Abstract in English:The Angelman syndrome (AS) (developmental delay, mental retardation, speech impairment, ataxia, outbursts of laughter, seizures) can result either from a 15q11-q13 deletion, or from paternal uniparental disomy (UPD), imprinting, or UBE3A mutations. We describe here the phenotypic and behavioral variability detected in eight UPD patients out of a group of 58 AS patients studied. All of them presented developmental delay, mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, and frequent drooling. Only one had microcephaly, whereas in two of them the OFC (head circumference) was above the 98th percentile. The weight of all patients was above the 50th percentile, and in three of them the height was above the 90th percentile. Three were able to say a few words and to communicate by gestures. Two patients presented hyperphagia, and three presented skin picking, common features in the Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Four patients (4/7) had wide-spaced teeth. Five presented seizures, and two others did not manifest frequent laughter. One patient was very different from the others, as he showed a better understanding and abilities to communicate, to play video games and to draw. We suggest here that there seems to be an extreme phenotypic and behavioral variability within the UPD group, and that both typical patients and those with mental retardation, language impairment, happy disposition, and hyperactivity should be tested for AS.
Abstract in English:The use of DNA technology for parentage testing is increasing every day. Most laboratories have improved their exclusion probabilities (PE) by the addition of DNA microsatellite loci to standard blood-typing results. The efficacy of each locus depends on the number of alleles detected and their frequencies in the breeds tested. Here we analyzed the usefulness of six microsatellites for routine parentage testing in three Portuguese autochthonous horse breeds: Lusitano, Sorraia and Garrano. The DNA loci analyzed - ASB2, HMS3, HMS7, HTG4, HTG10, and VHL20 - were chosen based upon the polymorphism detected in other breeds with Iberian horse influence. The estimated probability of exclusion of wrongly named parents (PE) was high, with values ranging from 88.5% to 99.6%.
Abstract in English:Blood and stripped hemoglobin from Nelore cattle individuals were submitted to oxygen equilibrium experiments in both gasometric and spectrophotometric methods. No difference was detected in oxygen affinity and Bohr effect among Hb A, Hb B and Hb AB in experiments with both blood and stripped hemoglobin, in the presence and absence of the chloride ion. However, n values (Hill plots) were higher in Hb B and Hb AB (>2) than in Hb A (<2).
Abstract in English:The potential of greasy wool colour subjective assessment Visual Colour Score (VCS) and the yellow predictive test (YPC) as indirect selection criteria for reduction of clean wool colour (CWC) in Corriedale sheep was examined. The heritability of these wool colour traits and the wool production traits, greasy (GFW) and clean fleece weights (CFW), and mean fibre diameter (MFD) and the phenotypic and genetic correlations among these traits were estimated from a Corriedale flock using AIREML procedures. A high genetic correlation between YPC and CWC was observed, indicating that YPC could be a suitable indirect selection criterium for CWC. However, direct selection against CWC was predicted to produce faster genetic improvements in CWC than that expected under indirect selection via YPC. Single trait selection based on VCS or YPC were expected to reduce the response in CWC to 51% and 49% of that estimated for direct selection. The positive genetic correlations of CWC, YPC and VCS with CFW and MFD would cause a reduction in both MFD and CFW to result from selection that reduces wool colour. The results showed that the most effective way to genetically improve CWC was through indirect selection to reduce MFD, CFW or GFW, followed by direct selection, but the premiums for CWC in the Corriedale breed may not be sufficient to justify the expected losses in CFW.
Abstract in English:The karyotypes of nine species of the family Ramphastidae were determined and compared with that of the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco), the only ramphastid karyotype so far reported in the literature. Differences in the morphology of the largest chromosomes allowed to identify three karyotype groups. The first group included the species R. toco, Baillonius bailloni, Pteroglossus castanotis, P. aracari and Selenidera maculirostris, in which only the first pair of chromosomes was metacentric. The second group included four Ramphastos species (R. dicolorus, R. ariel, R. vitellinus, R. tucanus cuvieri) with two pairs of metacentric macrochromosomes (the first and the seventh). The third group was represented by a single species, A. laminirostris, in which all the autosomal chromosomes were telocentric. All of the species had subtelocentric Z chromosomes, similar in size to homologues of the first pair. Sex chromosome W was a small chromosome. The chromosome number ranged from 2n = 62 in P. aracari to 114 in R. toco. The cytotaxonomic relationships among toucan species are discussed, based on chromosome analysis.
