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Genetics and Molecular Biology, Volume: 45, Issue: 2, Published: 2022
  • Correlation between vaginal microbiota and different progression stages of cervical cancer Human And Medical Genetics

    Wei, Bing; Chen, Yi; Lu, Tingyan; Cao, Wenjiao; Tang, Zhenhua; Yang, Haiou

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The process from high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection to cervical cancer is a continuous and long-term process, but the pathogenesis of the whole process is not completely clear. Here, 59 Chinese women were engaged in this study, and divided into five groups: normal healthy group, HR-HPV infections group, low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (LSIL) group, high-SIL(HSIL) group, and cervical cancer group. With the occurrence of HR-HPV infection and the development of cervical lesions, the diversity of vaginal microbiota species was increased, and the relative abundance of Lactobacillus (L.), the dominant bacteria in maintaining vaginal microecological balance, was decreased gradually. In contrast, the abundance of Actinobacteria in the four disease groups was significantly higher than that in normal group. Furthermore L. iners may be related to the serious progression of cervical cancer. After analyzing the whole process, we found that Gardnerella(G.), Atopobium(A.) and Dialister(D.) have important effects on both persistent HR-HPV infection and the pathogenesis of cervical cancer. In addition, PICRUSt2 and KEGG results showed that the KEGG pathways enriched by the predicted genes of vaginal microbiota in cancer group included metabolic diseases, endocrine system and immune systems when compared with that in normal group. These findings may provide insights into the pathogenesis of cervical cancer, and help to improve the early detection and prevention of cervical precancerous lesions.
  • A novel PRRX1 loss-of-function variation contributing to familial atrial fibrillation and congenital patent ductus arteriosus Human And Medical Genetics

    Ke, Zun-Ping; Zhang, Gao-Feng; Guo, Yu-Han; Sun, Yu-Min; Wang, Jun; Li, Ning; Qiu, Xing-Biao; Xu, Ying-Jia; Yang, Yi-Qing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Atrial fibrillation (AF) represents the most common type of sustained cardiac arrhythmia in humans and confers a significantly increased risk for thromboembolic stroke, congestive heart failure and premature death. Aggregating evidence emphasizes the predominant genetic defects underpinning AF and an increasing number of deleterious variations in more than 50 genes have been involved in the pathogenesis of AF. Nevertheless, the genetic basis underlying AF remains incompletely understood. In the current research, by whole-exome sequencing and Sanger sequencing analysis in a family with autosomal-dominant AF and congenital patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), a novel heterozygous variation in the PRRX1 gene encoding a homeobox transcription factor critical for cardiovascular development, NM_022716.4:c.373G>T;p.(Glu125*), was identified to be in co-segregation with AF and PDA in the whole family. The truncating variation was not detected in 306 unrelated healthy individuals employed as controls. Quantitative biological measurements with a reporter gene analysis system revealed that the Glu125*-mutant PRRX1 protein failed to transactivate its downstream target genes SHOX2 and ISL1, two genes that have been causally linked to AF. Conclusively, the present study firstly links PRRX1 loss-of-function variation to AF and PDA, suggesting that AF and PDA share a common abnormal developmental basis in a proportion of cases.
  • Common BMI and diabetes-related genetic variants: A pilot study among indigenous people in the Brazilian Amazon Human And Medical Genetics

    Diniz, Isabela Guerreiro; Noce, Rosilene Reis Della; Pereira, Ana Paula; Silva, Aylla Núbia Lima Martins da; Sacuena, Eliene Rodrigues Putira; Lemes, Renan Barbosa; Cardoso-Costa, Greice de Lemos; Araújo, Gilderlânio Santana; Machado, Jéssica Lígia Picanço; Figueiredo, Fernanda Andreza de Pinho Lott; Hümemeier, Tábita; Guerreiro, João Farias

