Who Are the Super-Responders to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?

Eduardo Arrais Rocha Francisca Tatiana Moreira Pereira Ana Rosa Pinto Quidute José Sebastião Abreu José Wellington Oliveira Lima Carlos Roberto M Rodrigues Sobrinho Maurício Ibrahim Scanavacca About the authors

Abstract

Background:

Patients submitted to cardiac resynchronization may develop response patterns that are higher than expected, with normalization of clinical and echocardiographic parameters.

Objective:

To analyze the clinical and echocardiographic characteristics of this population of super-responders, comparing them with the other patients submitted to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Methods:

A prospective, observational cohort study involving 146 patients consecutively submitted to cardiac resynchronization implants. Fisher's exact test and Mann-Whitney test were performed to compare the variables. Patients with ejection fraction > 50% and functional class I/II (New York Heart Association) were considered super-responders after 6 months of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Results:

Mean age was 64.8 ± 11.1 years, with 69.8% of males, with a median ejection fraction of 29%, 71.5% with left bundle-branch block, 12% with right bundle-branch block associated with hemiblocks; 16.3% wearing a definitive cardiac pacemaker, 29.3% with ischemic cardiomyopathy, 59.4% with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 11.2% with Chagasic cardiomyopathy. Twenty-four (16.4%) super-responders were observed, and 13 (8.9%) showed normalization of the ejection fraction, left ventricular diastolic diameters and functional class. When compared to the non-super-responder patients, in relation to the pre-implantation characteristics, the super-responders were more often females (58.3% vs. 22.8%, p = 0.002), had higher body mass index (26.8 vs. 25.5, p = 0.013), higher baseline ejection fraction (31.0 vs. 26.9, p = 0.0003), and lower left ventricular diastolic diameters (65.9 mm vs. 72.6 mm, p = 0.0032). Ten patients (41.6% of super-responders) with right bundle-branch block and hemiblock progressed to super-responders, although there was only one patient with Chagas' disease among them, and only at the first assessment.

Conclusions:

Super-responders had less advanced heart disease at baseline and no differences regarding the type of conduction disorder at baseline. Patients with right bundle-branch block and hemiblock, but without Chagasic heart disease may also progress as super-responders.

Keywords:
Heart Failure; Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy; Echocardiography; Defibrillators, Implantable

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