International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology, Volume: 25, Issue: 2, Published: 2021
  • COVID-19: Priority Use of N95 Mask or Double Mask Editorial

    Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; de Matos, Fatima Cristina Mendes
  • Is Early Traumatic Facial Nerve Surgery a Priority during the COVID-19 Pandemic? Letters to the Editor

    Faramarzi, Mohammad; Faramarzi, Ali; Hosseinialhashemi, Milad

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract As otolaryngologists are exposed to high risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection, logic and evidence-based prioritization for surgeries is essential to reduce the risk of infection amongst healthcare workers. Several clinical guidelines and surgery prioritizing recommendations have been published during the COVID-19 pandemic. They recommended the surgery in the setting of immediate facial nerve paralysis within 72 hours after trauma, but none of the previous studies in the literature suggests that the optimal timing of operation should be less than 2 weeks from injury.
  • Comparison of Clinical Examination and Various Imaging Modalities in the Diagnosis of Head and Neck Cancer Original Research

    Schneider, Uwe; Graß, Inse; Laudien, Martin; Quetz, Joachim; Graefe, Hendrik; Wollenberg, Barbara; Meyer, Jens Eduard

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Squamous cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (HNSCC) is the most common tumor entity of malignant processes in the head and neck area. Due to the metastasizing behavior of these tumors, the staging is indispensable for the treatment planning and requires imaging techniques, which are sensitive, specific, and as far as possible cost-effective, to benefit ultimately the patient and to ensure optimal care. Objectives The aim of the present study is to compare the clinical examination including palpation, ultrasound and computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of neck metastases to make the correct indication for a neck dissection. Methods Data from 286 patients with HNSCC were analyzed for neck metastases to determine which diagnostic tool is the best to answer the question if a neck dissection is necessary or not. Each study method was examined retrospectively by comparing sensitivity, specificity, the positive/negative predictive value, the positive likelihood ratio and the diagnostic accuracy. Results The ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 91.52%, a specificity of 61.67%, a positive/negative predictive value of 76.65%/84.09%, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.39 and a diagnostic accuracy of 78.95%. The clinical examination showed a sensitivity of 75.76%, a specificity of 66.12%, a positive/negative predictive value of 75.30%/66.67%, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.24 and a diagnostic accuracy of 71.68%. The CT/MRI showed a sensitivity of 78.66%, a specificity of 62.50%, a positive/negative predictive value of 74.14%/68.18%, a positive likelihood ratio of 2.10 and a diagnostic accuracy of 71.83%. Radiographically, ultrasound, as well as the clinical examination, could be judged to be free from radiation load and side effects from the contrast medium. The high dependence on the investigator when using ultrasound made reproducibility of the results difficult. Conclusions It could be shown that ultrasound was the diagnostic tool with the highest sensitivity, positive/negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and diagnostic accuracy by detecting and interpreting metastases in the head and neck region correctly. Whether a neck dissection should be performed depends to a large extent on the ultrasound findings.
  • Routine Use of Swallowing Outcome Measures Following Head and Neck Cancer in a Multidisciplinary Clinic Setting Original Research

    Zuydam, Annette C.; Rogers, Simon N.; Grayson, Kate

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Chemoradiotherapy treatment for head and neck cancer (HNC) can have a major impact on swallowing function and health-related quality of life. The use of outcome measures in early detection of patients with swallowing problems provides the opportunity for targeting speech and language therapy (SLT) interventions to aid adaption and promote better clinical outcomes. Objective The purpose of the present study was to assess relationships between four outcomes measures over time, in a cohort of HNC patients, treated by (chemo-)radiotherapy. Methods Data were collected at 3 months and 12 months, on 49 consecutive patients with primary squamous cell cancer of the oropharynx, nasopharynx or hypopharynx stage T1-4, N0-2b, M0 disease. Results Out of 49 eligible patients, 45 completed assessment at 3 months and 20 at 12 months. The 3-month outcomes gave a strong indication of performance at 1 year. There were several strong correlations found between measures. The strongest was between the 3-month Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer (PSSHN) and the 12-month PSSHN (rs = 0.761, n = 17), the 12-month PSSHN and the 12-month Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) (rs = 0.823, n = 20), and the 12-month University of Washington Head and Neck Quality of Life (UWQoL) swallow and the 12-month Water Swallow Test (WST) capacity (rs = 0.759, n = 17). Conclusion The UW-QoL swallow item and WST are easy to incorporate into routine care and should be used as part of a standard assessment of swallow outcome. These measures can serve to help screen patients for dysfunction and focus allocation of resources for those who would benefit from more comprehensive assessment and intervention by SLT.
  • A Five-Year Review on Pediatric Foreign Body Aspiration Original Research

