Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The perception of prejudice against, and stigmatization of, sickle cell disease (SCD) leads the patient to perceive a different treatment, due to the disease stigma and maybe related to a worse quality of life (QoL). Objectives: Describe and evaluate the perception of the prejudice against the disease and its impact on the quality of life of patients with sickle cell disease. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study conducted between March 2019 and February 2020, with patients diagnosed with SCD. Patients were questioned about the perception of prejudice in any kind of situation, choosing between “Yes” or “No”, not differentiating situations related to prejudice. To assess the QoL and impact of the disease, the volunteers answered a version of the SF-36 questionnaire translated and validated into Brazilian Portuguese. Results: In this study, 113 patients with SCD were followed up, 92% were classified as HbSS and the rest, divided between HbSC and HbS-β-0. Regarding the SF-36, the worst scores were in the summary of the physical components (mean 48.19 ± 21.51) and the physical aspect had the lowest mean (30.75 ± €42.65). When questioned if they had already perceived any kind of prejudice, including the SCD, 32.74% answered “Yes”. For this comparison, there was a significant difference in the summary of the physical and mental components, with worse QoL for those who had already suffered prejudice. Conclusion: Patients diagnosed with SCD who reported perception of prejudice had statistically significant worse QoL, revealing the negative impact, that might lead to sadness and social isolation.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: During pregnancy, the iron requirement increases to meet the optimal growth of the fetus and prevent iron deficiency anemia-related complications in the mother. However, in sickle cell disease (SCD) primarily due to repeated blood transfusions and hemolysis-induced recycling of iron, its supplementation during pregnancy remains questionable and may be harmful. Methods: Twenty-five pregnant women with homozygous SCD and 25 pregnant women with normal hemoglobin variants were included as cases and control, respectively. Pregnancy and sickle cell anemia (SCA) were diagnosed using standard protocols. The serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), percentage transferrin saturation and C-reactive protein were estimated, as per the manufacturer’s protocol. The complete blood count was performed. The unpaired ‘t-test’ was performed using the SPSS v23.0 and the principal component analysis (PCA) was performed using the online software MetaboAnalyst for statistical analysis. Main Results: The studied cases had significantly lower mean hemoglobin and higher mean corpuscular volume (MCV), compared to controls. The mean serum-iron, serum-ferritin and percentage transferrin-saturation in the cases were significantly higher than that of the controls, while the TIBC was lower in the cases (p < 0.0001). The mean level of serum iron, ferritin, percentage transferrin saturation and TIBC were 309.44 ± 122.40mcg/dl, 860.36 ± 624.64ng/ml, 42.6 ± 17.30% and 241.32 ± 96.30 mcg/dl, respectively, in the cases and 95.36 ± 41.90mcg/dl, 122.28 ± 49.70ng/ml, 15.83 ± 3.10% and 492.6 ± 149.40mcg/dl in the controls, respectively. Higher MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) with lower hemoglobin (Hb) were noted in the cases. The PCA revealed that the cases were more heterogeneous in terms of the variability of the iron status and hematological indices than the controls. Conclusion: The current study shows iron sufficiency in most cases of pregnancy with SCA and suggests that evaluation of iron status must be made before initiating iron prophylaxis in pregnant women with SCA, especially in regions having a high prevalence of sickle cell hemoglobinopathy.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Improving survival of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) in adult patients has been a challenge. Despite intensive chemotherapy treatment, overall survival is poor. However, several studies demonstrate that young adult patients have better survival when treated with pediatric-based intensive regimens. Considering these results, We decided to treat newly diagnosed ALL patients according to age and risk factors. The goal of this study was to describe the results of this intensive chemotherapy treatment approach for ALL adult patients diagnosed at our institution. Methods: Fifty-eight ALL patients, diagnosed from 2004 to 2013, were included in the analysis. Patients were assigned to either the St. Jude Total Therapy XIIIB high-risk arm (St Jude) or the CALGB 8811 (CALGB). The Kaplan-Meier survival curve was used for the survival analyses and the Cox proportional hazard regression, for multivariable analysis. Results: The overall survival was 22.9% at 10 years. The St. Jude improved survival, compared to the CALGB (p = 0.007), with 32.6% vs. 7.4% survival rate at 10 years. However, no survival benefit was found for patients younger than 20 years old (p = 0.32). The multivariable analysis demonstrated that undetectable minimal residual disease (MRD) and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) had beneficial impact on survival (p = 0.0007 and p = 0.004, respectively). Conclusion: ALL is a disease of poor prognosis for adults. The joint effort to standardize treatment and seek solutions is the way to start improving this scenario.