Abstract in English:Abstract Research into the influence of the microbiome on the human body has been shedding new light on diseases long known to be multifactorial, such as obesity, mood disorders, autism, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are monogenic diseases, genotype alone is not enough to explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with these conditions. Genetics and diet exert a strong influence on the microbiome, and diet is used (alone or as an adjuvant) in the treatment of many IEMs. This review will describe how the effects of the microbiome on the host can interfere with IEM phenotypes through interactions with organs such as the liver and brain, two of the structures most commonly affected by IEMs. The relationships between treatment strategies for some IEMs and the microbiome will also be addressed. Studies on the microbiome and its influence in individuals with IEMs are still incipient, but are of the utmost importance to elucidating the phenotypic variety observed in these conditions.
Abstract in English:Abstract WRKY transcription factors (TFs) are responsible for the regulation of genes responsive to many plant growth and developmental cues, as well as to biotic and abiotic stresses. The modulation of gene expression by WRKY proteins primarily occurs by DNA binding at specific cis-regulatory elements, the W-box elements, which are short sequences located in the promoter region of certain genes. In addition, their action can occur through interaction with other TFs and the cellular transcription machinery. The current genome sequences available reveal a relatively large number of WRKY genes, reaching hundreds of copies. Recently, functional genomics studies in model plants have enabled the identification of function and mechanism of action of several WRKY TFs in plants. This review addresses the more recent studies in plants regarding the function of WRKY TFs in both model and crop plants for coping with environmental challenges, including a wide variety of abiotic and biotic stresses.
Abstract in English:Abstract Our aim was to develop and apply a comprehensive noninvasive prenatal test (NIPT) by using high-coverage targeted next-generation sequencing to estimate fetal fraction, determine fetal sex, and detect trisomy and monogenic disease without parental genotype information. We analyzed 45 pregnancies, 40 mock samples, and eight mother-child pairs to generate 35 simulated datasets. Fetal fraction (FF) was estimated based on analysis of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele fraction distribution. A Z-score was calculated for trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21), and fetal sex detection. Monogenic disease detection was performed through variant analysis. Model validation was performed using the simulated datasets. The novel model to estimate FF was robust and accurate (r2= 0.994, p-value < 2.2e-16). For samples with FF > 0.04, T21 detection had 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 63.06 to 100%) and 98.53% specificity (95% CI: 92.08 to 99.96%). Fetal sex was determined with 100% accuracy. We later performed a proof of concept for monogenic disease diagnosis of 5/7 skeletal dysplasia cases. In conclusion, it is feasible to perform a comprehensive NIPT by using only data from high coverage targeted sequencing, which, in addition to detecting trisomies, also make it possible to identify pathogenic variants of the candidate genes for monogenic diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to develop a simple and rapid method to detect KRAS gene mutations for conventional clinical applications under laboratory conditions. The genotype of mutation sites was determined based on the occurrence of target bands in the corresponding lanes of the reaction tubes through polymerization-conjunction of the probes, probe purification and amplification, and agarose gel electrophoresis. Circulating DNA samples were obtained from the plasma of 72 patients with lung cancer, which were identified based on six mutation sites (G12S, G12R, G12C, G12D, G12A, and G12V) of codon 12 of the KRAS gene. The detection results were compared with direct sequencing data. The proposed detection method is characterized by simple operation, high specificity, and high sensitivity (2%). This method can detect the mutations of three samples at G12S, G12R, and G12A. In the direct sequencing spectra of these samples, the genotype could not be determined due to the lack of evident sequencing peaks that correspond to the basic group of mutations. In conclusion, a simple and rapid method was established based on probe polymerization-conjunction-agarose gel electrophoresis for detecting KRAS gene mutations. This method can be applied to the conventional mutation detection of inhomogeneous samples.