    Nasir, Zuraini Mohammad; Subha, Sethu Thakachy

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Foreign body aspiration is a leading cause of accidental death in children. Clinical presentation varies from non-specific respiratory symptoms to respiratory failure making diagnosis challenging. Objective To review pediatric patients who underwent bronchoscopy due to suspicion of foreign body aspiration at a tertiary center in Malaysia. Methods We retrospectively studied patients > 11 years old who underwent bronchoscopy from 2008 to 2018. Results Over the 10-year period, 20 patients underwent bronchoscopy, and 16 were found to have foreign body aspiration with equal gender distribution. The most common age group was > 3 years old (75%). The most common clinical presentations were choking (82%) and stridor (31%). Foreign bodies were removed using flexible bronchoscope in 8 cases (50%), and difficulties were encountered in 6 cases (75%). Rigid ventilating bronchoscope was used in 8 cases (50%) with no difficulty. The most common object found was peanut (19%). The majority of foreign bodies were lodged in the right bronchus (43%). Eight patients (80%) received delayed treatment due to delayed diagnosis. The length of hospital stay was longer in the younger age groups. Conclusion Clinical presentation and chest radiograph findings were comparable across all age groups. The most difficulties encountered during foreign body removal were via flexible bronchoscope, in children > 3 years old. There was no significant correlation between age and type of foreign body aspiration. The majority of patients who received delayed treatment were > 3 years old. The length of hospital stay was longer in the younger age groups.
  • Effect of Vitiligo on Auditory Functions: Is There Any Association? Original Research

    Singh, Vishal; Guleria, Trilok C.; Azad, Ramesh K.; Mohindroo, Narender K.; Sharma, Devraj

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary disorder of unknown etiology, clinically characterized by whitish macules caused by selective loss of melanocytes. There are many melanocytes in the human cochlea. Recent studies have suggested a direct relation between cochlear dysfunction and decreased amounts of melanin. Objective To determine the effect of vitiligo on auditory function. Methods The present prospective, case control study was performed over a period of 1 year in patients between 15 and 40 years old with nonsegmental disease and the same number of controls. Pure tone audiometry (PTA) and Otoacoustic emission (OAE) were performed to analyze the correlation between vitiligo and auditory function. Results The mean pure tone audiometric threshold in the right ear at 0.5, 8 kHz, and in the left ear at the frequency of 8 kHz in the case group were significantly higher as compared with controls. The average band reproducibility (%) in the right and left ear of controls was significantly higher at the frequency of 4 kHz as compared with cases. It has been observed that signal to noise ratio was statistically higher at the frequency of 5kHz in the right ear and at 2, 3, and 5kHz in the left ear in controls as compared with cases. On the basis of disease type and duration of disease; mean pure tone audiometric threshold, average band reproducibility and signal to noise ratio, no significant effect was observed in the present study. Conclusion Vitiligo has an effect on cochlear function irrespective of the duration or distribution of the disease.
  • Sound Generator: Analysis of the Effectiveness of Noise in the Habituation of Tinnitus Original Research

    Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia; Cabreira, Aline Faure; Matos, Izabella Lima de; Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Rocha, Andressa Vital

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Tinnitus is a disorder that affects 10 to 15% of de world's population. Sound therapy performed through hearing aids (HAs) with integrated sound generator (SG) is one of the forms of tinnitus treatment. Objective To analyze the effectiveness of four masking noises in relieving tinnitus in individuals with mild and moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss and their influence in speech perception. Methods The participants were 35 individuals with tinnitus and mild and moderate bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, divided into four groups. All groups underwent HA and SG adaptation, being regulated in the combined mode (HA and SG). In group 1 (G1), the white noise stimulus was applied, in group 2 (G2), pink noise was applied, in group 3 (G3), speech noise, and in group 4 (G4), the high tone was applied. All patients were subjected to the following procedures: audiological diagnosis, acuphenometry, tinnitus handicap inventory (THI), visual analogue scale (VAS), and hearing in noise test (HINT). The procedures were performed prior to and after hearing intervention, and after 3 months of use of HA and SG. Results All groups presented a statistically significant difference for the THI, VAS, and HINT pre and postintervention. In the case of the HINT, only pink noise presented a significant difference. However, in the comparation among groups there was no significant difference. Conclusion The present study made it possible to conclude that the four noises were equally effective in relieving tinnitus, with no statistically significant differences between the analyzed groups.
  • Sleep lifestyle correlate of dizziness among teachers Original Research

