Abstract in English:Abstract Background Patient self-report is the most common diagnostic tool in the literature to detect HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy. However, data on the association of cardiovascular risk factors with HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy assessed by self-report are still missing. Objectives To determine the prevalence of self-reported HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy and to identify independent associations between traditional modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported lipodystrophy. Methods We conducted a retrospective observational study at an outpatient infectious disease clinic in the Central-West of Brazil to identify the association between traditional modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and self-reported lipodystrophy. Sedentary lifestyle, smoking status, family history of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, increased waist circumference and overweight were the cardiovascular risk factors assessed. Self-reported HIV/HART-associated lipodystrophy was categorized as: mild (noticeable by patients’ close inspection), moderate (easily noticeable by patient and physician) or severe (readily noticeable by a casual observer). Prevalence ratio (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI95%) were calculated. Multivariate Poisson’s regression was used to analyze factors associated to HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy assessed by self-report considering a significance level of 5%. Results A total of 183 patients were included, with a mean age of 39.3±10.9 years. Most of the sample were male (77.6%), non-white (50.8%) and single (53.0%). The overall prevalence of HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy was 52.5% (95% CI 44.96 - 59.88). Severe lipodystrophy was observed in more than half patients (55.2%). No traditional modifiable cardiovascular risk factor was independently associated with lipodystrophy. Female sex (PR 1.49; 95% CI 1.15 – 1.95; p =0.003), time of HIV infection diagnosis of 1-3 years (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.09 - 3.08; p =0.002) and a positive family history of CVD (PR 1.62; 95% CI 1.11 - 2.36; p <0.001) were independently associated with lipodystrophy. Conclusion HIV/HAART-associated lipodystrophy assessed by patient self-report was not associated with traditional modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is important in clinical practice due to its high morbidity and mortality. Different guidelines have recommended the use of different cardiovascular risk assessment tools, which may have implications on therapeutic decisions. Objective To evaluate the agreement rate between the Framingham risk score (FRS) and the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) tool on CVD risk assessment in disease-free subjects. Methods Cross-sectional study with a sample of 51 subjects treated at the outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Brazil between January 2014 and January 2015. The FRS and two versions of the European SCORE (SCORE-High and SCORE-Low) were used to assess CVD risk; patients were classified as low/moderate risk (< 20% and <5%, respectively) or high risk (≥ 20% and ≥5%, respectively). The agreement rate was evaluated using kappa statistics, a test for interrater reliability that ranges from -1 to 1, and results above 0.6 represent a high agreement rate. Results The FRS classified a higher proportion of subjects as high risk for CVD (35.3% [18/51] vs. 23.5% [12/51] with the SCORE-High and 13.7% [7/51] with SCORE-Low). However, there was a high agreement rate between FRS and SCORE-High (k=0.628). The agreement between FRS and SCORE-Low was poor (k=0.352). Conclusions There was a high agreement rate between FRS and SCORE-High in cardiovascular risk assessment in the study sample. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Malnutrition can affect the clinical course of hospitalized patients, increasing hospital stay, infections, mortality, and hospital costs. Among heart disease patients, the malnutrition prevalence ranges from 25 to 51.9%. Objective To assess the prevalence of malnutrition and its association with clinical complications in cardiac patients admitted to a cardiology hospital. Method Retrospective cohort study with patients evaluated within 48 hours of admission to the ward of a referral center for cardiology in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Patients were aged 18 years or older. Malnutrition was assessed by Subjective Global Assessment. Length of hospital stay, transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU), hospital discharge and in-hospital death were collected from medical records. Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 22.0 program. Comparisons between groups with and without malnutrition were made by unpaired Student's t-test and chi-square test with adjusted residuals, and multivariate Poisson regression used for analysis of outcomes. The significance level considered was 5%. Results We evaluated 130 patients aged 63 ± 13 years, 63% were male, and the most frequent cause of hospitalization was angina (25%). The prevalence of malnutrition was 27% and, after statistical adjustment for age, malnutrition was positively associated with ICU transfer and length of hospital stay longer than seven days. Conclusion The prevalence of malnutrition found in this sample was 27% and this nutritional diagnosis was positively associated with ICU transfer and length of hospital stay longer than seven days. (Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)