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Intrathecal chemotherapy is a mainstay component of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. In Mexico, there is a considerable practice variability in aspects, such as the manner of preparation and the administration technique. Objective: Our objective was to describe the different techniques used for the application of ITC and review the existing recommendations in the literature. Method: A cross-sectional, nationwide survey study was conducted by an electronic questionnaire sent to hematologists and oncologists in Mexico. We collected demographic data, personal experience, intrathecal chemotherapy techniques, drug preparation and postprocedural conduct. Results: We received 173 responses. Twenty percent had an anesthesiologist administering sedation and pain management. The platelet count considered safe was 50 × 109/L in 48% of the participants. In 77% (n = 133) of the cases, the conventional needle with stylet used was, 49% did not receive any added diluent in the intrathecal chemotherapy and only 42% were recommended to rest in a horizontal position for more than 30 min. Conclusion: We identified a considerable variation in the administration of intrathecal chemotherapy across the hematologists in Mexico. We discuss the implications and opportunities in reducing the variation in our setting, highlighting the unmet need to establish guidelines that should be evaluated by the Mexican professional society to produce a position paper regarding practice standardization.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Data on the prevalence of clinically significant antigens (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNSs, Lewis, P and Lutheran) among the Indian donor population is sparse. Objective: This prospective study was aimed at determining the prevalence of 21 clinically significant antigens for the first time in the South Indian donor population. Method: A total of 672 regular O group blood donors were enrolled for Rh (C, c, E, e) and Kell (K) antigens typing. Of these, 188 donors were typed for other clinically significant antigens (k, Kpa, Kpb, Jka, Jkb, Fya, Fyb, M, N, S, s, P1, Lea, Leb, Lua and Lub). Results: Antigen frequencies were expressed in percentages. In our study, R1R1 and rr were the most common phenotypes among D+ and D− donors, respectively. Among the Rh antigens, the e antigen was expressed by 97.5% and 100% of D+ and D− donors, respectively. The K antigen was found in only 0.15% of donors. In the Duffy and Kidd blood group system, Fy (a+b+) and Jk (a+b+) were the most frequent phenotypes, respectively. In the MNSs blood group system, M+N+ and S−s+ were the most common phenotypes reported. The Le (a−b+) was found to be the phenotype with the highest prevalence in the Lewis blood group system. The Lu (a−b+) was the only phenotype found in the Lutheran blood group system. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding the prevalence of antigens in a given population is essential in developing cost-effective in-house panels and a rare donor registry comprising donors typed negative for a high-frequency antigen or a combination of common multiple antigens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Brazil has many inequities in the healthcare provided nationwide. Therefore, in order to access challenges in treatment, available resources and current practices, to identify barriers in delivering a good quality of care among Brazilian centers treating children and adolescents with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and to generate a future prospective guideline, a customized online survey was distributed to pediatric hematologists and oncologists across the country. Results: A total of 97 surveys were completed (35% response rate), from 47 cities in all Brazilian regions and 79 units of care, with a median of 1 answer by the center (range 1 - 5). Most respondents work at an institution supported exclusively by public/philanthropic resources (58%), with an average of 5 to 9 new cases/year (49%), and 41% have 4 to 6 oncologists/centers. Additionally, 22% have no easy access to the intensive care unit, 26% have no access to Rasburicase, 28% have no access to Rituximabe as front-line therapy and 41% have unreliable methotrexate monitoring levels. Those differences cannot be explained thoroughly by regional wealth variances, nor by the financing model. Regarding the pathology service, 70% consider having reasonable quality assistance, but the timeframe to deliver diagnosis is satisfactory to 46%. There is no uniform management of care, with the current guideline from the Sociedade Brasileira de Oncologia Pediátrica being adopted by 54 to 59%, depending on the NHL subtype. Conclusion: This study provides insights into the heterogeneity of care among Brazilian centers. Recognizing those diversities will support the design of effective strategies and collaboration nationwide.