Cognitive rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury

Reabilitação cognitiva após traumatismo crânio encefálico

Fabio Rios Freire Fernanda Coelho Juliana Rhein Lacerda Marcio Fernando da Silva Vanessa Tome Gonçalves Sergio Machado Bruna Velasques Pedro Ribeiro Luis Fernando Hindi Basile Arthur Maynart Pereira Oliveira Wellingson Silva Paiva Paulo Afonso Medeiros Kanda Renato Anghinah About the authors

Abstract

Annually, some 500,000 people are hospitalized with brain lesions acquired after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in Brazil. Between 75,000 and 100,000 individuals die within hours of the event and 70,000 to 90,000 evolve to irreversible loss of some neurological function. The principal causes of TBI include motor vehicle accidents (50%), falls (21%), assaults and robberies (12%) and accidents during leisure activities (10%). Within this context, cognitive rehabilitation, a clinical area encompassing interdisciplinary action aimed at recovery as well as compensation of cognitive functions altered as a result of cerebral injury, is extremely important for these individuals. Therefore, the aim of this study was to review the basic concepts related to TBI, including mechanisms of injury, severity levels of TBI, the most common findings in moderate and severe TBI survivors, and the most frequent cognitive impairments following TBI, and also to discuss the strategies used to handle patients post-TBI. The study results yielded relevant information on a structured cognitive rehabilitation service, representing an alternative for patients and families afflicted by TBI, enabling the generation of multiple research protocols.

Key words:
TBI; traumatic brain injury; cognitive rehabilitation

Resumo

Anualmente, 500 mil pessoas são hospitalizadas com lesão cerebral adquirida após traumatismo crânio-encefálico (TCE) no Brasil. Setenta e cinco a cem mil pessoas morrem poucas horas após o evento e 70 a 90 mil evoluem para perda irreversível de alguma função neurológica. Entre as principais causas de TCE estão os acidentes automobilísticos (50%), quedas (21%), assaltos e roubos (12%) e atividades de lazer (10%). Dentro deste contexto, a reabilitação cognitiva, uma área clínica de atuação interdisciplinar em busca de recuperação, tanto quanto a compensação de alterações das funções cognitivas resultantes de lesão cerebral, é extremamente importante para estes indivíduos. Portanto, neste estudo, foram revisados os conceitos básicos relacionados ao TCE, tais como os mecanismos de lesão, os níveis graves de TCE, os achados mais comuns em sobreviventes de TCE moderado e grave e as deficiências cognitivas mais comuns após TCE e discutidas as estratégias utilizadas para lidar com pacientes pós-TCE. Como resultado, nosso estudo irá fornecer informações relevantes relacionadas com um serviço de reabilitação cognitiva estruturada e, certamente, irá oferecer uma alternativa para pacientes e famílias vítimas de TCE e, portanto, gerar múltiplos protocolos de pesquisa.

Palavras-chave:
TCE; traumatismo crânio-encefálico; reabilitação cognitiva

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    Jan-Mar 2011

History

  • Received
    17 Dec 2010
  • Accepted
    17 Feb 2011
Academia Brasileira de Neurologia, Departamento de Neurologia Cognitiva e Envelhecimento R. Vergueiro, 1353 sl.1404 - Ed. Top Towers Offices, Torre Norte, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, CEP 04101-000, Tel.: +55 11 5084-9463 | +55 11 5083-3876 - São Paulo - SP - Brazil
E-mail: revistadementia@abneuro.org.br | demneuropsy@uol.com.br
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