Abstract in English:Abstract Background There has been an increase in the number of cases of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) and of scientific publications on the theme over the last years. However, little is known about the status of this disease in Brazilian hospitals. Objective To assess mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) during hospitalization and follow-up of TTS patients seen in a tertiary hospital in Brazil. Methods This was a retrospective, observational study on 48 patients. Clinical data, signs and symptoms, complementary tests, MACE and all-cause mortality were assessed on admission and during follow-up. Kaplan-Meier curves were used for analysis of all-cause mortality and risk for MACE at median follow-up. The 95% confidence interval was also calculated for a significance level of 5%. Results Mean age of patients was 71 years (SD±13 years), and most patients were women (n=41; 85.4%). During hospitalization, four patients (8.3%) died and five (10.4%) developed MACE. At median follow-up of 354.5 days (IQR of 81.5-896.5 days), the risk of all-cause mortality and MACE was 11.1% (95% CI= 1.8-20.3%) and 12.7% (95% CI= 3.3-22.3%), respectively. Conclusion TTS was associated with high morbidity and mortality rates in a tertiary hospital in Brazil, which were comparable to those observed in acute coronary syndrome. Therefore, the severity of TTS should not be underestimated, and new therapeutic strategies are required. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
Abstract in English:Abstract Background The importance of regional sympathetic denervation in the pathophysiology and prognosis of Chagas disease has been recognized. Objective To conduct a review of studies that have assessed dysautonomia in chronic Chagas heart disease. Methods The search was performed on the Medline, Pubmed, Lilacs and SciELO databases. The inclusion criteria were: original articles published in full; studies on individuals with Chagas disease, that used diagnostic methods for chagasic cardiomyopathy, and had clear inclusion and exclusion criteria. Duplicate studies, studies including children (0 to 10 years old), studies involving animals, in vitro experiments, case reports, editorials, theses, and dissertations were excluded. Results A total of 281 articles were retrieved, and 10 met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There was great heterogeneity as to the technique for assessing dysautonomia, groups of patients studied and classification of Chagas disease. The methods used for studying the autonomic system was immunohistochemistry (n=1), Valsalva and tilt-test (n=1), scintigraphy (n=6) and Holter monitoring (n=2). The results indicated dysautonomia in the indeterminate, digestive and cardiac forms of Chagas disease, and sympathetic denervation in the indeterminate and cardiac forms of the disease. There was agreement between areas of denervation, hypoperfusion and fibrosis, but areas of denervation were larger than those of hypoperfusion. The frequency of denervation and its extension increased from the indeterminate to the cardiac form. There was an association between extension of denervation and previous history of malignant ventricular arrhythmia. Conclusions The evidence presented in this review supports that an early diagnosis of autonomic denervation in chronic Chagas' disease allows the identification of patients with an increased risk of sudden death. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Mortality from cardiovascular diseases has reduced in Brazil in recent decades, but this phenomenon is not clear in the northeast region of the country. Objectives: To describe the mortality trends from cardiovascular disease in Bahia from 2000-2015, in total population and by sex and age groups, and by specific causes (ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular diseases, rheumatic heart disease and heart failure). Methods: This was a time series study. Data were obtained from SIM-DATASUS and IBGE, and the 10th revision of the ICD used for disease classification. Mortality rates (per 100,000 inhabitants) were calculated from total cardiovascular disease and specific causes, by sex and age groups. Direct standardization was