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is most commonly presented in older adults; however, it appears 10 years earlier in Latin American countries. Clinical evolution in older adults from this populations has not been characterized. We analyzed outcomes and survival predictors. Methods: Patients ≥ 55 years old diagnosed with AML at a hematology referral center from 2005 to 2020 receiving intensive chemotherapy (IC), low-dose cytarabine (LDAC) and best supportive care (BSC) were included. Survival analysis included the Kaplan-Meier and Cox models and the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR). Results: Seventy-five adults were included and the overall survival (OS) was 4.87, 1.67 and 1.16 months, using IC, LDAC and BSC, respectively. The IC led to a higher OS (p < 0.001) and was a protective factor for early death, at a cost of more days spent hospitalized and more non-fatal treatment complications; non-significant differences were found between the LDAC and BSC. Eight (10.7%) patients underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation, with a higher OS (p = 0.013). Twenty (26.7%) patients achieved complete remission; 12 (60%) relapsed with a 6-month CIR of 57.9% in those < 70 years old vs. 86.5% in those ≥ 70 years old, p = 0.034. Multivariate analysis showed the white blood cell count (WBC) and IC had a significant impact on the patient survival, whereas chronological age and the Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) did not. Conclusion: AML in low-middle income countries demands a different approach; the IC improves survival, even with a high incidence of relapse, and should be offered as first-line treatment. Eligibility criteria should include WBC and a multidimensional evaluation. The age per se and the CCI should not be exclusion criteria to consider IC.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) leads to dismal outcomes. This study aimed to identify high-risk patients and explore the effects of cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation in a high CMV-seropositive population. Methods: The study involved a single-center retrospective cohort in Thailand, analyzing clinical risk factors and CMV-mediated immune responses, correlated with transplant outcomes in AML patients. Results: Eighty-five patients with AML in complete remission (CR) undergoing HLA-matched myeloablative allo-SCT between 2011 and February 2021 were enrolled. The relapse rate was 27.1% with the median time of 7 months after transplantation. The 3-year relapse-free-survival (RFS) and overall-survival (OS) were 72.2% and 80.8%, respectively. The disease status (>CR1) and absence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) were independently significant adverse prognostic factors of RFS and OS. Ninety-two percent of recipient-donor pairs were both CMV seropositive. The CMV reactivation occurred in 54.1% of the patients. The clinically significant CMV infection rate was 49.4%. No CMV syndrome/disease or CMV-related mortality occurred. One-year cumulative incidence of relapse among CMV-reactivation and non-reactivation groups were 14.3% and 25.6%, respectively, without a statistically significant difference. Transplantation-related mortality was 11.1%. Conclusions: The transplantation beyond CR1 and absence of cGVHD are powerful prognostic factors associated with inferior RFS and OS. In a high CMV prevalence country, there appears to be no impact of CMV reactivation on relapse in AML patients undergoing an allo-SCT.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Scientometrics is the field concerned with measuring and analyzing academic literature, using specific metrics and data from bibliometric databases. Hematology is a broad area of science and medicine, from which several landmark scientific discoveries have emerged. Objective: The aim of this report is to provide a snapshot of the landscape of hematology research in Brazil, based on a comprehensive analysis of published studies in hematology whose authors were affiliated to Brazilian institutions from 1980 to 2020. Method: Articles, reviews and letters to the editor with at least one author affiliated to a Brazilian institution were retrieved from Incytes/Web of Science or Scopus databases. Importantly, only papers classified in the subject area “Hematology” by the embedded algorithms of each database were included. Results: Considering all published papers, Brazil is in the 22nd position, contributing with around 1.1% of papers in this period. A clear and sustained increase in publication output can be observed from the early 1990’s to the present moment. Publicly-funded higher education institutions were the main contributors to the development and consolidation of the hematology scientific community, which has grown in diversity, with an increasing number of contributions from private institutions. In regard to funding, public agencies have been and remain by large as the most important funder of research in hematology in Brazil. Conclusion: We suggest that continuous monitoring of the temporal trends of some of the data compiled in our report could potentially contribute to a clearer picture of the development of hematology research in Brazil.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The data on the pattern of primary hematologic malignancies in Bahrain is sparse, although previously published studies suggested rising trends in their incidence. This study aimed to compare with regional and world data and identify any changing trends. