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Bragantia, Volume: 12, Issue: 1-3, Published: 1952
  • Espaçamento da batata doce em São Paulo

    Camargo, A. Pais de
  • Variedades agrícolas de trigo (Triticum aestivum L.): caracterização botânica de algumas variedades em experimentação em São Paulo

    Dedecca, D. M.; Púrchio, M. J.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Numerosas variedades de trigo têm sido introduzidas e estudadas no Instituto Agronômico, a fim de serem selecionadas as mais adaptadas às condições de São Paulo. Estudos morfológicos detalhados foram feitos relativos a 27 variedades que melhor se comportaram, para identificá-las do ponto de vista botânico. Para a realização dêsse trabalho, elaborou-se um quadro de caracteres a serem observados, relativos ao ciclo de vida das variedades e de seus principais caracteres morfológicos. As 27 variedades comerciais estudadas puderam ser classificadas entre 10 das 16 variedades botânicas descritas para a espécie Triticum æstivum L., a saber : ferrugineum, 2 variedades ; erythroleucon, 3 ; erythrospermum, 5; græcum, 5 ; Delfii, 1; velutinum, 1; leucospermum, 1; alborvhrum, 3; lutescens, 1 e albidum, 5 variedades.

    Abstract in English:

    Numerous wheat varieties have been yearly introduced in the State of São Paulo by the Division of Genetics of the Instituto Agronomico of Campinas. Among these, twenty-seven varieties have shown, after 3 years' observation, to be the most adapted to the soil and climate conditions of the State of São Paulo. The present paper deals with the botanical study of these 27 varieties in order to determine whether they are distinct among themselves, or whether two or more of these varieties presenting different introduction dates, names, and origin, actually belong to the same variety. In developing this project the authors based their observations upon the scheme of characteristics previously utilized by Horovitz and Clark & Bayles. An artificial key for classification is also proposed, in which the varieties are arranged according to the criteria already employed by Percival. It was verified that the 27 commercial varieties herein described belong to 10 of the known botanical varieties of Triticum sestivum L.
  • Produção de cidra de maçã

    Veiga, Ari de Arruda

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Diversos ensaios preliminares de vinificação do suco de maçã da variedade Ohio Beauty, cultivada em Valinhos, no Estado de São Paulo, demonstraram a viabilidade de se industrializar essa fruta e de serem obtidos principalmente diversos tipos de cidra. Trabalhando com sucos dessa variedade ácida, com um pH 2,70 em média, foram conseguidos bons tipos de cidra, que acusaram finalmente um pH = 3,60 em média. Constatou-se preferência na esterilização do suco pelo aquecimento a 65-67°C, e resfriamento a 30-35°C, antes da fermentação. Tanto a fermentação à baixa temperatura, 10-16°C, como a fermentação à temperatura ambiente, 23-28°C, deram bons resultados. O emprêgo de fermentos selecionados mostrou-se favorável à vinificação.

    Abstract in English:

    Preliminary experiments are described on cider preparation, using the red skin Ohio Beauty apple variety cultivated at Valinhos, State of São Paulo. Starting with apple juice with a pH of 2.70, several cider types were obtained with an average pH of 3.60. Juice sterilization at temperatures of 65-67°C and subsequent lowering of temperature to 30-35°C before fermentation gave the best results. Temperature of 10-16°C as well as temperatures of 23-28°C during fermentation were used with success. Yeast strains selected for grape juice fermentation gave good results for fermentation of the apple juice here studied.
  • Observações sôbre a resistência de algumas variedades de soja ao nematóide das galhas

    Silva, J. Gomes da; Lordello, Luís Gonzaga E.; Miyasaka, Shiro

    Abstract in English:

    Soybean varieties cultivated at present in Brazil (Abura and Rio Grande), as well as some other promissing strains (455, Chosen, Georgian, Pereira Barreto, Arksoy, Acadian, etc.) have shown severe attacks by the rootknot nematodes. The study of the parasite showed that two forms are present, attacking the soybean roots, both being closely related to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949. Variety N 46-2652, considered to be resistent in the Southern part of the United States, proved to be susceptible to the mentioned nematodes, according to results of two pot test, discussed in this paper. Palmeto, La 41-1219, N 45-3799 and Otootan varieties were considered resistent to these nematodes, judged by the results of one field trial here reported. The resistence of varieties Palmeto and La 41-1219 was also confirmed by two pot experiments in which artificial infestation by nematodes was produced.
  • Análise de uma experiência sôbre variedades de soja

    Arruda, H. Vaz de

    Abstract in English:

    This paper describes the statistical analysis of an experiment with 22 soybean varieties, carried out at the Campinas Central Experimental Station, in order to test their resistance to root knot nematodes. The same check variety (Abura) was planted in each plot in order to estimate the infestation of the soil by nematodes. Subjective scores have been ascribed to each plot and to the check variety from 0 to 5, a score 5 to the varieties with highest incidence of nematodes. Two observations were made at intervals of 60 and 90 days after germination. The averages of these scores were used for the statistical analysis. Considering y as the variety score and x as the check variety score, it was possible by means of covariance analysis to eliminate from the experimental data the variation correlated with the variation of the check variety. With this analysis, the error variance was reduced by 13%.
  • Desbrotamento de tubérculos-semente de batatinha

    Boock, O. J.