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This study was carried out to investigate the frequency of genetic variants related to body mass index (BMI) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and evaluating the potential impact of risk alleles on susceptibility to these disorders in six indigenous peoples from Brazilian Amazon region. The majority of Fst values for pairwise population comparisons among the indigenous groups are low or moderate. The indigenous people show high values of differentiation with Africans, Europeans and Southeast Asians and moderate values with East Asian and American populations, as expected. The allelic frequencies among indigenous indicate that the majority of associations observed with T2D in continental populations can be replicated in native Amazonians. The genetic risk scores calculated for T2D in indigenous are high and similar to those calculated for Americans and East Asians, while the estimates obtained for obesity are low, probably due to the low frequencies of the risk allele of the FTO gene found in our samples. ADRB3-rs4994 and ABCC8-rs1799854 genes showed a significant association with BMI and waist circumference, and the KCNJ11-rs5219 gene with hyperglycemia. These results emphasize the importance of knowing the genetic variability underlying complex genetic diseases in indigenous peoples and the search for particular or rare variants.
  • Analysis of renal lesions in Chinese tuberous sclerosis complex patients with different types of TSC gene mutations Human And Medical Genetics

    Wang, Wenda; Zhao, Yang; Wang, Xu; Wang, Zhan; Cai, Yi; Li, Hanzhong; Zhang, Yushi

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract We sought to explore the relationship between renal lesion features and genetic mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) patients. TSC patients with renal lesions were subjected to TSC1/2 gene next-generation sequencing (NGS). TSC1/2 mutation types and imaging examinations were screened for combined analysis of genetic and clinical features. Seventy-three probands among TSC patients with renal lesions were included. Twenty affected relatives were also included. In total, 93 patients were included. Eighty patients (86.0%) had bilateral renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs), and one had epithelioid AML. Two patients had polycystic kidney disease, one had renal cell carcinoma, and one had Wilms tumor. Among the 73 probands, four had TSC1 mutations, 53 had TSC2 mutations, and 16 had no mutations identified (NMI). There was no statistically significant difference between TSC1 mutation, TSC2 mutation and NMI group (P= 0.309), or between familial and sporadic groups (P= 0.775) when considering AML size. There was no statistically significant difference between pathogenic/likely pathogenic and benign/likely benign/NMI groups (P= 0.363) or among patients with different mutation types of TSC2 (P= 0.906). The relationship between the conditions of TSC gene mutations and the severity of renal lesions still needs more analysis. Patients with NMI, particularly those with familial disease, need more attention because the pathogenesis remains unknown.
  • Systematic analyses of a novel circRNA-related miRNAs prognostic signature for Cervical Cancer Human And Medical Genetics

    Wang, Shasha; Zhang, Songying

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Accumulating evidences shed light on the important roles of Circular RNAs (circRNAs) acting as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) in cervical cancer (CC) biology. The present study aimed to identify a novel circRNA-related prognostic signature for CC. The expression data and clinical information of CC were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets to identify the differential circRNAs expression. Based on the targeted miRNA prediction, circRNA-related miRNAs were detected in training group and validation group of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset to construct the novel prognostic signature of CC with least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Moreover, the Kaplan-Meier (K-M) analysis was applied to test the model. In the present study, three differentially expressed circRNAs (hsa_circ_0001498, hsa_circ_0066147, and hsa_circ_0006948) were identified in GSE102686 and GSE107472. Then, with the criteria 25 predicted miRNAs were analyzed in TCGA datasets to calculate the prognostic signature. Furthermore, we developed a six-miRNA signature (hsa-miR-217, hsa-miR-30b-3p, hsa-miR-136-5p, hsa-miR-185-3p, hsa-miR-501-5p and hsa-miR-658) based on their expression level and coefficients. We performed a Pearson correlation analysis to screen 47 mRNAs which are negatively regulated by these six miRNAs. Functional enrichment analysis indicated these mRNAs were mainly enriched in cancer-related biology, such as regulation of transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. The present study provides novel insight for better understanding of circRNA-related ceRNA network in CC and facilitates the identification of potential biomarkers for prognosis.
  • Interpopulation variation of transposable elements of the hAT superfamily in Drosophila willistoni (Diptera: Drosophilidae): in-situ approach Animal Genetics