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional chart analysis study was done on all cases of primary hematologic malignancies of bone marrow origin of Bahraini nationals presenting during the 10-year period from January 2005 to December 2014 at the sole oncology referral center in Bahrain during the study period. Results: In a total of 272 cases, the primary hematologic malignancies in decreasing order of frequency with respective median ages at diagnosis were: acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 26.1%, 39 years), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 22.8%, 9 years), multiple myeloma (MM, 16.2%, 57 years), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, 14%, 39.5 years), myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS; 12.5%, 56 years) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL; 5.5%, 65 years). The overall crude annual incidence rate of these malignancies was 4.8/105 population. Age-specific incidence rates were found to increase dramatically with age, except for ALL, for which it peaked in the pediatric age group. The age-standardized incidence rates (ASIRs) per 105 per year were 1.47 (AML), 1.13 (MM), 0.93 (ALL), 0.85 (MDS), 0.81 (CML) and 0.44 (CLL). Conclusion: The pattern of primary hematologic malignancies in Bahrain shows unique features that distinguish it from trends reported in Eastern and Western world populations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Although not mandatory, medical residency has become a sine qua non condition for practicing in most medical specialties in Brazil. Residency programs are hosted mainly by university accredited academic centers and hospitals in the national public healthcare system, under guidance and accreditation by a national commission. Despite the importance of these programs for the development of the hematology workforce, few studies have addressed their characteristics and impact on society. Methods: We performed a comprehensive cross-sectional survey of a 35-year alumni cohort from a hematology academic residency program in Brazil. Results: In total, 86/98 (87.8%) responded to the survey. The mean age at residency completion was 28.5 years, 60.5% of the alumni were women and sixty-four (74.4%) self-declared their skin color as white. Higher rates of parental education attainment and low rates of trainee financial dependence were observed and these patterns were stable over time. While the proportion of trainees from other states increased steadily, the number of hematologists practicing in other states remained stable. Approximately half of the alumni worked both in the private and public sectors, mainly in malignant hematology and in outpatient clinics. Twenty-five percent of the alumni reported prior leadership and teaching positions, mainly as directors of transfusion services. Conclusion: Our results provide data that can be potentially useful for policymakers and curricular development in the planning of strategies concerning the future workforce of hematologists.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Although still rare, pulmonary embolism (PE) in children has been increasing over the years. Data regarding this group of patients are still sparse, which contributes to the lack of standardized prophylaxis protocols and the misdiagnosis. This study aimed to determine the incidence of pediatric PE at a Brazilian tertiary hospital, describe clinical characteristics and identify possible risk factors. We also analyzed the diagnosis and management of PE. Methods: This was a retrospective review of tertiary Brazilian single-center data of all pediatric patients (0 – 18 years) with acute PE, diagnosed radiologically, from September 2009 to May 2019. Results: The incidence of PE was 3.3 cases per 10,000 hospitalized children. All the twenty-three cases had some risk factor identified and sixteen of them (69.5%) had more than one risk factor. The most important were central venous catheter (39.1%), malignancy (34.8%) and recent surgery (34.8%). Among the children with identifiable symptoms (69.5%), the most common was dyspnea (56.2%). Only one patient did not receive antithrombotic therapy because of the high bleeding risk and most patients (70.6%) were treated for 3 to 6 months. Among the nineteen patients alive at the end of the six-month follow-up, ten (52.6%) repeated the PE image control. Seven of them (70.0%) had complete or partial resolution of the thrombosis and none had worsening images. Conclusion: Our lower incidence than that of the current literature may reflect underdiagnosis due to low suspicion of PE. At least one risk factor was identified in all patients, which emphasizes the importance of increasing awareness of high-risk children.