Abstract in English:Hydromedusa maximiliani is a vulnerable neotropical freshwater turtle endemic to mountainous regions of the Atlantic rainforest in southeastern Brazil. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used to estimate the gene flow and dispersal for individuals inhabiting rivers and streams within a drainage. Nine primers generated 27 scoreable bands, of which 9 (33%) were polymorphic and produced 12 RAPD phenotypes. The gene flow estimates (Nm) among turtles inhabiting different rivers and streams were variable, ranging from 0.09 to 3.00 (mean: 0.60). For some loci, the rates of gene flow could offset population differentiation (Nm > 1), whereas for others random genetic drift could result in population divergence (Nm < 1). Since the genetic variation of this turtle seems to be structured according to the natural hierarchical system of rivers and streams within drainages, management programs involving translocations between different regions across the geographical range of H. maximiliani should be viewed with caution.
Abstract in English:The developmental time of the embryonic stage of Drosophila melanogaster was 21.66% faster and 14.75% slower than controls in populations selected for fast and slow developmental speed, respectively. The genetic model with two main loci with dominant and additive effect added to maternal effect and their relevant interactions can explain 96% of the phenotypic variability in the embryonic developmental time according to 14 crossing progenies involving fast and slow flies.
Abstract in English:The Argentinean Chaco region has been considered the center of origin of Drosophila buzzatii in South America because it contains most of the chromosomal polymorphism detected in natural populations. Two hypotheses have been put forward to explain the distribution of D. buzzatii in Brazil, one proposing that it has only recently passively colonized Brazil via human dispersal and the other suggesting that D. buzzatii has actively migrated to Brazil some time ago. Data from chromosomal inversions support recent colonization, whereas data from allozymes and mtDNA variation indicate that D. buzzatii has been in Brazil longer, favoring an active dispersal hypothesis. In our present work we analyzed data on 56 South American flies, mostly from Brazil, sequenced for the 5’ end of the mtDNA COI gene. The combined use of many neutrality tests and phylogeographic methods (e.g. nested clade analysis) indicated high gene flow throughout most of the range of D. buzzatii, although significant population structure was still detected. The high nucleotide diversity in the Northeast region of Brazil and the results from the nested clade analysis suggest that D. buzzatii has been in Brazil longer than proposed by the passive dispersal hypothesis. Our data indicate that D. buzzatii has been distributed throughout Brazil and Argentina since the Quaternary, though more data from different localities and markers need to be gathered to determine how the occupation of South America by D. buzzatii has occurred.
Abstract in English:This is the first study of isoenzyme variability in the leaf-cutting ants (Myrmicinae, Attini) Acromyrmex heyeri (Forel, 1899) and A. striatus (Roger, 1863) which are common throughout the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. We studied the alloenzyme variability of malate dehydrogenase (MDH), alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (alpha-GPDH) and amylase (AMY) in 97 colonies of A. heyeri and 103 colonies of A. striatus. Five loci were found for these enzyme systems, one locus (Amy-1) being monomorphic in both species and four loci (Mdh-1, alpha-Gpdh-1, Amy-2, and Amy-4) being polymorphic. For each species there were exclusive alleles for the Mdh-1 and Amy-2 loci and differences were also found in the allele frequencies for the other polymorphic loci. Ontogenetically different gene activity was detected for the MDH and alpha-GPDH systems, with between-caste differences, probably related to flight activity, also being found for alpha-GPDH.
Abstract in English:The obtention of genetically improved cultivars is the main objective of breeding programs, whose efficiency is increased by a careful choice of parents. Based on both general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities for grain yield, the purpose of this research was to choose the most promising populations of common beans, for line selection. GCA and SCA were measured by means of a complete diallel without reciprocals, using twelve cultivars/lines. Parents and corresponding F2 segregating populations were evaluated for grain yield by a 9 x 9 triple square lattice design. It was found that the segregating populations differed in grain yield, with predominant SCA effects, but with significant GCA effects as well. Among the populations derived from parents with positive GCA values, Aporé x CI-128, CI-128 x Pérola, PF-9029975 x Ouro Negro, and CI-128 x Ouro Negro also showed positive SCA values and high grain yields, therefore being the most promising populations for grain yield improvement. The highest values of specific combining ability were observed in populations H-4-7 x ESAL 693, CI-128 x Pérola, and A-285 Rudá x IAC Carioca Aruã, which must be the most segregating ones. Hybrid combinations with a high SCA deriving from at least one parent with high GCA were: Pérola x CI-128 and Ouro Negro x Pérola. Although line ESAL 693 presented the lowest GCA value, one of its derived populations, ESAL 693 x H-4-7, had the highest SCA and heterosis values. The high correlation between heterosis and SCA indicates that heterosis can be useful when SCA is not available.