used to adjust for age, using the population of 2010 as reference. Linear regression models estimated percentage variation. The significance level of 5% was adopted. Results: In Bahia, crude mortality rates from cardiovascular disease increased in the period; however, after standardization by age, mortality rates became stable for the total and female populations, with a slight reduction for the male population. An increase in mortality rates from cardiovascular disease was found in the elderly groups. For ischemic heart disease, a progressive increase in adjusted mortality rates was observed: 43%, 24% and 29% for the total, male, and female population, respectively. There was a progressive reduction in crude and age-standardized mortality rates from heart failure in all groups, a modest reduction in age-adjusted mortality rates from cerebrovascular diseases, and a slight reduction in age-standardized mortality rate from rheumatic heart disease, especially in the subgroup <40 years. Conclusions: Mortality from cardiovascular disease in Bahia did not follow the decreasing trend of other Brazilian states, especially in relation to ischemic heart disease, which showed an increase in mortality rates.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Primary care physicians have difficulty dealing with patients who have HF with preserved LVEF(HFpEF). The prognosis of HFpEF is poor, and difficult to predict on primary care. Objective: The aim of the study is to apply the H2FPEF score to primary care patients and verify its power to assess the risk of death or hospitalization due to cardiovascular disease. Methods: This longitudinal study included 402 individuals, with signs or symptoms of HF, aged≥45 years and, underwent an evaluation which included clinical examination, BNP and echocardiogram. The diagnosis of HFpEF was confirmed by the criteria of the European Society of Cardiology. After five years, the patients were reassessed as to the occurrence of the composite outcome, death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular disease. H2FPEF used six variables: body mass index, medications for hypertension, age, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, atrial fibrillation and E/e' ratio ranged from 0 to 9 points. The level of statistical significance was p<0.05. Results: HFpEF was diagnosed in 58(14.4%). Among patients with H2FPEF≥4, 30% had HFpEF and in those with a score≤4, HFpEF was present in 12%. Patients with HFpEF and H2FPEF≥4 had 53% of outcomes, whereas patients with HFpEF and a score ≤4 had a 21% of outcomes. BNP values were higher in patients with HFpEF compared to those without HFpEF(p<0.0001). Conclusion: H2FPEF≥4 indicated a worse prognosis in patients with HFpEF assisted in primary care. H2FPEF may be a simple and useful tool for risk stratification in patients with HFpEF at the primary care.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background Heart failure is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Objective To determine the clinical characteristics of children with acute heart failure syndrome in the emergency ward of River state university teaching hospital, Nigeria and identify factors associated with poor outcomes. Methods This was an 18month retrospective review of the acute heart failure register. Poor outcome measures were defined as the persistence of heart failure after 4 days on admission or death. Results Ninety-two (4.1%) of 2,244 children admitted were in heart failure, Non-cardiac disorders [bronchopneumonia 32(36%), sepsis 21(24%), severe malaria 10(11%), sickle cell anaemia 8(9%) and tuberculosis 3(3%)] contributed to 74(83%) while congenital heart disease(CHD) was 15(17%). Seventy-four (83%) were discharged, 10(11%) died and 4(5%) left against medical advice. The median time to resolution of heart failure was significantly 24 hours longer for malnourished children than those with normal-nutritional status, 72Vs48hrs, log rank:0.001. Those with modified Ross score of >7 and sepsis were more likely to die, OR,8.8(95% CI,1.2 to 72.5,p = 0.02) and 3.9(95% CI,1.01 to 15.2;p =0.04). Age <2yrs(OR,3.1,CI,1.2 to 8.5,p = 0.02), and CHD (OR 3.6,95% CI,1.1 to 12,P=0.02) were associated with a higher likelihood of having a poor outcome. Each unit increase in weight for age Z score of 1, decreased the odds of having a poor outcome, OR,0.77 (95% CI,0.63 to 0.95)p=0.016. Conclusion Heart failure in our setting is predominantly caused by non-cardiac disorders. Modified Ross score of >7 and sepsis are risk factors for mortality in children with heart failure. Int J Cardiovasc Sci. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0