Abstract in English:Abstract The reward sensation after food intake may be different between individuals and variants in genes related to the dopaminergic system may indicate a different response in people exposed to the same environmental factors. This study investigated the association of TaqIA (rs1800497) and -141C InsDel (rs1799732) variants in DRD2/ANKK1 gene with food intake and adiposity parameters in a cohort of children. The sample consisted of 270 children followed until 7 to 8 years old. DNA was extracted from blood and polymorphisms were detected by PCR-RFLP analysis. Food intake and nutritional status were compared among individuals with different SNP genotypes. Children carrying the A1 allele (TaqIA) had higher energy of lipid dense foods (LDF) when compared with A2/A2 homozygous children at 7 to 8 years old (GLM p=0.004; Mann Whitney p=0.005). No association was detected with -141C Ins/Del polymorphism. To our knowledge, this is the first association study of the DRD2 TaqIA and -141C Ins/Del polymorphism with food intake and anthropometric parameters in children. DRD2 TaqIA polymorphism has been associated with a reduction in D2 dopamine receptor availability. Therefore, the differences observed in LDF intake in our sample may occur as an effort to compensate the hypodopaminergic functioning.
Abstract in English:Abstract Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a serum enzyme associated with high density lipoprotein (HDL) regulation through its paraoxonase and arylesterase activity. PON1 inhibits the oxidation of HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL), and is involved in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases including atherosclerosis. Conversely, mutations in the low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) result in failure of receptor mediated endocytosis of LDL leading to its elevated plasma levels and onset of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). In the current study we investigated the role of PON1 polymorphisms rs662; c.575A > G (p.Gln192Arg) and rs854560; c.163T > A (p.Leu55Met) in a large family having FH patients harboring a functional mutation in LDLR. Genotypes were revealed by RFLP, followed by confirmation through Sanger sequencing. PON1 activity was measure by spectrophotometry. Our results show significantly reduced serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activities in FH patients compared with the healthy individuals of the family (p < 0.05). PON1 QQ192 genotype showed a significantly higher association with FH (p=0.0002). PON1 Q192 isoform was associated with reduced serum paraoxonase activity by in silico analysis and PON1 R192 exhibited higher serum paraoxonase and arylesterase activity than the other polymorphs. Our results highlight that the combination of LDLR mutations and PON1 MMQQ genotypes may lead to severe cardiac events.
Abstract in English:Abstract The goal of this research was to investigate the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 in different Chinese ethnic groups (Han, Tibet, and Hui) and to study the feasibility of rs9263726 replacing HLA-B*58:01 as an efficient indicator of potential allopurinol hypersensitivity syndrome. In this study, rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 were detected in all samples. For samples of individuals whose rs9263726 genotypes were not consistent with HLA-B*58:01, we did high-resolution typing of HLA-B gene to further confirm the correlation of rs9263726 genotype and special HLA-B alleles. We confirmed that the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 was more significant in the Han ethnic group (r2=0.886, D’=1.0) than in the Tibet and Hui ethnic groups (for Tibetan, r2=0.606, D’=0.866; for Hui, r2=0.622, D’=0.924). For Han Chinese, samples with the GG genotype of rs9263726 did not carry HLA-B*58:01, while AA genotype samples were homozygous carriers of HLA-B*58:01. However, GA genotype samples of rs9263726 required a more sophisticated HLA-B genotyping assay before it was possible to identify whether they were HLA-B*58:01 carriers or not. For Tibetan and Hui, the linkage disequilibrium between rs9263726 and HLA-B*58:01 was not significant. Therefore, rs9263726 cannot replace HLA-B*58:01 in these two groups.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eukaryotic genomes consist of several repetitive DNAs, including dispersed DNA sequences that move between chromosome sites, tandem repeats of DNA sequences, and multigene families. In this study, repeated sequences isolated from the genome of Characidium gomesi were analyzed and mapped to chromosomes in Characidium zebra and specimens from two populations of C. gomesi. The sequences were transposable elements (TEs) named retroelement of Xiphophorus (Rex); multigene families of U2 small nuclear RNA (U2 snRNA); and histones H1, H3, and H4. Sequence analyses revealed that U2 snRNA contains a major portion corresponding to the Tx1-type non-LTR retrotransposon Keno, the preferential insertion sites of which are U2 snRNA sequences. All histone sequences were found to be associated with TEs. In situ localization revealed that these DNA sequences are dispersed throughout the autosomes of the species, but they are not involved in differentiation of the specific