    Bertocchi, Natasha Ávila; Oliveira, Thays Duarte de; Deprá, Maríndia; Goñi, Beatriz; Valente, Vera Lúcia S.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Transposable elements are abundant and dynamic part of the genome, influencing organisms in different ways through their presence or mobilization, or by acting directly on pre- and post-transcriptional regulatory regions. We compared and evaluated the presence, structure, and copy number of three hAT superfamily transposons (hobo, BuT2, and mar) in five strains of Drosophila willistoni species. These D. willistoni strains are of different geographical origins, sampled across the north-south occurrence of this species. We used sequenced clones of the hAT elements in fluorescence in-situ hybridizations in the polytene chromosomes of three strains of D. willistoni. We also analyzed the structural characteristics and number of copies of these hAT elements in the 10 currently available sequenced genomes of the willistoni group. We found that hobo, BuT2, and mar were widely distributed in D. willistoni polytene chromosomes and sequenced genomes of the willistoni group, except for mar, which is restricted to the subgroup willistoni. Furthermore, the elements hobo, BuT2, and mar have different evolutionary histories. The transposon differences among D. willistoni strains, such as variation in the number, structure, and chromosomal distribution of hAT transposons, could reflect the genomic and chromosomal plasticity of D. willistoni species in adapting to highly variable environments.
  • Study of four Neotropical species of tree crickets Oecanthus Serville, 1831 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae) using cytogenetic and molecular markers Animal Genetics

    Silva, Anelise Fernandes e; Oliveira, Thays Duarte de; Bertocchi, Natasha Ávila; Valente, Vera Lúcia da Silva; Zefa, Edison; Deprá, Maríndia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Karyotypes in the worldwide subfamily Oecanthinae show variations in diploid number, chromosome morphology, and sex-chromosome system. This study described the chromosome set and phylogenetic relationships of four Neotropical species, Oecanthus lineolatus, O. valensis, O. pallidus, and O. pictus. We used classical cytogenetics and Bayesian Inference for phylogenetic reconstruction, using the mitochondrial genes COI, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA; and analyzed the phylogenetic patterns of changes in chromosome numbers, using ChromEvol. We observed differences in chromosome number among species and two different sex-chromosome systems. Oecanthus pictus showed 2n = 21, X0♂/22, XX♀; O. lineolatus, 2n = 20, XY♂/XX♀; and O. valensis and O. pallidus, 2n = 18, XY♂/XX♀. The karyotype of Oecanthus was asymmetric, one group with large chromosomes and variation in heterochromatin distribution, and another with small acrocentric chromosomes. The phylogenetic tree recovered two main groups: one with the Palearctic species and another with species from different bioregions, but with low posterior probability. The Neotropical species grouped separately, O. valensis and O. pictus with Nearctic and Ethiopian species, and O. pallidus and O. lineolatus in another, well-supported clade. Together, the phylogenic and chromosome data suggest descending dysploidy events during the evolution of the group.
  • Molecular and morphometric analysis of nominal Brachidontes exustus (Mollusca, Mytilidae) in Brazilian waters Animal Genetics

    Quintanilha, David B.; Fernandes, Flavio C.; Guerra, Caroline R.; Campos, Savio H. C.; Weber, Laura I.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Brachidontes exustus (Mollusca, Mytilidae) is mainly distributed in Central America, where it has been recognized as a _lataforma species. This study aimed to determine whether B. exustus extends beyond the Amazon Barrier and southward along the Brazilian West Atlantic coast. Mitochondrial genes coding for cytochrome-c oxidase, subunit I (COI) and 16S subunit of ribosomal _lataforma__ cid (16S rRNA) were analyzed with _lata parameters on Brazilian populations (Salvador, Arraial do Cabo and Fernando de Noronha) of scorched mussels previously recorded as B. exustus. Multivariate morphometric _latafor showed partial discrimination of species. Molecular _latafor confirmed B. exustus at Salvador, a population highly similar to Cartagena (Colombia), both belonging to the Atlantic Clade of the B. exustus complex. This fact adds evidence to the idea of the Amazon outflow as a semipermeable barrier. In the southeast of Brazil, B. exustus was not found; instead, B. darwinianus is the species represented at Arraial do Cabo (state of Rio de Janeiro), associated with brackish _lataf. Scorched mussels from Fernando de Noronha are most closely related to B. puniceus from Cape Verde with 4.4% differentiation. Demonstrating an independent evolutionary history since at least the beginning of the Pleistocene, its proposed new name is B. noronhensis.
  • Evolutionary breakpoint regions and chromosomal remodeling in Harttia (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) species diversification Animal Genetics

