IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4: new Brazilian peanut cultivars with the high oleic trait

Abstract

IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4 peanut cultivars are new releases of Instituto Agronômico (IAC), Campinas, SP. These cultivars were developed to attend the demand of the Brazilian peanut business for high oleic runner cultivars, whose cycle can be better adjusted to the areas of sugarcane renewal than other runner cultivars.

Arachis hypogaea L.; high oleic cultivars


CULTIVAR RELEASE

IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4: new Brazilian peanut cultivars with the high oleic trait

Ignácio José de GodoyI, * * Email: ijgodoy@iac.sp.gov.br ; João Francisco dos SantosI; Cassia Regina Limonta de CarvalhoI; Marcos Donizeti MichelottoII; Denizart BolonheziII; Rogério Soares de FreitasII; Francisco Seiiti KasaiII; Marcelo TicelliII; Everton Luis FinotoII; Antonio Lúcio Melo MartinsII

IInstituto Agronômico (IAC)/Apta, Av. Barão de Itapura, 1481, CP 28, 13.020-902, Campinas, SP, Brazil

IIApta, Departamento de Descentralização doDesenvolvimento

ABSTRACT

IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4 peanut cultivars are new releases of Instituto Agronômico (IAC), Campinas, SP. These cultivars were developed to attend the demand of the Brazilian peanut business for high oleic runner cultivars, whose cycle can be better adjusted to the areas of sugarcane renewal than other runner cultivars.

Key words: Arachis hypogaea L., high oleic cultivars

INTRODUCTION

Brazil presently produces 336 thousand ton of unshelled peanuts (CONAB 2013). Around80% of the product comes from cropping areas of São Paulo, where the peanut iscultivated in rotation with sugarcane. This production is mostly used for humanconsumption (confectionery industry), 60% is destined to the Brazilian marketand 25% is exported.

In São Paulo, the crop is totally mechanized and, in this case, the predominant demandis for high yielding cultivars of runner growth habit. In areas of sugarcanerenewall, the cycle of these cultivars should not exceed 130 days, whichimposes limitations to the use of runner-type cultivars whose cycle are longer.

The high oleic characteristic is atractive to the present international peanut businessand is now becoming a demand from the Brazilian confectionery industry. Thetrait was discovered in the United States, as a natural and stable mutation(Norden et al. 1987), and has been incorporated in cultivars. Its main advantageis substantially extending the product's shelf life (Mozingo et al. 2004).

IAC 503 and IAC 505 were the first high oleic runner cultivars released in Brazil(Godoy et al. 2009). However, due to their long cycle duration, planting ofthose cultivars was limited in the sugarcane rotation system. To overcome thislimitation, IAC has released IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4 cultivars, which associategood yield performance within a shorter cropping time, and desirabletechnological traits.

Breeding method

IAC OL 3 and IAC OL4 are sister lines from the F6 generation of a crossbetween the breeding line IAC 886-46 and the accession 2562 of the IACgermplasm collection. Line 886-46 was selected from the original population ofRunner IAC 886 cultivar, and accession 2562was the source of the high oleictrait. The F2 population was planted in the field, and 500individual plants were selected for reproductive traits (pods and kernels).After harvesting, a seed sample of each plant (F2:3seeds) was takento the laboratory and analyzed for fatty acid profile by gas cromatography.From these analyses, 120 high oleic (homozigous recessive) progenies wereidentified.

The F3 generation was planted in the field in the following year for anothercycle of individual plant selection for agronomic traits, and the sameprocedure was repeated in F4 and F5 generations. In F6, 120 families were planted and harvested at 100 days, which provided ananticipated harvesting condition to identify and select plants that exhibitedpod/kernel maturity at this time. Around 1, 000 plants were individuallyselected (between and within families), and the pods were taken to thelaboratory. Each sample was unshelled, and the percentage of visually matureseeds (kernels) was determined. From this evaluation, 90 F6:7progenieswere selected and considered as breeding lines to be evaluated in fieldexperiments, in following years, for kernel maturity and size, and yieldperformance with anticipated (less than 130 days) harvesting. From theseexperiments, two lines were selected and were indicated to be registered as newcultivars, IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4.

