rio Tapajós, Mato Grosso state, Brazil (Pisces: Ostariophysi: Loricariidae). Brazilian Journal of Biology 67(3):413-420., Britski & Lima 2008BRITSKI, H.A. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2008. A new species of Hemigrammus from the upper Rio Tapajós basin in Brazil (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia (3):565-559., Caires & Figueiredo 2011CAIRES, R.A. & FIGUEIREDO, J.L. 2011. 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Prochilodus britskii, a new species of prochilodontid fish (Ostariophysi: Characiformes), from the rio Apiacá, rio Tapajós system, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 106(1):57-62, Carvalho & Datovo 2012CARVALHO, M. & DATOVO, A. 2012. A new species of cascudinho of the genus Hisonotus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae) from the upper Rio Tapajós basin, Brazil. Copeia (2):266-275., Campos-da-Paz 2002CAMPOS-DA-PAZ, R. 2002. Gymnotus diamantinensis, a new species of electric knifefish from upper rio Arinos basin, Brazil (Ostariophysi: Gymnotidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 13(2):185-192., Costa 1991COSTA, W.J.E.M. 1991. Redescrição do gênero Rivulus (Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), com notas sobre R. stellifer e R. compactus e a descrição de duas novas espécies do Brazil central. Revista Brasileira de Biologia 51(2):327-333., 1994COSTA, W.J.E.M. 1994. Description of two new species of the genus Moenkhausia (Characiformes: Characidae) from the central Brazil. Zoologischer Anzeiger 232(1-2):21-29., 2007COSTA, W.J.E.M. 2007. Redescription of Rivulus luelingi and R. haraldsiolii (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), two valid killifish species from the Atlantic forest of the coastal plains of southern Brazil. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 18(2):175-182., Dagosta & Pastana 2014DAGOSTA, F.C.P. & PASTANA, M.N.L. 2014. New species of Creagrutus Günther (Characiformes: Characidae) from rio Tapajós basin, Brazil, with comments on its phylogenetic position. Zootaxa 3765(6):571-582., Dagosta & Netto-Ferreira 2015DAGOSTA, F.C.P. & NETTO-FERREIRA, A.L 2015. New species of Bryconamericus Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Teles Pires, rio Tapajós basin, central Brazil. Zootaxa 3911(3):433-442., Dagosta et al. 2016DAGOSTA, F.C.P., MARINHO, M.M.F., CAMELIER, P. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2016. 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New species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from Rio Xingu and Rio Tapajós basins, Brazil, with comments on a putative case of polymorphic Batesian mimicry. Journal of Fish Biology 75(10):2615-2628., Zawadzki et al. 2015ZAWADZKI, C.H., OLIVEIRA, A.S., OLIVEIRA, R.R. & RAPP PY-DANIEL, L. 2015. Hypostomus melanephelis, a new armored catfish species from the rio Tapajós basin, Brazil (Teleostei: Loricariidae). Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 26(1):49-58.). However, a recent unpublished survey of the fishes from the lower and middle rio Teles Pires basin, recorded 355 species (Ohara & Lima pers. obs.). According to the authors, based on the available literature and the analyses of fish specimens deposited in museums at least 620 species may occur in the rio Tapajós basin, 12% of which are probably endemic.

A comparison of the species herein recorded and the fish assemblage from the lower portion of the rio Tapajós basin was performed based on the available literature (Ferreira et al. 1998FERREIRA, E.J.G., ZUANON, J.A.S. & SANTOS, G.M. 1998. Peixes comerciais do médio Amazonas: Região de Santarém, Pará. Divisão de Divulgação Técnico-Científica IBAMA, Brasília., Camargo et al. 2005CAMARGO, M., GIARIZZO, T. & CARVALHO Jr., J. 2005. Levantamento ecológico rápido da fauna ictica de tributários do Médio-baixo Tapajós e Curuá. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi 1(2):213-231., Silva-Oliveira et al. 2016) and no common species between two portions was observed. The headwater streams seem to harbor a unique species assemblage due to observed differences in abiotic factors such as temperature, light, hydrologic regime, water chemistry, substrate type, food resources and species pool influenced by small-scale differences in local conditions (Meyer et al. 2007MEYER, J.L., STRAYER, D.L., WALLACE, J.B., EGGERT, S.L., HELFMAN, G.S. & LEONARD, N.E. 2007. The contribution of headwater streams to biodiversity in river networks. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(1):86-103.).

A high number of species and specimens were captured in the igarapé Mutum, with the highest values obtained for the survey undertaken in Station 1, and the lowest values in Station 2. On the other hand, a low number of species and specimens were captured in the igarapé 12 de Outubro. Differences on environmental heterogeneity and presence of riparian vegetation were herein registered, however, the number of species and specimens captured should not be compared within this survey due to the non-standardization of the sampling effort in the field trips.

