The objective of this study was to describe and analyze factors associated with sexual violence (SV) among primary school students in Brazil. Data from the National School Health Survey (PeNSE in Portuguese) in 2015 was analyzed. The prevalence of total and disaggregated SV was calculated according to variables such as sociodemographic data, family context, mental health, risk behaviors, safety, and physical activity. The Odds Ratios of suffering SV were estimated according to variables that were statistically associated (p < 0.05) by means of multivariate analysis. The prevalence of SV was 4.0%. SV among school-age adolescents was associated with characteristics such as: age of < 13 years old; female; black skin color; working; being assaulted by family members; having insomnia; feeling lonely; not having friends; consuming tobacco / alcohol regularly; having tried drugs; having started sexual activity; feeling insecure on the way to or at school; and having suffered bullying. Studying in a private school, having a mother with higher education, living with parents, and supervision by relatives were protective factors to SV. It was possible to identify students’ vulnerabilities to SV, which can support researchers, professionals, and families in the prevention of this type of violence.
Adolescents; School health; Sexual violence; Health survey