    Ciquinato, Daiane Soares de Almeida; Gibrin, Paula Carolina Dias; Félix, Carla Juliana Lotti; Bazoni, Jessica Aparecida; Marchiori, Luciana Lozza de Moraes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Some studies have shown associations between sleep quality and dizziness. However, this association has not been investigated in teachers. Objective To verify a possible association between dizziness complaint and sleep quality in teachers. Methods Cross-sectional study developed with 96 school teachers (mean age of 47.8 ± 9.8 years). To assess dizziness, an audiological assessment was performed, which was the same one used in routine audiological care (Miller protocol). The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) was applied to those individuals who reported dizziness. To evaluated sleep quality, the Pittsburgh sleep quality index was used. Results The prevalence of dizziness was 22.9% (n = 22). Of these, 77.3% (n = 17) were women, 63.6% (n = 14) demonstrated poor sleep quality, and 54.5% (n = 12) were young adults (27-48 years). In the comparison between the dizziness and the control groups, no statistically significant differences were found (p> 0.05). The analysis adjusted for the confounding variables showed a difference for men in the sleep efficiency variable (p = 0.043); young adults showed a statistically significant difference in the total score (p = 0.021) and total sleep time (p = 0.029). There was a moderate correlation between DHI and total time in bed (p = 0.036, r = 0.497) and DHI and sleep efficiency (p = 0.014; r = -0.582). Conclusion Dizziness influences the quality of sleep in teachers, especially that of the youngest and male patients. There was a moderate correlation between total time in bed, sleep efficiency, and DHI, demonstrating that sleep quality should be considered an important factor in the assessment and rehabilitation process of dizziness.
  • Association between Thyroiditis and Multifocality in Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Original Research

    Dedivitis, Rogério Aparecido; Matos, Leandro Luongo de; Souza, Felipe Guilherme Silva; Bogado Ortiz, Jose Luis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) shares many characteristics with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and some studies show that, when associated, PTC is diagnosed mostly with smaller lesions and multifocal pattern. Objective To evaluate the relationship between HT and PTC. Methods A retrospective study of 155 patients who underwent total thyroidectomy from 2009 to 2015. Demographical, clinical and ultrasonographical data, as well as anatomopathological findings were evaluated. Results There were signs of thyroidits in 35 patients, and 114 patients had a unifocal disease. There was no statistical significance between the variables studied and thyroiditis. However, when compared with the occurrence of unifocal or multifocal lesions, there was statistical significance regarding age (p = 0.038) and mass (p = 0.031). There was no direct relationship between thyroiditis and multifocality (p = 0.325) nor between thyroiditis and cervical extension of the disease (p = 0.300 e p = 0.434). Conclusion There was no relationship between thyroiditis and multifocality in cases of PTC.
  • Audiological Outcome in Myringoplasties with an Intact Ossicular Chain: Is there a Difference between Chronic Otitis with or without Cholesteatoma? Original Research

    Sarolli, Eduardo de Barros; Linder, Thomas Edwin

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Chronic otitis media (COM) with a central perforation or a concomitant cholesteatoma are both inflammatory lesions, however, with different etiologies. Both entities may present with an intact chain, and the final reconstruction is quite similar. Does it also apply for the hearing outcome? Objectives In a retrospective analysis, we investigated the preoperative hearing and the final hearing outcome of two groups of patients: those with COM and those with cholesteatoma, and compared various factors. Methods Patients operated between 2010 and 2019 were entered prospectively into a research database, and the integrity of the ossicular chain, the extent of the cholesteatoma, and the findings on computed tomography (CT) scans were retrospectively analyzed and correlated to the final hearing outcome. Results Out of 210 tympanoplasties for COM, 162 (80%) presented with an intact chain, and 85 (40%) ears could be analyzed. Out of 283 cholesteatoma surgeries, 53 (19%) ears presented with an intact chain. The preoperative air-bone gap (ABG) was worse in the COM group, but the postoperative ABG over the frequencies of 0.5 kHz and 4 kHz was the same (10 dB to 12 dB) in both groups, and remained within 20 dB in 90% (40 and 78 patients, respectively). The extension of the disease was rather limited in the cholesteatoma group (stages Ch1a and 1b), and better pneumatization and ventilation were beneficial for a good result. Postoperatively, the frequency of 4 kHz had the largest ABG (14 dB and 18 dB). Conclusion Overall, 80% of the patients with COM and less than 20% of those with cholesteatoma had an intact and mobile chain at surgery. Using equivalent surgical techniques for the tympanoplasty, the final outcome was almost the same for both groups, with a mean ABG of 10 dB to 12 dB.
  • Do Blood Cell Parameters have a Predictive Role in the Etiology and Severity Pediatric Antrochoanal Polyp Cases? Original Research