Abstract in English:Microsatellite markers or SSR (Simple Sequence Repeats) have proved to be an excellent tool for cultivar identification, pedigree analysis and the evaluation of genetic distance among organisms. Soybean cultivars have been characterized mainly by morphological and biochemical traits. However, these traits have not been sufficient to characterize the large number of cultivars eligible to receive protection under the Brazilian Cultivar Protection Act. In order to define new soybean cultivar markers, the alleles of twelve SSR loci of 186 Brazilian soybean cultivars were studied by estimating the variation in their size range and their respective frequencies. On average, 5.3 alleles per locus were detected, with a mean genetic diversity of 0.64 ± 0.12. These loci were used to distinguish morphologically similar groups, presenting a mean similarity coefficient of 0.46; their use allowed to determine 184 profiles for the 186 cultivars. A dendrogram based on the SSR loci profiles showed good agreement with the cultivar pedigree information.
Abstract in English:Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) is a fast and reliable tool to generate a large number of DNA markers. In two unrelated F2 populations of carrot (Daucus carota L.), Brasilia x HCM and B493 x QAL (wild carrot), it was hypothesized that DNA 1) digested with the same restriction endonuclease enzymes and amplified with the same primer combination and 2) sharing the same position in polyacrylamide gels should be conserved sequences. To test this hypothesis AFLP fragments from polyacrylamide gels were eluted, reamplified, separated in agarose gels, purified, cloned and sequenced. Among thirty-one paired fragments from each F2 population, twenty-six had identity greater than 91% and five presented identity of 24% to 44%. Among the twenty-six conserved AFLPs only one mapped to different linkage groups in the two populations while four of the five less-conserved bands mapped to different linkage groups. Of eight SCAR (sequence characterized amplified regions) primers tested, one conserved AFLP resulted in co-dominant markers in both populations. Screening among 14 carrot inbreds or cultivars with three AFLP-SCAR primers revealed clear and polymorphic PCR products, with similar molecular sizes on agarose gels. The development of co-dominant markers based on conserved AFLP fragments will be useful to detect seed mixtures among hybrids, to improve and to merge linkage maps and to study diversity and phylogenetic relationships.
Abstract in English:Cytotaxonomic studies were carried out on 26 accessions of Pennisetum spp. originating from the Active Germplasm Bank of Embrapa Gado de Leite-Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil.This study presents cytogenetics and reproductive morphological data for each one of these accessions, which allowed groupings and suggest botanical identifications to be established. The metaphases of the accessions characterized as P. purpureum confirmed the presence of 2n = 28 chromosomes that have already been described for this species. For the hybrids between P. purpureum and P. glaucum and for the hexaploids, resulting from the chromosome duplication of these hybrids, 2n = 21 and 2n = 42 chromosomes were confirmed, respectively. The wild accession identified as P. setosum showed metaphases with 2n = 54 chromosomes, while those characterized as P. nervosum had cells with 2n = 36 chromosomes. The wild accession 15 was different from the others for the morphological characters, with 2n = 36 chromosomes, and was classified as P. orientale. Two statistical procedures were used (canonical variables and cluster analysis on the basis of the Mahalanobis distance), and the results confirmed the conclusions obtained from the cytogenetic and morphologic analysis.
Abstract in English:The characterization of genetic variability and an estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties are essential to any breeding program, because artificial crosses among less similar parents allow a larger segregation and the combination of different favorable alleles. Genetic variability can be evaluated in different ways, including the Coefficient of Parentage (COP), which estimates the probability of two alleles in two different individuals being identical by descent. In this study, we evaluated the degree of genetic relationship among 53 wheat genotypes, and identified the ancestor genotypes which contributed the most to the current wheat germplasm, as a prediction of the width of the genetic base of this cereal. The results revealed a mean COP of 0.07 and the formation of 22 similarity groups. The ancestor genotypes Ciano 67 and Mentana were those which contributed the most to the current wheat germplasm. According to the COP analyses, the genetic base of wheat rests on a small number of ancestral genotypes.
Abstract in English:Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) was considered a secondary pest in Brazil until 1990, despite being an efficient geminivirus vector in beans and soybean. In 1991, a new biotype, known as B. tabaci B biotype (=B. argentifolii) was detected attacking weed plants and causing phytotoxic problems in Cucurbitaceae. Nowadays, B. tabaci is considered one of the most damaging whitefly pests in agricultural systems worldwide that transmits more than 60 different plant viruses. Little is known about the genetic variability of these populations in Brazil. Knowledge of the genetic variation within whitefly populations is necessary for their efficient control and management. The objectives of the present study were to use RAPD markers (1) to estimate the genetic diversity of B. tabaci populations, (2) to study the genetic relationships among B. tabaci biotypes and two other whitefly species and (3) to discriminate between B. tabaci biotypes. A sample of 109 B. tabaci female individuals obtained from 12 populations in Brazil were analyzed and compared to the A biotype from Arizona (USA) and B biotype from California (USA) and Paraguay. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Aleurodicus cocois samples were also included. A total of 72 markers were generated by five RAPD primers and used in the analysis. All primers produced RAPD patterns that clearly distinguished the Bemisia biotypes and the two other whitefly species. Results also showed that populations of the B biotype have considerable genetic variability. An average Jaccard similarity of 0.73 was observed among the B biotype individuals analyzed. Cluster analysis demonstrated that, in general, Brazilian biotype B individuals are scattered independently in the localities where samples were collected. Nevertheless, some clusters were evident, joining individuals according to the host plants. AMOVA showed that most of the total genetic variation is found within populations (56.70%), but a significant portion of the variation is found between crops (22.73%). The present study showed that the B biotype is disseminated throughout the sampled areas, infesting several host plants and predominates over the A biotype.