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The Band 3 is a red blood cell protein that carries the Dia and Dib antigens from the Diego blood system. The SLC4A1 gene encodes Band 3; Band 3 Memphis is a polymorphism of normal Band 3 and has two variants, but only the variant II carries the Dia antigen. Objectives: Describe the frequencies of the DI*A and DI*B alleles and the Band 3 Memphis among blood donors, sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and Amazonian Indians. Methods: A total of 427 blood samples were collected and separated into three groups: 206 unrelated blood donors, 90 patients with SCD and 131 Amazonian Indians. We performed DI*A/B, normal Band 3 and Band 3 Memphis genotyping, using the Polymerase Chain Reaction Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR–RFLP). Results: The frequency of the DI*A/DI*A genotype was 0.5% in blood donors and it was not found in other groups. The frequency of the DI*A/DI*B was higher in Amazonian Indians (33.6%) and the frequency of the DI*B/DI*B was highest in blood donors (92.2%). All 105 individuals tested were positive for the presence of normal Band 3 and of these individuals, only 5/105 (4.8%) presented the Band 3 Memphis mutation. Conclusion: We observed a higher frequency of the DI*B allele in blood donors and a low frequency of the DI*A/DI*A genotype in all groups studied. The Band 3 Memphis was found in a higher frequency in the blood donor group. Our findings highlight the importance of analyzing different population groups to gain a better understanding of the genetic association of blood group antigens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: In Africa, where access to diagnosis and treatment of hemophilia is the lowest in the world, prophylaxis is rarely used in preference to on-demand treatment. There are limited data of prophylaxis treatment from sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical outcomes and inhibitor development in people with hemophilia receiving low-dose prophylaxis (LDP) in a sub-Saharan African setting. Methods: We conducted a three-year prospective study. A once or twice weekly prophylaxis regimen of 25 IU/kg of rFVIIIFc or 30 IU/kg of rFIXFc was given to Hemophilia A and B, respectively. We evaluated clinical outcomes and inhibitors occurrence, determined by screening and titration using the Nijmegen technique. Results: A total of 15 patients were included in the LDP regimen. The mean age was 6.3 years (1.5 - 10). A significant reduction was noted in the annualized bleeding rate, from 7.53 to 1.33 (p = 0.0001); the annualized joint bleeding rate passed from 3.6 to 1.4 (p = 0.001) and the proportion of severe bleeding, from 86.1% to 16.7% (p = 0.0001). The Hemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS) moved from 9.6 to 3.4 (p = 0.0001) and the Functional Independence Score in Hemophilia (FISH) improved from 25.8 to 30.9 (p = 0.0001). School absenteeism decreased from 7.33% to 2.59%. Adherence to prophylaxis was 89.5% versus 60%. Consumption was 580 IU/kg/year versus 1254.6 IU/kg/year before and after prophylaxis, respectively. Incidence of inhibitors was 23% (3 /13 HA). Conclusion: The LDP in Hemophilia improves the clinical outcome without a surplus risk of inhibitor development. Using extended half-life clotting factor concentrates (CFCs) is better for prophylaxis in resource-limited countries, as they allow better compliance in treatment.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The Glanzmann Thrombasthenia (GT) and Bernard-Soulier Syndrome (BSS) are rare hereditary disorders of platelet function. Their treatment often requires platelet transfusion, which can lead to the development of alloantibodies. Objective: In this study, we aim to develop a strategy for alloantibody detection and to describe the frequency of alloimmunization in a patient population from a single center in southeastern Brazil. Methods: Samples from patients with GT or BSS were tested using the Platelet Immunofluorescence Test (PIFT). If a positive result was obtained, a confirmatory step using the Monoclonal Antibody Immobilization of Platelet Antigens (MAIPA) and Luminex bead-based platelet assay (PAKLx) was executed. Main results: Among 11 patients with GT, we detected the presence of alloantibodies in 5 using PIFT, with confirmation through MAIPA and PAKLx in 2 (1 anti-HLA and 1 anti-HPA), resulting in a frequency of 18.1%. Among 4 patients with BSS, PIFT was positive in 3, with confirmation by MAIPA and PAKLx in 1 (anti-HLA), showing a frequency of 25%. The two patients with anti-HLA antibodies exhibited a panel reactive antibody (PRA-HLA) testing greater than 97%. Conclusion: Our study highlights the importance of identifying platelet alloimmunization in this patient population. The proposed algorithm for platelet alloantibodies detection allows resource optimization.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) presents a poor prognosis in adults. The adoption of pediatric protocols has been changing this scenario, especially for adolescents and young adults (AYA). Objective and method: We aimed to evaluate a consecutive series of patients treated at the State Institute of Hematology of Rio de Janeiro between 2012 and 2020, focusing on the AYA subgroup. Result: The B-ALL was the most frequent subtype (81.6%) and AYA, the predominant age group (57.7%). The median overall survival (OS) was 9.4 months. High early mortality was observed and sepsis was the main cause of death. Better OS results were noted in AYA, in comparison to over 39y (13.3 × 6.2 months, respectively), the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) being the protocol of choice in this group. Conclusion: The use of the pediatric protocol seems to improve the OS of AYA, however, high rates of deaths from infection were observed, demonstrating the need for advances in the Brazilian public system clinical support.