    Özçelik Korkmaz, Müge; Çelik, Bilgehan; Turan, Fatih; Güven, Mehmet; Güven, Ebru

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction There are no definitive parameters to guide the etiology and severity of pediatric antrochoanal polyps. Objective The aim of our study is to compare the values of blood cell distribution parameters in cases of pediatric antrochoanal polyps (ACPs) with those of the control group. These values may be guiding parameters in determining the etiology of ACPs and evaluating the severity of the disease and the risk of recurrence. Methods Blood count values of patients operated for pediatric ACPs were retrospectively analyzed and compared with the data of the control group with the same age and gender distribution. The ACPs group was divided into subgroups in terms of inflammation, severity, and recurrence, and these subgroups were statistically compared as well. Results When the ACP patient group and the control group were compared, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups. When we compared the patients considering the CT findings, there was a statistically significant difference between the stage III patients and the control group in terms of mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) values (p < 0.05 in both). Similarly, the MPV and PLR values were significantly higher in the recurrence patient group than in the control group. (p < 0.05 in both). Conclusion As a result of the data obtained, it can be suggested that inflammatory parameters in pediatric cases of ACPs vary in terms of recurrence and the severity of the disease.
  • Balancing the Loudness in Speech Processors and Contralateral Hearing Aids in Users of Unilateral Cochlear Implants Original Research

    Magalhães, Ana Tereza Matos; Carvalho, Amanda; Tsuji, Robinson Koji; Bento, Ricardo Ferreira; Goffi-Gomez, Maria Valéria Schmidt

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The use of cochlear implants and hearing aids (bimodal) has been growing with the expansion of the indication for them, and it is important to ensure protocols so that there is a balance of the loudness regarding the two devices. Objective To evaluate if the limited complex sounds present in the frequency bands of the current devices enable the balance of the loudness in adult users of bimodal stimulation, and to analyze if speech recognition improves after balancing. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study with convenience sampling. The sample was composed of 25 adults who had used either a cochlear implant for at least 6 months or a contralateral hearing aid, with a mean age of 46 years. The balancing of the loudness was performed in an acoustic room with the computer's sound box (0° azimuth at 70 dB SPL). The instrumental sounds were filtered through eight different frequency bands. The patients used both hearing devices and were asked if the sound was perceived to be louder in one of the ears or centrally. The speech test was evaluated with sentence silence (65 dB SPL) and/or noise signal ratio of 0 dB/+ 10 dB in free field at 0° azimuth, before and after balancing. Results: Out of the 25 patients, 5 failed to achieve balance at every tested frequency, and 3 achieved balance at almost every frequency, except 8 kHz. There was a significant difference between the speech recognition test only in silence before and after balancing. Conclusion: Most patients achieved sound equalization at all evaluated frequencies under the complex-sound protocol. Additionally, most patients experienced improved speech recognition after balancing.
  • The Role of Imaging in the Preoperative Assessment of Patients with Nasal Obstruction and Septal Deviation-A Retrospective Cohort Study Original Research

    Carmel-Neiderman, Narin Nard; Safadi, Ahmad; Wengier, Anat; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Warshavsky, Anton; Ringel, Barak; Horowitz, Gilad; Fliss, Dan M.; Abergel, Avraham

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Isolated nasal obstruction (INO) is a common complaint of multiple etiology. The preoperative evaluation of patients presenting with nasal obstruction and deviated nasal septum (DNS) does not typically include imaging. The benefits of performing computed tomography (CT) in the preoperative setting are inconclusive. Objective Assessing the contribution of preoperative CT to the surgical treatment of non-sinusitis patients presenting with INO and DNS. Methods A retrospective cohort study on patients referred to surgery for nasal obstruction due to DNS or turbinate hypertrophy between 2006 and 2015. Data was retrieved from patients' medical charts. The CT scans and clinical data were reassessed by a second surgeon blinded to the patients' clinical course. Results Seventy of the 843 patients (8.06%) who underwent endoscopic sinonasal procedures during the study period had presented with INO and met the inclusion criteria. Thirty-eight (55.88%) of them underwent CT scans during their preoperative assessment. Modification of the initial preoperative planning based on the radiological findings was required in 32 cases (84.2%). When reassessed by a second blinded surgeon, 58% of cases required surgical modification rather than classical submucosal resection of nasal septum and turbinate reduction (P = 0.048). Conclusion Computed tomography was found beneficial in the preoperative planning for patients with INO. The original surgical plan based upon physical examination findings was modified based on radiological findings in 84.2% of the patients.
  • Adult Perfomance on the Sustained Auditory Attention Skill Test Original Research