    Deon, Geize Aparecida; Glugoski, Larissa; Hatanaka, Terumi; Sassi, Francisco de Menezes Cavalcante; Nogaroto, Viviane; Bertollo, Luiz Antonio Carlos; Liehr, Thomas; Al-Rikabi, Ahmed; Moreira Filho, Orlando; Cioffi, Marcelo de Bello; Vicari, Marcelo Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Neotropical armored catfish genus Harttia presents a wide variation of chromosomal rearrangements among its representatives. Studies indicate that translocation and Robertsonian rearrangements have triggered the karyotype evolution in the genus, including differentiation of sex chromosome systems. However, few studies used powerful tools, such as comparative whole chromosome painting, to clarify this highly diversified scenario. Here, we isolated probes from the X1 (a 5S rDNA carrier) and the X2 (a 45S rDNA carrier) chromosomes of Harttia punctata, which displays an X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y multiple sex chromosome system. Those probes were applied in other Harttia species to evidence homeologous chromosome blocks. The resulting data reinforce that translocation events played a role in the origin of the X1X2Y sex chromosome system in H. punctata. The repositioning of homologous chromosomal blocks carrying rDNA sites among ten Harttia species has also been demonstrated. Anchored to phylogenetic data it was possible to evidence some events of the karyotype diversification of the studied species and to prove an independent origin for the two types of multiple sex chromosomes, XX/XY1Y2 and X1X1X2X2/X1X2Y, that occur in Harttia species. The results point to evolutionary breakpoint regions in the genomes within or adjacent to rDNA sites that were widely reused in Harttia chromosome remodeling.
  • Karyotype variability in six Amazonian species of the family Curimatidae (Characiformes) revealed by repetitive sequence mapping Animal Genetics

    Moraes, Juliana Nascimento; Viana, Patrik Ferreira; Favarato, Ramon Marin; Pinheiro-Figliuolo, Vanessa Susan; Feldberg, Eliana

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fishes of the Curimatidae family represent one of the most important freshwater ichthyofauna groups of Central and South America, with 117 recognized species distributed in eight genera. In this study, six species - Curimata inornata, Curimatella dorsalis, and Psectrogaster falcata collected from the Lower Araguaia River, Pará, Brazil; Curimata vittata, Curimatella meyeri, and Psectrogaster rutiloides collected from the Catalão Lake, Amazonas, Brazil - were cytogenetically analyzed, investigate the occurrence and distribution of repetitive DNA classes in the karyotypes. All species had 2n=54 metacentric/submetacentric chromosomes. Despite the conservative diploid number, we observed variations in the karyotypic structure among species. Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) 18S and 5S were found in single or multiple sites, with the first report of synteny in Curimatella dorsalis, and the occurrence of several interstitial telomeric sequences (ITSs) in species of the genera Curimatella and Psectrogaster. Interspecific karyotypic diversity both concerning structure and location/position of the nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) and ribosomal DNA, suggesting the occurrence of several non-Robertsonian rearrangements driving the evolution of this family.
  • Complete genome sequence of Bacillus thuringiensis BR145, a strain with insecticidal activity against Lepidoptera pests Genetics Of Microorganisms