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and estimate the cost of basic care in sickle cell disease (SCD) for patients under five years of age, within the scope of the Unified Health System (SUS) and to discuss the costs related to possible complications of the disease from the literature. Methods: The main management and conduct recommendations in the SCD up to five years of age, with healthy and baseline health status, were extracted from the Basic Guidelines of the Care Line in the SCD of the Ministry of Health. Systematic data regarding costs of medicines were extracted from the Medicine Market Regulation Chamber. The SUS Table of Procedures, Medicines and Orthotics, Prosthetics and Auxiliary Means of Movement Management System was the guide for the values of complementary exams, as well as for medical consultations. The values applied to calculate the vaccination schedule were extracted from the Pan American Health Organization, adopting the perspective of the SUS-paying costs. Results: The total cost obtained for basic care of SCD in children up to five years of age, including the use of antibiotic prophylaxis, immunizations and the performance of transcranial Doppler ultrasound in the prevention and early detection of cerebrovascular accidents was, on average, $1020.96. Conclusion: The cost-effectiveness of prophylaxis in SCD, up to five years of age, exceeds the expenses resulting from hospitalizations due to complications of the disease. The study of expenses associated with SCD could be used to establish public policies, improve prevention strategies and treat the symptoms and complications of the disease.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) are a heterogeneous group of lymphoid proliferations occurring after solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. The primary aims of our study were to characterize cumulative incidence of PTLDs, clinical and pathological features according to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) status and survival. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study on adult and pediatric patients, from January 2001 to December 2017. The cumulative incidence of PTLD was calculated by analyzing all the patients transplanted at our hospital, based on the database of the Organ Donation and Ablation Authority of Argentina (INCUCAI). The Kaplan-Meier method was used to plot the survival. Results: Fifty-eight cases of biopsy-confirmed PTLD were identified and 12 cases of clinical data were incomplete and these patients were excluded. The median age at the time of the PTLD diagnosis was 17.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 9 - 57). The median interval between transplant and PTLD diagnosis was 39 months (IQR 9 - 113). The most commonly transplanted organ was the liver (24 cases, 52.2%), followed by kidney (20 cases, 43.5%). The Epstein-Barr encoding region in situ hybridization (EBER ISH) was positive in 29 (69.8%) of the 43 evaluable biopsies. The PTLD cumulative incidence was 1.84% (95%CI 1.77 - 1.91) for solid organ and 0.84% (95%CI 0.48 - 1.2) for bone marrow transplant patients. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 0.77 (95%CI 0.61 - 0.87). Subgroups by the EBV EBER status, transplant type, PTLD subtype and age group (adult vs. pediatric) showed no statistically significant association with the overall survival. Conclusion: The PTLD incidence was similar to that of previous series and the EBER did not appear as a relevant factor in our patient survival.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Acute promyelocytic leukemia currently presents an excellent chance of cure with protocols based on all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline or only differentiation agents. However, high early mortality rates continue to be reported Methods: Between 2000 and 2018, patients were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed by medical records. A modified AIDA protocol, with a 1-year shortening of the treatment duration, reduction in the number of drugs and a strategy to reduce early mortality by the postponement of the initiation of anthracyclines were employed. Overall and event-free survival rates and toxicity were analyzed Results: Thirty-two patients were enrolled, of whom 56% were female, with a median age of 12 years and 34% belonged to the high-risk group. Two patients had the hypogranular variant and three had another cytogenetic alteration, in addition to the t(15;17). The median start of the first anthracycline dose was 7 days. There were two early deaths (6%) due to central nervous system (CNS) bleeding. All patients achieved molecular remission after the consolidation phase. Two children relapsed and were rescued by arsenic trioxide and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. The presence of disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) at diagnosis (p = 0.03) was the only factor with survival impact. The five-year event-free survival (EFS) was 84% and 5-year overall survival (OS) was 90% Conclusion: The survival results were comparable to those found in the AIDA protocol, with a low rate of early mortality in relation to the Brazilian reality.