    José, Maria Renata

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The Sustained Auditory Attention Ability Test (SAAAT) is an instrument used to assess sustained auditory attention in children. Difficulties related to this ability are not unique to children alone, as adults have been observed to present with the same deficits. Therefore, there is a need to adapt instruments like the SAAAT and provide reference values for adults. Objective To assess adult performance on the SAAAT. Methods Approved by the Human Research Ethics Committee under n° 034/2011. The sample consisted of 30 participants aged between 18 and 30 years old (average age = 24.2 years old), female and male. The inclusion criteria were: peripheral hearing within normal limits, type A tympanometric curve, and no attention-related complaints. The participants were submitted to Tonal Audiometry, Logoaudiometry, Immitanciometry and to the SAAAT. Results The following mean values and standard deviations (SD) were observed: inattention = 1.7 (SD = 2.2) and impulsivity = 0.8 (SD = 0.9) error types. For the SAAAT, the mean value for the total error score was 2.4 (SD = 2.6), and for the decrease in vigilance, it was 0.3 (SD = 0.5). When comparing the performance of adults and children, a statistically significant difference was observed for inattention (p = 0.000) and impulsivity (p = 0.001) error types, as well as in the total error score (p = 0.000) and in decreased vigilance (p = 0.0003). Conclusion The performance of adults in the SAAAT differed from the children's parameters, since adults showed lower scores in all variables of the instrument.
  • Zuma Modified Maneuver as a Treatment to Geotropic Lateral Semicircular Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo Original Research

    Ramos, Bernardo Faria; Brock, Camila Martins; Mangabeira Albernaz, Pedro Luiz; Zuma e Maia, Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) is the most common vestibular disorder, resulting from detached otoliths that migrate to one of the semicircular canals - canalolithiasis - or one of the cupulas - cupulolithiasis. The present study is related to lateral canal BPPVs, which may be either geotropic or apogeotropic. The geotropic variant of lateral semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (LC-BPPV) is attributed to free floating particles in the posterior arm of the lateral semicircular canal. Objectives To verify the possibility of employing the Zuma repositioning maneuver, with a brief modification, as an alternative treatment for geotropic LC-BPPV. Methods Seven patients with geotropic LC-BPPV were enrolled and treated with the Zuma modified maneuver. Patients were reevaluated 1 hour after a single maneuver, to confirm the resolution of vertigo and positional nystagmus. Results All seven patients achieved immediate resolution of vertigo and positional nystagmus as measured 1 hour after the application of the maneuver. Conclusion The Zuma modified maneuver was effective for geotropic LC-BPPV after a single application. The use of the Zuma maneuver for both apogeotropic and geotropic LC-BPPV may simplify the treatment of these patients.
  • Development and Evaluation of Portal do Zumbido: A Novel Telehealth Approach to Tinnitus Original Research

    de Matos, Izabella Lima; Ferreira, Maria Carolina; Mondelli, Maria Fernanda Capoani Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Tinnitus is a prevalent symptom in audiological clinics, and the speech therapist participates in the assessment, diagnosis, and intervention of tinnitus. A range of studies have been developed with the aim to promote auditory health, and telehealth is an option for this purpose. Objective The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a virtual platform for tinnitus management for speech therapists. Methods The present study provided a distance-learning-course, with the aid of Portal do Zumbido, available in the following electronic address: zumbido.fob.usp.br. Infographics were available for download, and modules were made to comprise the introduction to the symptoms, assessment, and intervention for tinnitus. Results Speech therapists of different regions of Brazil received an e-mail invitation to participate and to assess the platform, 46 of whom registered. From the 46 speech therapists registered, 38 assessed the virtual platform with the aid of a questionnaire about the theoretical content and then answered a motivational research sheet (MRS). The speech therapists correctly answered 90% and 100% of the questions in the questionnaire and in the MRS, respectively, which may indicate that the professionals positively absorbed the content; thus, the content was considered to be impressive when the MRS was analyzed. Conclusion Portal do Zumbido was developed and is available for access in the following electronic address: zumbido.fob.usp.br. Furthermore, the platform received a positive assessment by the speech therapists who participated in the present study.
  • Proptosis in Otorhinolaryngology: An Overview Original Research