    Ricietto, Ana Paula Scaramal; Gonçalves, Kátia Cristiane Brumatti; Appel, Renan José Casarotto; Sosa-Gómez, Daniel Ricardo; Vilas-Bôas, Gislayne Trindade; Vilas-Boas, Laurival Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bacillus thuringiensis BR145 isolated from a soybean field in Southern Brazil showed toxicity against two important insect pests from soybean crop, Helicoverpa armigera, and Chrysodeixis includens, with LC50 0.294 µg.cm-2 and 0.277 µg.cm-2, respectively. We analyzed the genome of this strain through sequences obtained by Next Generation DNA Sequencing and de novo assembly. The analysis of the genome revealed insecticidal genes cry1Aa, cry1Ab, cry1Ac, cry1Ia, cry2Ab, cyt1, and vip3Aa, suggesting the use of this strain in new strategies of biological control.
  • Basal levels of inorganic elements, genetic damages, and hematological values in captive Falco peregrinus Mutagenesis

    Stocker, Julian; Morel, Ana Paula; Wolfarth, Micaele; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; Niekraszewicz, Liana Appel Boufleur; Cademartori, Cristina V.; Silva, Fernanda R. da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract It is essential to determine the basal pattern of different biomarkers for future evaluation of animal health and biomonitoring studies. Due to their great displacement capacity and to being at the top of their food chains, birds of prey are suitable for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, some birds of prey are adapted to using resources in urban places, providing information about this environment. Thus, this study determined the basal frequency of micronuclei and other nuclear alterations in peripheral blood erythrocytes of Falco peregrinus. Hematological and inorganic elements analysis were also performed. For this purpose, 13 individuals (7 females and 6 males) were sampled in private breeding grounds. Micronucleus, nuclear buds, nucleoplasmic bridges, notched nuclei, binucleated cells and nuclear tails were quantified. Inorganic elements detected included the macro-elements Ca, P, Mg, Na, Cl, S and K as well as the micro-elements Fe, Al and Zn. Our study found similar values compared to previous studies determining the reference ranges of hematologic parameters in falcons. The only different value was observed in the relative number of monocytes. Thus, this study is the first approach to obtaining reference values of cytogenetic damage in this species and could be useful for future comparisons in biomonitoring studies.
  • The order of events on Avian coronavirus life cycle shapes the order of quasispecies evolution during host switches Evolutionary Genetics

    Brandão, Paulo E.; Berg, Mikael; Leite, Beatriz A.; Silva, Sheila O.S.; Taniwaki, Sueli A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract To understand the population genetics events during coronavirus host switches, the Beaudette strain of Avian coronavirus (AvCoV) adapted to BHK-21 cells was passaged 15 times in VERO cells, the virus load and the variants at each passage being determined by RT-qPCR and genome-length deep sequencing. From BHK-21 P2 to VERO P3, a trend for the extinction of variants was followed by stability up to VERO P11 and both the emergence and the rise in frequency in some variants, while the virus loads were stable up to VERO P12. At the spillover from BHK-21 to VERO cells, variants that both emerged, showed a rise in frequency or were extinguished were detected on the spike, while variants at the M gene showed the same pattern only at VERO passage 13. Furthermore, nsps 3-5, 9 and 15 variants were detected at lower passages compared to the consensus sequences, with those at nsp3 being detected in the spectra also at higher passages. This suggests that quasispecies coronavirus evolution in spillovers follows the virus life cycle, starting with the evolution of the receptor binding proteins, followed by the replicase and then proteins involved in virion assembly, keeping the general fitness of the mutant spectrum stable.
  • Optimization of cationic polymer-mediated transfection for RNA interference Cellular, Molecular And Developmental Genetics

    Fan, Xiaojie; Yang, Jingnan; Wu, Guangyao; Wang, Meiyi; Cheng, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chang; Liu, Qian; Wen, Yanan; Meng, Shuangshuang; Wang, Zhenxing; Lin, Xuhong; An, Lei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Transfection efficiency was estimated to optimize the conditions for RNA interference (RNAi), including transfection time, validity, and nucleic acid concentration and type, using the EZ Trans Cell Reagent, a cationic polymer. An shRNA against GFP was designed and transfected into cells using the EZ transfection reagent. The shRNA significantly decreased the expression of GFP. In addition, pre-diluted transfection reagent at room temperature and small nucleic acids increased the transfection efficiency, which peaked at 24 h. Compared with circular nucleic acids, linear nucleic acids showed higher transfection efficiency and a higher genome integration rate. We optimized cationic polymer-mediated RNAi conditions, and our data will be useful for future RNAi studies.
  • miR-140-3p suppresses the proliferation and migration of macrophages Cellular, Molecular And Developmental Genetics