Agronomic performance and technological quality

IAC OL 3and IAC OL 4were evaluated and compared with three known cultivars in eightexperiments in which harvesting was carried out at different dates, before 130days (Table 1). IAC OL 3 yield ranged from 3240 to 5823 kg ha-1, whereas IAC OL 4 yield ranged from 3408 to 6800 kgha-1, along theexperiments. IAC OL 3 out yielded IAC 503 and IAC 505, both high oleic and witha long cycle, as well as IAC 886, the traditional 130-day cycle (not higholeic) cultivar.

The percentage of mature kernels was determined and compared to IAC 503 (longcycle) and IAC 886 (Table 2) cultivars. The percentages of maturity in IAC OL 3and IAC OL 4 varied from 60.6 to 87.3, and from 56.1 to 86.6%, respectively, along the experiments. In IAC 886, the percentages varied from 53.1 to 84.9%, and in IAC 503, from 39.5 to 80.5%. These data confirm that the new cultivarsare well fit to the need of anticipated harvesting, especially in dates close, but inferior to 130 days, which satisfies the majority of the conditions alongthe peanut regions in the state of São Paulo.

Despite the relative proximity in field behavior (yield and maturity) between them, IACOL 3 and IAC OL 4 were both chosen to be released due to their diference inkernel size. This trait is important to the peanut industry and determines thepreference for the product according to the market to which it is destined.Cultivars with larger kernels may be interesting to some confectionerypurposes, while medium-sized kernels may be suitable to other products.

The new cultivars and two controls were characterized for weight of 200 kernels (Table 3). In seven experiments, the mean kernel weight of IAC OL 3 was similar tothat of large-seeded cultivar IAC 503, while IAC OL 4 presented weight similarto the known IAC 886 cultivar, whose kernel size is desirable in theinternational market.

Kernel size distribution of the new cultivars was characterized and compared with theIAC 886 cultivar using small laboratory screens of seed size classification (Table 4). Size distribution of IAC OL 4 was close to the standard IAC 886.Confirming the difference between the two new cultivars, IAC OL 3 produces morethan 20% of extra-large kernels, offering a product that can be atractive for alarge size peanut market. On the other hand, IAC OL 4 fits better the sizedistribution aiming exportation standards (medium-size runner peanuts).

The oilvariables of IAC OL 3 and IAC OL 4 cultivars, as compared to two known IACcultivars, are shown in Table 5. Oil content of the new cultivars is close tothat obtained for the runner-type cultivars IAC 503 and IAC 886. The high oleiccondition (around 80%) is also confirmed, as opposed to IAC 886, whose oleicacid content is a little above 50%. The high oleic and low linoleic conditionyields O/L ratios over 20/1, while in non-high oleic, such as IAC 886, thisratio stays around 2/1. Both new cultivars also show an additional advantageover the non-high oleic genotypes by having 4-5% more unsaturated fatty acids.

Seed production

IAC OL 3 was registered in RNC (Ministry of Agriculture, Brazil) in 2012; IAC OL 4 was registered in 2013. IAC is the creator and maintainer of the cultivars, and produces the genetic seeds.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The authors thank the following peanut companies for the financial support to IAC:CAP Agroindustrial, Cooperativa Camap, Cooperativa Copercana, Cooperativa Coplana, Dorí Alimentos, Mars Brasil, MIAC Máquinas Agrícolas, Santa Helena Alimentos, Sementes Esperança, Wilco do Brasil and Yoki Alimentos.

Received 2 September 2013

Accepted 9 February 2014

  • CONAB - Companhia Nacional deAbastecimento (2013) Acompanhamento da safra brasileira – grãos, Julho/2013.Available at <www.conab.gov.br>. Accessed in July 2013.
  • Godoy IJ, Carvalho CL, Martins ALM, Bolonhezi D, Freitas RS, Kasai FS, Ticelli M, Santos JF, Oliveira EJ andMorais LK (2009) IAC 503 e IAC 505: cultivares de amendoim com a característicaalto oleico. In Anais do 5ş congresso brasileiro demelhoramento de plantas SBMP, Guarapari (CD-ROM).
  • Mozingo RW, O'Keefe SF, Sanders TH andHendrix KW (2004) Improving shelf life of roasted and salted in shell peanutsusing high oleic fatty acid chemistry. Peanut Science 31: 40-45.
  • Norden AJ, Knauft DA and Young CT (1987)Variability in oil quality among peanut genotypes in the Florida breedingprogram. Peanut Science 14: 7-11.a

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    25 Nov 2014
  • Date of issue
    Oct 2014

History

  • Received
    02 Sept 2013
  • Accepted
    09 Feb 2014
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