    Nazeer, Novshaba; Ivaturi, Phani Bhushan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Ear, nose and throat (ENT)pathologies can present with proptosis as the early manifestation. The majority of ENT pathologies present with ocular manifestations, due to close anatomical relationship. Objective To study proptosis in ENT disorders in terms of etiology, pathogenesis, and management. Methods The present article is a prospective study conducted at a tertiary care center, in Telangana, India. Patients presenting with proptosis secondary to ENT disorders were thoroughly evaluated and subjected to surgical exploration after providing a signed informed consent. Results Sixty cases of proptosis secondary to ENT disorders have been reported. The most common cause was sinonasal squamous cell carcinoma followed by juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis. Conclusion Many ENT disorders can present with proptosis. Proptosis needs to be evaluated completely for proper management and to limit the morbidity associated with it.
  • Laryngopharyngeal Reflux: Symptoms, Signs, and Presence of Pepsin in Saliva - A Reliable Diagnostic Triad Original Research

    Divakaran, Shilpa; Rajendran, Sivaa; Thomas, Roshan Marie; Jacob, Jaise; Kurien, Mary

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Twenty-four-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance with double probe pH monitoring (MII-pH), though considered the most sensitive tool for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is invasive, time consuming, not widely available, and unable to detect non-acid reflux. In contrast, the presence of pepsin in the saliva would act as a marker for reflux, considering that pepsin is only produced in the stomach. Objective To evaluate the predictive value of salivary pepsin in diagnosing laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) as suggested by the results of reflux symptom index (RSI > 13), reflux finding score (RFS > 7), and positive response to treatment with a 4-week course of proton-pump inhibitors. Methods This prospective study was done at a tertiary care hospital on 120 adult patients attending ENT OPD with clinical diagnosis of LPR. The presence of pepsin in their pharyngeal secretions and saliva using a lateral flow device, the Peptest, was compared with RSI, RFS, and with the response to medical treatment using the Chi-squared test. Results Salivary pepsin was found to be positive in 68% of the patients, with 87.5% of them showing positive response to treatment. Chi-squared analysis showed a significant association between positive salivary pepsin and RFS > 7, RSI >13, a combination of RFS > 7 and RSI > 13 as well as with response to treatment (p < 0.0001). Conclusion When considered along with the clinical indicators of RFS and RSI of more than 7 and 13, respectively, and/or with a response to treatment, a positive salivary pepsin test indicates statistically significant chance of presence of LPR.
  • Level I Nodal Positivity as a Factor for Involvement of the Submandibular Gland in Oral Cavity Carcinoma: A Case Series Report Original Research

    Pasha, Hamdan Ahmed; Dhanani, Rahim; Ghaloo, Shayan Khalid; Ghias, Kulsoom; Khan, Mumtaz Jamshed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The routine practice of neck dissection in the surgical management of oral carcinoma has evolved into a more functionally conservative approach. Over time, the rationale for removal of the submandibular gland has been questioned. Routine extirpation of the submandibular gland can aggravate the xerostomia experienced by many patients, significantly affecting their quality of life. Objective The objective of the present study was to determine the incidence of submandibular gland metastases in oral cavity carcinoma and to identify possible factors that may affect their involvement. Methods A total of 149 cases of oral carcinoma presenting at a private tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan, over the course of 1 year were reviewed retrospectively. Results Histopathological data showed that the submandibular gland was involved in 7 (4.7%) cases. Involvement of level I lymph nodes was found in all of the cases. Direct extension of primary tumor was noted in two cases when the primary tumor was in the floor of the mouth. Conclusion The results suggest that preservation of the submandibular gland during neck dissection for oral carcinoma can be practiced safely when there is no evidence of direct extension of the primary tumor toward the submandibular gland or when there is no clinical or radiological evidence of neck disease in level I. Presence of pathological lymph nodes in level I requires caution when contemplating preservation of the submandibular gland.
  • The Effect of Learning English on P300 in Children Original Research