    Qiao, Pingping; Zhu, Jun; Lu, Xiaoheng; Jin, Yifei; Wang, Yifan; Shan, Qianqian; Wang, Yaxian

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Macrophages benefit myelin debris removal, blood vessel formation, and Schwann cell activation following peripheral nerve injury. Identifying factors that modulate macrophage phenotype may advantage the repair and regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. microRNAs (miRNAs) are important regulators of many physiological and pathological processes, including peripheral nerve regeneration. Herein, we investigated the regulatory roles of miR-140-3p, a miRNA that was differentially expressed in injured rat sciatic nerves, in macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Observations from EdU proliferation assay demonstrated that elevated miR-140-3p decreased the proliferation rates of RAW264.7 cells while suppressed miR-140-3p increased the proliferation rates of RAW264.7 cells. Transwell-based migration assay showed that up-regulated and down-regulated miR-140-3p led to elevated and reduced migration abilities, respectively. However, the abundances of numerous phenotypic markers of M1 and M2 macrophages were not significantly altered by miR-140-3p mimic or inhibitor transfection. Bioinformatic analysis and miR-140-3p-induced gene suppression examination suggested that Smad3 might be the target gene of miR-140-3p. These findings illuminate the inhibitory effects of miR-140-3p on the proliferation and migration of macrophages and contribute to the cognition of the essential roles of miRNAs during peripheral nerve regeneration.
  • Investigation of changes in protein stability and substrate affinity of 3CL-protease of SARS-CoV-2 caused by mutations Genomics And Bioinformatics

    Akbulut, Ekrem

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 is one of the enzymes required for the replication process of the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, changes in protein stability and substrate affinity caused by mutations were investigated to stir the development of potent inhibitors. Sequence data of samples were obtained from the NCBI Virus database. Mutation analyses were performed with RDP4 and MegaX. 3CLpro tertiary models were created using Robetta. Molecular docking for peptidomimetic substrate and inhibitor ligand was done with Autodock v4.2 and Haddock v2.4. Protein stability analysis was performed using mCSM stability and DynaMut2. Twenty-four missense mutations in 3CLpro were identified in this study. Changes in the 3CLpro structure induced by the mutations Met49Thr, Leu167Ser, and Val202Ala resulted in significant levels of instability (-2.029,-2.612,-2.177 kcal.mol-1, respectively). The lowest interaction energy for substrate was -58.7 kcal.mol-1 and -62.6 kcal.mol-1 in wild-type and mutant, respectively. The lowest docking energy for ligand was -6.19 and -9.52 kcal.mol-1 for wild-type and mutant, respectively. This study reports for the first time that mutations cause increased substrate affinity of 3CLpro from SARS-CoV-2. This research provides important data for the development of potent peptidomimetic inhibitors for the treatment of COVID-19.
  • The past, present and future of genomics and bioinformatics: A survey of Brazilian scientists Genomics And Bioinformatics

    Rocha, Mariana; Massarani, Luisa; Souza, Sandro José de; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R. de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Brazil has one of the highest rates of scientific production, occupying the ninth position among countries with genome-sequencing projects. Considering the rapid development of this research area and the diversity of professionals involved, the present study aims to understand the expectations, past experiences and the current scenario of Brazilian research in bioinformatics and genomics. The present research was carried out by analyzing the perceptions of 576 researchers in genomics and bioinformatics in Brazil through content and sentiment analysis techniques. This group of participants is equivalent to 48% of the members of the research community. The results suggest that most researchers have a positive perception of the potential of this research area. However, there is concern about the lack of funding for investing in equipment and professional training. As part of a wish list for the future, researchers highlighted the need for higher funding, formal education, and collaboration among research networks. When asked about genomics and bioinformatics in other countries, the participants recognize that sequencing technologies and infrastructure are more accessible, allowing better data volume expansion.
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