region of the W sex chromosome in C. gomesi. We discuss mechanisms of TE invasion into multigene families that lead to microstructural variation in Characidium genomes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Amazon parrots are long-lived birds with highly developed cognitive skills, including vocal learning. Several parrot mitogenomes have been sequenced, but important aspects of their organization and evolution are not fully understood or have limited experimental support. The main aim of the present study was to describe the mitogenome of the blue-fronted Amazon, Amazona aestiva, and compare it to other mitogenomes from the genus Amazona and the order Psittaciformes. We observed that mitogenomes are highly conserved among Amazon parrots, and a detailed analysis of their duplicated control regions revealed conserved blocks. Population level analyses indicated that the specimen analyzed here seems to be close to A. aestiva individuals from Bahia state. Evolutionary relationships of 41 Psittaciformes species and three outgroups were inferred by BEAST. All relationships were retrieved with high support.
Abstract in English:Abstract We have created a database system named CIPEMAB (CItogenética dos PEquenos MAmíferos Brasileiros) to assemble images of the chromosomes of Brazilian small mammals (Rodents and Marsupials). It includes karyotype information, such as diploid number, karyotype features, idiograms, and sexual chromosomes characteristics. CIPEMAB facilitates quick sharing of information on chromosome research among cytogeneticists as well as researchers in other fields. The database contains more than 300 microscopic images, including karyotypic images obtained from 182 species of small mammals from the literature. Researchers can browse the contents of the database online (http://www.citogenetica.ufes.br). The system enables users to locate images of interest by taxa, and to display the document with detailed information on species names, authors, year of the species publication, and karyotypes pictures in different colorations. CIPEMAB has a wide range of applications, such as comparing various karyotypes of Brazilian species and identifying manuscripts of interest.
Abstract in English:Abstract We aimed to investigate the biological responses induced by acute and chronic gamma irradiation in colored wheat seeds rich in natural antioxidants. After acute and chronic irradiation, the phenotypic effects on plant growth, germination rate, seedling height, and root length were examined, and the biochemical changes were investigated by analyzing the expression of antioxidant enzyme-related genes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and total antioxidant capacity. High dosages of chronic radiation reduced plant growth compared with the controls. Electron spin resonance measurement and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl activity analysis showed lower amount of free radicals in colored wheat seeds on chronic irradiation with low dosage of gamma rays compared to seeds subjected to acute irradiation. Expression levels of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes, antioxidant-related genes, and antioxidant enzyme activity in seeds and young leaves of seedling showed diverse effects in response to different dosages and types of gamma irradiation. This suggests that phenotype is affected by the dosage and type of gamma radiation, and the phytochemicals in colored wheat seeds involved in antioxidant activity to scavenge free radicals respond differently to irradiation types. This provides evidence that acute and chronic exposure to radiation have different effects on seeds and young leaves after germination.
Abstract in English:Abstract Drought is one of the most severe abiotic factors restricting plant growth and yield. Numerous genes functioning in drought response are regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) dependent and independent pathways, but knowledge of interplay between the two pathways is still limited. Here, we integrated transcriptome sequencing and network analyses to explore interplays between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways responding to drought stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. We identified 211 ABA-dependent differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 1,118 ABA-independent DEGs under drought stress. Functional analysis showed that ABA-dependent DEGs were significantly enriched in expected biological processes in response to water deprivation and ABA stimulus, while ABA-independent DEGs were preferentially enriched in response to jasmonic acid (JA), salicylic acid (SA) and gibberellin (GA) stimuli. We found significantly enriched interactions between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways with 94 genes acting as core interacting components by combining network analyses. A link between ABA and JA signaling mediated through a direct interaction of the ABA responsive elements-binding factor ABF3 with the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MYC2 was validated by yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays. Our study provides a systematic view of the interplay between ABA-dependent and ABA-independent pathways in response to drought stress.