    Marques, Pâmela Mariel; Mattiazzi, Ângela Leusin; Ferreira, Laís; Oppitz, Sheila Jacques; Biaggio, Eliara Pinto Vieira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Learning a second language is an essential task in today's world, and is experienced by many children. The cognitive auditory-evoked potential (P300) is related to cognitive activity, attention and concentration, enabling the investigation of the effect of a second language on the central auditory pathway. Objective To analyze the effects of learning English on P300 latency and amplitude in children and to correlate them with age, time of exposure to English, and time in class. Method An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional and quantitative study, in which 33 children, aged between 5 and 9 years and 11 months, of both genders participated, 14 of them in the process of learning English (study group) and 19 without this experience (control group). All subjects had their P300 evaluated using the Intelligent Hearing Systems (IHS, Miami, FL, US) Smart EP equipment. A total of 300 binaural stimuli were used in 75 dBnHL, as well as 240 frequent and 60 rare stimuli, using the pairs /ba/ and /di/ respectively. Results There was a statistically significant difference regarding P300 latency between the groups, and children exposed to English classes had lower latency in this component. No statistical difference was found between P300 amplitudes. No correlation was observed regarding age, time of exposure to English, time in class, and electrophysiological responses. Conclusion The Children exposed to English classes had the most stimulating auditory pathway, because their P300 had lower latency, being a resource for the speech therapy clinic.
  • Effect of a boomerang-shaped Conchal cartilage graft for Type three Tympanoplasty on Hearing Original Research

    Elaprolu, Snigdha; Alexander, Arun; Ganesan, Sivaraman; Manu, Coimbatore Balakrishnan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Chronic suppurative otitis media atticoantral disease (CSOM-AAD) is often associated with ossicular erosion resulting in significant hearing loss. Absence of the stapes suprastructure is a poor prognostic indicator of hearing outcome, which necessitates an effective reconstruction technique for ossicular continuity and restoration of middle ear volume. In the present study, we used a boomerang-shaped conchal cartilage graft. Objective To evaluate the improvement in hearing using a boomerang-shaped conchal cartilage graft for Type III tympanoplasty in cases of CSOM-AAD in which the stapes suprastructure was absent and to study the incidence of intraoperative/postoperative complications of this procedure. Method A total of 21 patients with CSOM-AAD who were found to have absent stapes suprastructure intraoperatively were included. A boomerang-shaped conchal cartilage graft was placed over the stapes footplate for reconstruction following canal wall down mastoidectomy. Pure tone audiogram (500, 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 Hz) was done preoperatively and at 12 weeks postoperatively. Hearing outcome and incidence of complications were noted. Results There was a statistically significant reduction in the hearing loss for air conduction and air-bone gap (ABG) of 6.1 dB and 6.9 dB respectively (p < 0.05). Air-bone gap < 30 dB could be achieved in 71.4% of the patients as compared with 23.8% preoperatively. No significant difference was noted in the bone conduction threshold (p > 0.05). A better hearing outcome was observed at higher frequencies (2,000, 4,000 Hz). No major complications were encountered. Conclusion A boomerang-shaped conchal cartilage graft is effective when used for Type III tympanoplasty, especially at higher (2,000, 4,000 Hz) frequencies, and is comparable to newer materials such as titanium total ossicular reconstruction prosthesis (TORP). No major intraoperative/postoperative complications were noted.
  • Barrier for Particle Dispersion Control During Mastoidectomy Original Research

    Muniz, Camila Rêgo; Pena, Carlos Felype Oliveira; da Fonseca, Marcio Ribeiro Studart; de Freitas, Marcos Rabelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The China Health Authority alerted the World Health Organization (WHO) of several cases of pneumonia, and the WHO has declared the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) a global pandemic. Mastoidectomy is a high-risk aerosol generating procedure with the potential to expose the surgeon to infectious particles. Objective Aim to develop a low-cost prototype for a barrier device that can be used during mastoidectomy. Methods Describe the steps involved during otological emergency, requiring immediate surgical procedure, in untested patients. The Otorhinolaryngology Surgical Team of Walter Cantídio Hospital developed the barrier for particle dispersion presented here. Results During surgery, the prototype did not compromise visualization of the surgical field and instrumentation. Microscope repositioning was not compromised or limited by tent Instrumentation and instrument pouch under the Microscope-Tent (MT) performed surgery. After surgery, the plastic sheet was removed simply, without requiring strength. Bone dust and irrigation droplets were collected on the tent. Conclusion Our team developed and practiced, in an otologic emergency, a low-cost and reproducible barrier device that can be used in mastoidectomy in COVID-19 patients. Further tests on efficacy may be necessary.
  • Management of Early Glottic Cancer Treated by CO2 Laser According to Surgical-Margin Status: A Systematic Review of the Literature Systematic Review