Four endemic species to the upper rio Tapajós basin were herein registered, including Hasemania nambiquara, Hemigrammus skolioplatus Bertaco & Carvalho, 2005, Hyphessobrycon notidanos and Melanorivulus modestus. Although, Hyphessobrycon hexastichos and H. melanostichos have distribution range apparently restricted to the Chapada dos Parecis, they also were collected in the upper rio Guaporé (13º14'43"S 59º54'26"W), rio Madeira basin and in the igarapé Piracolina (12º49'58"S 60º06'34"W), upper rio Machado, rio Madeira basin (cf. Ohara & Lima 2015, Ohara & Marinho 2016OHARA, W.M. & MARINHO, M.M.F. 2016. A new species of Moenkhausia Eigenmann (Characiformes: Characidae) from the upper rio Machado at Chapada dos Parecis, rio Madeira basin, Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 14(1):e150041., Ohara et al. 2016), respectively. So Hyphessobrycon hexastichos and H. melanostichos are not herein considered as endemic species for the upper rio Tapajós. According to Ohara & Lima (2015)OHARA, W.M. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2015. Hyphessobrycon lucenorum (Characiformes: Characidae), a new species from the rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Zootaxa 3972(4):562-572. a large number of fish species from the upper rio Juruena are found exclusively in the headwater rivers of the Chapada dos Parecis, which suggests that the area has apparently an endemic ichthyofauna that differs from rest of the rio Tapajós basin, including the rio Teles Pires.

Additionally, as stated by Meyer et al. (2007)MEYER, J.L., STRAYER, D.L., WALLACE, J.B., EGGERT, S.L., HELFMAN, G.S. & LEONARD, N.E. 2007. The contribution of headwater streams to biodiversity in river networks. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 43(1):86-103. fish fauna from headwater streams can make a significant contribution to regional fish diversity. The presence of a high number of endemic fish and at least five new species in a small portion of the upper rio Juruena indicates it as a hotspot area for fish diversity, and as such as having potential priority for conservation measures (Carvalho & Bertaco 2006CARVALHO, T.P. & BERTACO, V.A. 2006. Two new species of Hyphessobrycon (Teleostei: Characidae) from upper rio Tapajós basin on Chapada dos Parecis, central Brazil. Neotropical Ichthyology 4(3):301-308., Britski & Lima 2008BRITSKI, H.A. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2008. A new species of Hemigrammus from the upper Rio Tapajós basin in Brazil (Teleostei: Characiformes: Characidae). Copeia (3):565-559., Ohara & Lima 2015OHARA, W.M. & LIMA, F.C.T. 2015. Hyphessobrycon lucenorum (Characiformes: Characidae), a new species from the rio Madeira basin, Rondônia State, Brazil. Zootaxa 3972(4):562-572.).

Acknowledgements

This work is part of the project "Monitoramento e Conservação da Ictiofauna do rio Madeira", a partnership involving the Universidade Federal de Rondônia, Instituto de Estudos e Pesquisas do Agronegócio e Organizações Sustentáveis and Santo Antônio Energia (2009-2012). We thank the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo for financial support of thematic project "South America Characiformes Inventory" (grant # 11/50282-7), Naércio Menezes and Murilo Pastana (MZUSP) for their valuable suggestions on the manuscript. The authors are deeply grateful Bruno S. Barros (Naturae), Diogo Hungria (GIA), Fabiola Vieira, Ariana Cella-Ribeiro (UNIR), Fernando Dagosta (MZUSP) and Cintia Lucas (FSL) for help and assistance during the field work, and to Osvaldo Oyakawa, Michel Gianeti (MZUSP), Mariluce Messias, Ângela Araujo and Maria Cunha (UFRO) for curatorial assistance and loan of specimens. Manoela Marinho (MZUSP) for Fig. 1 and Bruno Barros for images (Pimelodella sp., Moenkhausia sp., and Phenacorhamdia sp.). Thanks are also due to the editor and both anonymous reviewers. WMO is supported by FAPESP (Process 2013/22473-8) and ML was funded by FAPESP (Process 2011/06830-0).

  • Author Contributions

    Substantial contribution in the concept and design of the study: WMO
  • Contribution to data collection: WMO
  • Contribution to data analysis and interpretation: ML
  • Contribution to manuscript preparation: WMO; ML
  • Contribution to critical revision, adding intelectual content: WMO; ML

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2016

History

  • Received
    28 June 2016
  • Reviewed
    25 Aug 2016
  • Accepted
    28 Sept 2016
Instituto Virtual da Biodiversidade | BIOTA - FAPESP Departamento de Biologia Vegetal - Instituto de Biologia, UNICAMP CP 6109, 13083-970 - Campinas/SP, Tel.: (+55 19) 3521-6166, Fax: (+55 19) 3521-6168 - Campinas - SP - Brazil
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