Abstract in English:Abstract Medicago ruthenica is a perennial forage legume with the remarkable ability to survive under unfavorable environmental conditions. It has been identified as an excellent species of Medicago that can adapt to various environmental stresses including low temperature, drought, and salinity. To investigate its potential as a genetic resource, we performed transcriptome sequencing and analysis in M. ruthenica under abiotic stresses. We generated >120 million reads from six cDNA libraries, resulting in 79,249 unique transcripts, most of which were highly similar to transcripts from M. truncatula (44,608, 56.3%) and alfalfa (M. sativa, 48,023, 60.6%). Based on gene expression profiles, 2,721 transcripts were identified as abiotic stress responsive genes which were predicted to be mainly involved in phytohormone signaling pathways, transcriptional regulation, and ROS-scavenging. These results suggest that they play critical roles in the response to abiotic stress. In summary, we identified genes in our transcriptome dataset involved in the regulation of the abiotic stress response in M. ruthenica which will provide a valuable resource for the future identification and functional analysis of candidate genes for adaption to unfavorable conditions. The genes identified here could be also useful for improving stress tolerance traits in alfalfa through molecular breeding in the future.
Abstract in English:Abstract We cloned and characterized the full-length coding sequence of a small heat shock (sHSP) gene, PfHSP17.2, from Primula forrestii leaves following heat stress treatment. Homology and phylogenetic analysis suggested that PfHSP17.2 is a cytosolic class II sHSP, which was further supported by the cytosolic localization of transient expression of PfHSP17.2 fused with green fluorescent protein reporter. Expression analysis showed that PfHSP17.2 was highly inducible by heat stress in almost all the vegetative and generative tissues and was expressed under salt, cold, and oxidative stress conditions as well. Moreover, the expression of PfHSP17.2 in P. forrestii was detected in certain developmental growth stages. Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana constitutively expressing PfHSP17.2 displayed increased thermotolerance and higher resistance to salt and cold compared with wild type plants. It is suggested that PfHSP17.2 plays a key role in heat and other abiotic stresses.
Abstract in English:Abstract DNA barcoding helps to identify species, especially when identification is based on parts of organisms or life stages such as seeds, pollen, wood, roots or juveniles. However, the implementation of this approach strongly depends on the existence of complete reference libraries of DNA sequences. If such a library is incomplete, DNA-based identification will be inefficient. Here, we assess if DNA barcoding can already be implemented in species-rich tropical regions. We focus on the tree flora of São Paulo state, Brazil, which contains more than 2000 tree species. Using new DNA sequence data and carefully assembled GenBank accessions, we assembled 12,113 sequences from ten different regions. The ITS, rbcL, psbA-trnH, matK and trnL regions were better represented within the available sequences for São Paulo tree flora. Currently, only 58% of the São Paulo tree flora currently have at least one barcoding sequence available. However, these species represent on average 89% of the trees in São Paulo state forests. Therefore, conservation-oriented and ecological studies can already benefit from DNA barcoding to obtain more accurate species identifications. We present which taxa remain underrepresented for the São Paulo tree flora and discuss the implications of this result for other species-rich tropical regions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Asian soybean rust (ASR) is one of the most destructive diseases affecting soybeans. The causative agent of ASR, the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, presents characteristics that make it difficult to study in vitro, limiting our knowledge of plant-pathogen dynamics. Therefore, this work used leaf lesion laser microdissection associated with deep sequencing to determine the pathogen transcriptome during compatible and incompatible interactions with soybean. The 36,350 generated unisequences provided an overview of the main genes and biological pathways that were active in the fungus during the infection cycle. We also identified the most expressed transcripts, including sequences