    Abstract in English:

    Three preliminary plot experiments and eight field experiments with Irish potato seed tubers were anahsed in order to find out the effect of desprouting prior to planting upon the whole production, percentage of failures and of large tubers (more than 80 grams). The following conclusions can be drawn: a) seed tubers in which the sprouts were left gave higher yields, a smaller percentage of failures and greater percentage of large tubers ; b) when desprouted only once, it was noticed that yield was smaller but not significantly ; the number of large tubers was smaller and the percentage of failures was a little higher ; c) when the tubers were desprouted twice it was less favorable than a single removal of the sprouts ; the tuber yield and the number of large tubers were smaller and the percentage of failures was still higher ; d) when the sprouts were removed three times the yield was still lower; the percentage of failures was very high but the quantity of large sized tubers, as compared with the number when desprouted twice, did not change. The tubers desprouted three months after the begining of sprouting, gave the poorest results particularly when it was done more than once.
  • Novas observações sôbre o dimorfismo dos ramos em Coffea arabica L.

    Carvalho, A.; Antunes Filho, H.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Numerosos exemplos de enxertia e estaquia têm mostrado que as gemas dos ramos laterais (plagiotrópicos) do café são diferenciadas de modo que, ao se desenvolverem, não possuem a capacidade de dar ramos ponteiros (ortotrópicos). São descritos dois casos independentes em que se formaram ramos ortotrópicos a partir de ramos plagiotrópicos, indicando que a perda de capacidade do ramo plagiotrópico, de produzir gemas de ramos ortotrópicos, não é total. Um outro exemplo é descrito de ramos ortotrópicos que, pelas observações até agora realizadas, parecem ter se transformado em plagiotrópicos.

    Abstract in English:

    Vegetative propagation of coffee plant by means of graft or cuttings has frequently shown that the bud which develops into plagiotropic branches is so differentiated that it looses the capacity to produce upright growing branches (orthotrõpic). Two independent cases found by A. J. T. Mendes and J. E. T. Mendes are described in this paper, of a plagiotropic branch from which an oithotropic branch has developed, indicating that in very rare cases the differentation of the plagiotropic branch is not so complete. Another case is also described of an orthotropic branch that up to the present time sems to have changed into a plagiotropic one.
  • Contribuição ao conhecimento do "bicho bôlo", praga da batatinha

    Boock, O. J.; Lordello, Luís Gonzaga E.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Os tubérculos de batatinha provenientes de culturas feitas em terras marginais ao rio Paraíba, ricas em matéria orgânica, vêm sendo corroídos pelas larvas de um coleóptero denominadas "bicho bôlo", inutilizando grande parte da produção. Foi identificado como pertencente à família Seara-bseidae - Dyscinetus planatus (Burm., 1847) -. Constatações feitas pela Secção de Raízes e Tubérculos do Instituto Agronômico, em experiências de variedades, revelaram, em alguns casos, até 44% de ataque, como, por exemplo, o ocorrido em julho de 1951, na variedade "Krasava". Larvas coligidas em São José dos Campos, foram trazidas para o laboratório, juntamente com o solo da região, continuando a se nutrir e sofrendo metamorfose, Estas, de hábitos lucífugos, medem, quando adultas, cêrca de 35 mm de comprimento, e a largura ao meio do corpo, oscila ao redor de 9 mm, apresentando-se quase sempre recurvadas em forma de U. A pupa mede 21 mm de comprimento e, sob as condições de laboratório, o período pupal foi de 20 e 24 dias, Como inimigo natural, foi observado um fungo imperfeito, cuja identificação não foi ainda possível obter, chegando a destruir, em laboratório, mais de 90% dos lotes de larvas, atacando, também, as pupas e os adultos. Constatou-se ainda, em adultos mortos, a presença de grande número de ácaros, de espécie ainda não determinada. Resultados preliminares, de combate ao ''bicho bôlo" com "Gesarol .P", em doses baixas - 1.400, 2.150 e 2.800 gramas por hectare - não influíram sôbre a redução do ataque.

    Abstract in English:

    Tubers of Irish potato Solanum tuberosum L. - harvested in soil rich in organic matter along the Paraiba river in the State of São Paulo, are severely damaged by a Coleopterus larva - Scarabxidas - Dyscinetus planatus (Burm., 1847), known by the local name of "bicho bôlo". Potato tubers from eight commercial varieties harvested in trials carried out in the Taubaté region were examined in order to verify the extent of damage caused by the "bicho bôlo" larvae. It was verified that all varieties were susceptible. The percentage of damaged tubers was variable in two years of observations ranging from 3 to 14% in 1946 and from 20 to 44% in 1951. Data are presented about the biology of the insect, its occurrence in the State of São Paulo and its natural enemiee. It was verified that one particular fungus, not yet identified, was a potent natural enemy of the "bicho bolo" larvae. Preliminary results of one experiment are presented on the control of the pest by the use of D.D.T. in the soil at several concentrations.
  • Mutação somática em Citrus limon

    Toledo, Ibrain Dias de
  • Influência do florescimento e frutificação sôbre a produção de tubérculos de batatinha

    Boock, O. J.
  • Fermentação da cana de açúcar: Influência da estirpe de fermento sôbre o rendimento alcoólico

    Teixeira, Ciro G.; Salati, Anesíades
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