Abstract in English:PCR has been used to analyze the distribution of REP (Repetitive Extragenic Palindromic) and ERIC (Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus) sequences (rep-PCR) found within the genome of the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, with the purpose to analyze the genetic similarities among 56 subspecies samples and 95 field isolates. The PCR products were analyzed by EB-AGE (ethidium bromide-agarose electrophoresis) and then submitted to banding comparisons, based on the Phyllip software algorithm. When the banding similarities were considered for comparison purposes among all the strains, the phylogenic tree patterns varied according to the rep-PCR primers considered, but, from a broader point of view, the ERIC sequences produced better results, which, together with electron microscopy analysis of the released parasporal bodies and colony morphology characteristics, allowed to detect two possible new subspecies of B. thuringiensis.
Abstract in English:Extracellular proteases have been shown to be factors of virulence in fungal entomopathogenicity. We examined the production of the cuticle-degrading extracellular proteases chymoelastase (Pr1) and trypsin (Pr2) in isolates of the fungus Metarhizium flavoviride. Fungal growth was in a mineral medium (MM) containing nitrate, and in MM supplemented with either cuticle from Rhammatocerus schistocercoides or with the non-cuticular substrate casein. The substrates used for growth influenced the expression of both analyzed proteases, the highest protease activities of nearly all isolates having been observed in the medium containing insect cuticle, with more Pr1 than Pr2 being produced. There was a natural variability in the production of cuticle-degrading proteases among isolates, although this was less evident for Pr2. Our data support the hypothesis that the production of Pr1 on insect cuticle is a useful characteristic for the analysis of intraspecific variability of M. flavoviride isolates.
Abstract in English:Net blotch, caused by the phytopathogen Drechslera teres, is a common disease of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) and is responsible for large economic losses in some barley growing areas. In this study the morphology and genetic variability of eight D. teres isolates from different regions of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul were investigated. Colony morphology was studied on potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) and genetic variability investigated using the random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD) technique. 27 commercially available primers were tested of which 16 were selected for use in polymorphic analysis due to their good resolution and reproducibility. Similarity coefficients were used to construct dendrograms based on colony morphology and RAPD data showing the relationship between the eight isolates studied. Colony morphology showed variability between the isolates while RAPD assays showed high similarity coefficients, but grouping of the isolates according to the geographic origins of the seeds from which they were isolated was not possible.
Abstract in English:The phytopathogenic fungus Drechslera tritici-repentis causes tan spot, an important disease of wheat in the southern Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. Twelve D. tritici-repentis isolates were obtained from wheat seeds from different locations in the state. Their colony morphology on potato dextrose agar and polymorphisms in genomic DNA by the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method were investigated. For the RAPD method, 23 primers were tested of which nine were selected for use in the study of D. tritici-repentis polymorphisms. The degree of similarity between isolates was calculated using a simple matching coefficient and dendrograms constructed by the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetical averages (UPGMA). The morphological and RAPD analyses showed intraspecific polymorphisms within the isolates, but it was not possible to establish a relationship between these polymorphisms and the geographical regions from where the host seeds were collected.
Abstract in English:During some phases of of their life-cycle endophytic fungi colonize plants asymptomatically being found most frequently inside the aerial part of plant tissues. After surface disinfection of apparently healthy leaves from three varieties of mandarin orange and one tangor, and after incubation on appropriate culture medium, 407 fungal isolates were obtained, giving a total infection frequency of 81%. No fungal growth was observed from disinfected seeds, indicating that fungi are probably not transmitted via seeds. Of the fungal isolates, 27% belonged to the genus Guignardia, with 12 isolates being identified as Guignardia citricarpa Kiely, which is described as a citrus pathogen. The isolates were variable in respect to the presence of sexual structures and growth rates. Most of the isolates produces mature asci, supporting the hypothesis that they are nonpathogenic endophytes, which recently were identified as G. mangiferae. High intraspecific genetic variability (an average similarity coefficient of 0.6) was detected using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers generated by seven different primers. The highest similarity coefficient (0.9) was between isolates P15 and M86 and the smallest (0.22) between isolates P15 and C145. These results did not allow us to establish an association between genetic similarity of the fungal isolates and the citrus varieties from which they were obtained.