similar to other fungal virulence and signaling proteins. Enriched P. pachyrhizi transcripts in the resistant (PI561356) soybean genotype were related to extracellular matrix organization and metabolic signaling pathways and, among infection structures, in amino acid metabolism and intracellular transport. Unisequences were further grouped into gene families along predicted sequences from 15 other fungi and oomycetes, including rust fungi, allowing the identification of conserved multigenic families, as well as being specific to P. pachyrhizi. The results revealed important biological processes observed in P. pachyrhizi, contributing with information related to fungal biology and, consequently, a better understanding of ASR.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper reports on an investigation of the role of codon usage evolution on the suggested bovine-to-human spillover of Bovine coronavirus (BCoV), an enteric/respiratory virus of cattle, resulting in the emergence of the exclusively respiratory Human coronavirus OC43 (HCoV-OC43). Analyses based on full genomes of BCoV and HCoV-OC43 and on both human and bovine mRNAs sequences of cholecystokinin (CCK) and surfactant protein 1 A (SFTP1-A), representing the enteric and respiratory tract codon usage, respectively, have shown natural selection leading to optimization or deoptimization of viral codon usage to the human enteric and respiratory tracts depending on the virus genes under consideration. A higher correlation was found for the nucleotide distance at the 3rd nucleotide position of codons and codon usage optimization to the human respiratory tract when BCoV and HCoV-OC43 were compared. An MCC tree based on relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) data integrating data from both viruses and hosts into a same analysis indicated three putative host/virus contact dates ranging from 1.54E8 to 2.44E5 years ago, suggesting that an ancestor coronavirus might have followed human evolution.
Abstract in English:Abstract Capuchin monkeys are currently represented by four species of Cebus and eight of Sapajus. This group is taxonomically complex and several questions still need to be clarified. In the current study, using mtDNA markers and a larger sample representation than in previous studies, we seek to understand the phylogenetic relationships among the capuchin lineages and their historical biogeography. All 12 species of capuchins were analyzed for the mitochondrial Control Region and Cytochrome b to test two biogeographical hypotheses: “Reinvasion of the Amazon (ROA)” and “Sympatric Evolution (SEV)”. The phylogenetic relationships among distinct lineages within genera is consistent with an evolutionary diversification pattern probably resulting from an explosive process of diversification and dispersal between 2.0 Ma and 3.0 Ma. Also, the analyses show that the ancestral capuchins were distributed in a wide area encompassing the Amazon and Atlantic Forest. Our results support the SEV hypothesis, showing that the current syntopic distribution of Cebus and Sapajus can be explained by a sympatric speciation event in the Amazon. We also indicate that the recently proposed species taxonomy of Cebus is not supported, and that S. cay and S. macrocephalus are a junior synonym of S. apella.
Abstract in English:Abstract The use of Drosophila as a scientific model is well established, but the use of cockroaches as experimental organisms has been increasing, mainly in toxicology research. Nauphoeta cinerea is one of the species that has been studied, and among its advantages is its easy laboratory maintenance. However, a limited amount of genetic data about N. cinerea is available, impeding gene identification and expression analyses, genetic manipulation, and a deeper understanding of its functional biology. Here we describe the N. cinerea fat body and head transcriptome, in order to provide a database of genetic sequences to better understand the metabolic role of these tissues, and describe detoxification and stress response genes. After removing low-quality sequences, we obtained 62,121 transcripts, of which more than 50% had a length of 604 pb. The assembled sequences were annotated according to their genes ontology (GO). We identified 367 genes related to stress and detoxification; among these, the more frequent were p450 genes. The results presented here are the first large-scale sequencing of N. cinerea and will facilitate the genetic understanding of the species' biochemistry processes in future works.