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The remission induction treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has remained unchanged in the resource-limited setting in the Philippines. AML treatment consists of induction chemotherapy followed by high dose consolidation chemotherapy or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In the Philippines, the Filipino household bears the burden of health care cost of hospitalization expenditure. Insights into the treatment costs becomes an essential requirement as these guides the allocation of resources to scheme health programs. Method: This study involved a retrospective cohort analysis of AML patients who underwent treatment for AML. Review of the statements of account per admission per patient during treatment for remission induction, consolidation, relapsed and refractory disease and best supportive care from 2017 to 2019. Of the 251 eligible patients, 190 patients were included. Result: The mean healthcare expenditure for remission induction chemotherapy (Phase 1) was US $2, 504.78 (Php 125,239.29). While 3 to 4 cycles of consolidation chemotherapy cost an average of US $3,222.72 (Php 162,103.20). For patients who had relapsed and refractory disease, an additional mean cost of US $3,163.32 (Php 159,115.28) and US $2, 914.72 (Php 146,610.55) were incurred, respectively. The average cost of palliative care was US $1,687.00 (Php 84,856.59). Conclusion: The cost of chemotherapy and other therapeutics bear most of the weight of the direct healthcare cost. The cost of AML treatment represents a significant economic burden for patients and the institution. The cost increases as patients proceed through subsequent lines of treatment for induction failure. Existing subsidy for health insurance benefits could still be improved for appropriate source allocation of resources.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: Colombia has been subject to intense genetic and cultural currents due to its geographical location. Hemoglobinopathies are the most common recessive diseases found worldwide and represent an important public health problem, according to the region and ancestry of each country. Objectives: To evaluate the frequency of hemoglobin variants according to the geographical region in a population group adjusted to sex and age in Colombia. Methods: This was a descriptive retrospective study of hemoglobin variants performed by electrophoresis in patients treated at and/or referred to specialized care institutions in Bogota, Colombia between January 2009 and December 2020. Results: A total of 2,224 results were analyzed, 48.4% male and 51.5% female; 63.3% of patients were without alterations, 14.3% presented with thalassemia, 17.3%, HbS, 2.3%, HbS/C, 1.8%, HbC, 0.5%, HbE and 0.5% persistent HbF, with HbS being more prevalent in males (p = 0.005). When assessing the geographical regions of Colombia, a higher prevalence of HbS was found in the Pacific (p = 0.005) and Caribbean regions, while Thalassemia and HbS were more prevalent in the Andean and Orinoquia regions, and it was rare to find any hemoglobinopathies (p = 0.0001) in the Amazonian region. Conclusions: The main hemoglobinopathies found in Colombia are HbS, predominantly in males, and Thalassemia. The distribution of hemoglobinopathies in different geographical regions of Colombia is influenced by ancestry.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Introduction: The therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) controls the systemic cytokine level and might improve the immune response in patients with severe Coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. To date, in developing countries, no study has explored the effectiveness and risk factors in a population with severe COVID-19 exposed to the TPE. Method: We described the risk factors associated with survival rates higher than 28 days and length of stay (LOS) in the intensive care unit (ICU) shorter than 15 days. Severe COVID-19 cases treated with TPE were included, from August 2020 to June 2021. Survival analysis with Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate logistic regressions were conducted to assess patient-related factors that could predict a higher survival rate and the ICU LOS. Results: A total of 99 patients with severe COVID-19 who had received TPE were followed during their hospital stay and for 28 days after discharge. The sample was composed of men (63%) aged 56 ± 16 years. The overall survival rate at 28 days was 80%. The ICU LOS (p = 0.0165) and mechanical ventilation (MV) (p = 0.00008) were considered factors that could increase the risk of death. Patient-related factors that influenced the 28-day mortality were the smoking status (OR = 5.8; 95%CI 1.5, 22) and history of oncologic or non-malignant hematologic diseases (OR = 5.9; 95%CI 1.2, 29). Conclusion: Patients with severe COVID-19 exposed to the TPE were associated with a 20% risk of death in a 28-day observation window, appearing to be lower than previous treatments. Active smoking, cancer and immunosuppressive conditions should be considered as relevant variables to be controlled in future trials on the TPE and COVID-19.