    Verro, Barbara; Greco, Giuseppe; Chianetta, Enzo; Saraniti, Carmelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is the treatment of choice for Tis-T2 squamous cell glottic carcinomas due to its advantages compared with open surgery and radiotherapy. However, the CO2 laser beam causes changes and damage on the specimens, making the histological assessment of resection margins, the gold standard for confirming radical tumor resection, sometimes difficult. Objective To assess the different ways to manage patients depending on the status of the histopathological margin according to recent studies to detect the most commonly shared therapeutic strategy. Data Synthesis We analyzed the literature available on the PubMed and Web of Science databases, including only articles published since 2005, using specific keywords to retrieve articles whose titles and abstracts were read and analyzed independently by two authors to detect relevant studies. Therefore, we focused on disease-free survival, overall survival, local control, laryngeal preservation, and disease-specific survival. Thus, 17 studies were included in the present review; they were grouped according to the status of the histological margin, and we analyzed the different management policies described in them. This analysis showed that there is not a shared strategy, though in most studies the authors performed a second-look surgery in the cases of positive margins and a close follow-up in cases of negative ones. The main disagreement is regarding the management of close or non-valuable resection margins, since some some authors performed a second-look surgery, and others, a close follow-up. Conclusions Definitely, the most shared policy is the second-look surgery in case of positive surgical margins, and a close follow-up in case of close or non-valuable resection margins. Key Points To date, TLM is the treatment of choice for Tis-T2 squamous cell glottic carcinomas. The CO2 laser beam could impair the histological assessment of the resection margins, which is the gold standard to confirm radical tumor resection. Second-look TLM is the most performed strategy in case of positive surgical margins. Close follow-up is the most shared policy in case of close or non-valuable resection margins. In cases of negative resection margins, follow-up represents the best approach.
  • Auditive and Vestibular Changes Related to the Use of Hydroxychlorochine and Chlorochine: An Integrative Review Systematic Review

    Britto, Diana Babini Lapa de Albuquerque; Rocha, Mônyka Ferreira Borges; Silva, Jéssica Dayane da; Pinheiro, Natália dos Santos; Silva, Lidiane Kelvin da; Advíncula, Karina Paes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction The use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine is formally indicated in cases of chronic autoimmune diseases. However, the use of these medications has already been associated with possible transitory or definitive alterations in hearing function and/or vestibular function in humans, when administrated in the short and long terms. Objective To describe, through a literature analysis, the functional vestibular and/or hearing alterations, caused by the use of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine in youths and adults. Data Synthesis In total, 2,481 studies were identified in the initial search: out of these 32 were selected for a full-text reading, and 9 were selected after the exclusion of those which did not meet the eligibility criteria. Of these, four articles pointed to the presence of vestibular and auditory-associated alterations, three indicated only auditory pathologies, and two, vestibular disorders. Regarding the auditory alterations, tinnitus was the most frequent symptom, and bilateral sensorineural hearing loss was described in most studies, varying in degree from mild to severe. As for the vestibular alterations, vertigo was the most reported symptom. Conclusion Knowledge of the auditory and vestibular effects after the use of these substances can help in the decision regarding the best treatment, enabling the consideration of other available therapies for patients at risk of suffering those alterations, reducing the risk of auditory and vestibular disorders.
  • Imaging Studies in Otosclerosis: An Up-to-date Comprehensive Review Update Article

    Mangia, Lucas Resende Lucinda; Coelho, Luiz Otávio de Mattos; de Oliveira, Adriana Kosma Pires; Hamerschmidt, Rogerio

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Introduction Otosclerosis is a primary osteodystrophy of the otic capsule, frequently responsible for acquired hearing loss in adults. Although the diagnostic value of imaging investigations in otosclerosis is debatable, they might still be employed with different goals within the context of the disease. Objectives The present paper aims to review the most recent literature on the use of imaging studies in otosclerosis for the most varied purposes, from routine application and differential diagnosis to prognostic prediction and investigation of surgical failure. Data Synthesis The diagnosis of otosclerosis is usually clinical, but computed tomography (CT) is paramount in particular cases for the differential diagnosis. The routine use, however, is not supported by strong evidence. Even so, there is growing evidence of the role of this method in surgical planning and prediction of postoperative prognosis. In specific scenarios, for example when superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome is suspected or in surgical failure, CT is crucial indeed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), however, has limited - although important - indications in the management of individuals with otosclerosis, especially in the evaluation of postoperative complications and in the follow-up of medical treatment in active ostosclerosis. Conclusion Imaging studies have a broad range of well-established indications in otosclerosis. Besides, although the routine use of CT remains controversial, the most recent papers have shed light into new potential benefits of imaging prior to surgery.
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