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Evaluation of the agronomic and technologic characteristics of the wheat cultivars: IAC 120 (Curumi), IAC 286 (Takaoka) and IAC 289 (Marruá) in the State of São Paulo, Brazil

The wheat cultivars IAC 120 (Curumi), IAC 286 (Takaoka) and IAC 289 (Marruá) were evaluated in relation to (1) grain yield; (2) reactions to the causal agents of leaf and stem rusts (under field and greenhouse conditions); and (3) reactions to the causal agent of leaf spot. The experiments were performed in limed and acid soils, in upland and under sprinkler irrigation, in different regions of the State of São Paulo, during the period 1988-92. Using nutrient solutions in the laboratory, these cultivars were also studied for iron, aluminium and manganese tolerances. Physic and bread quality tests were made with the flours of these cultivars. IAC 120 produced 19% and 14% more than BH 1146 and IAC 24 used as controls, in upland conditions. The cultivars IAC 289 in that same condition showed a grain yield of 26% and 19% greater than the controls Anahuac and IAC 24. Under sprinkler irrigation, IAC 289 presented an increase in grain yield of 13% and 9% in relation to the same controls, respectively. IAC 286 exhibited a superior grain yield of 12% and 15% under sprinkler irrigation as compared to the controls Anahuac and IAC 24, respectively. Under greenhouse conditions the cultivars IAC 120 was susceptible to the races G11, G19, G20 and G21 of the causal agent of the stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) and the cultivars IAC 286 to the races G11 and G17. 'BH 1146' was sensitive and 'IAC 289' and 'Anahuac' presented resistance to all tested races. The reactions to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita) races indicated that the cultivars IAC 120, IAC 286, IAC 289, BH 1146 and Anahuac were susceptible under greenhouse conditions. These results were confirmed under field conditions. All studied cultivars were susceptible to the causal agent of leaf spots with the exception of IAC 120 which showed more resistance than the others. IAC 120 was tolerant to Al3+ and Mn2+ and sensitive to Fe2+; IAC 286 was tolerant to high levels of Al3+ and sensitive to Mn2+ and Fe2+ and IAC 289 was tolerant to Fe2+ and Mn2+ and sensitive to Al3+ toxicity. Considering the bread characteristics trials the new cultivars showed a satisfactory quality. IAC 120 produced flour with a medium to strong gluten and IAC 286 and IAC 289 gave flours with a medium gluten.

panificação, características; wheat; wheat; disease resistance; bread characteristics

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