Abstract in English:Abstract Several different imaging methods can be used to evaluate patients with Chagas heart disease (CHD) for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, including plain chest radiography; echocardiography; myocardial perfusion scintigraphy, for detection of ischemia and fibrosis; radionuclide gated-angiography, for evaluation of biventricular function; 123I-MIBG labeling of sympathetic myocardial innervation; MRI, for detection and quantitation of myocardial fibrosis; and coronary angiography. This study aims to review the contributions of these nuclear medicine methods to understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC). Careful analysis and integration of findings provided by these imaging methods in patients with CCC at different stages has contributed significantly to improving understanding of several peculiarities of the disease. Clinical and experimental studies in animal models show that perfusion abnormalities detected in association with dysfunctional but viable myocardium are a common finding in CCC patients and correspond to areas of cardiac sympathetic denervation, as assessed by 123I-MIBG imaging. Furthermore, recent reports have demonstrated a close relationship between coronary microvascular disturbances and myocardial inflammation. Thus, ongoing research, mainly focused on refinements of 18F-FDF -PET techniques and further exploration of nuclear methods, such as SPECT, have the potential to contribute to detection and monitoring of early subclinical myocardial damage thereby enabling evaluation of therapeutic strategies targeting inflammation and microvascular ischemia that could result in better prognostic stratification of patients with CHD.
Abstract in English:Abstract Heart transplantation (HT) is an established treatment for patients with advanced heart failure (HF). Chagas disease (CD), caused by the Trypanosoma cruzi (T.cruzi) is an important cause of HF in Latin America. Considering CD is a chronic infectious disease, the use of immunosuppressive therapy after HT can reactivate T. cruzi infection and compromise outcomes. Early diagnosis and treatment of this complication is extremely important, which requires knowledge, experience, and a high degree of suspicion by transplant physicians. Furthermore, with the international immigration of people, CD is no longer exclusive to Latin America, since a large number of immigrants with T. cruzi infection are living in non-endemic countries. This phenomenon represents not only a new global epidemiological problem, but also a challenge for transplant teams. This review aims to discuss the peculiarities of HT in the context of CD, with a focus on reactivation of the infection, clinical manifestations, etiological treatment of T. cruzi and differential diagnosis with allograft rejection, among HT recipients.
Abstract in English:Abstract The well-known occurrence of Chagas disease in endemic areas has become a worldwide problem, and cardiac magnetic resonance allows the early detection of cardiac involvement and complications of this disease. Cardiac magnetic resonance is a useful tool in all phases of Chagas disease, and new promising techniques using T1 mapping and extracellular volume measurements are able to detect cardiac involvement even earlier than conventional techniques.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) represents the most dramatic course of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and is closely related to the presence of ventricular arrhythmias and heart disease. Although several aspects of ventricular arrhythmias in CCC have been elucidated in the last decades, such as the role of impaired cardiac autonomic modulation reported in pre-clinical studies, important questions remain unresolved regarding these cardiac problems and SCA. The aim of this article is to discuss recent developments in the understanding of the role played by the autonomic nervous system on arrhythmic events in CCC. We draw attention to the neurogenic theory of CCC (“catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy”) and its autoimmune regulation. Finally, we contextualize treatment strategies for Chagas disease considering the prevention of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The most clinically relevant message from this article may be the high negative predictive value of dysautonomia for SCA in CCC. Nevertheless, there is a long journey from the identification of a potential marker for SCA to its actual use, which will require a common effort by the entire Chagas community.
Abstract in English:Abstract A 72-year-old woman was admitted for acute heart failure. The echocardiography revealed moderate depression of the left ventricular ejection fraction. Coronary disease was excluded by coronarography. Cardiac magnetic resonance showed predominantly left ventricular septal hypertrophy and severe depression of the left ventricular systolic function. There was also a bright, multifocal and patchy late gadolinium enhancement with subendocardial, mesocardial and subepicardial involvement, suggestive of sarcoidosis. Biochemical study, thoracic computed tomography and positron emission tomography were inconclusive for extra-cardiac sarcoidosis. Therefore, an endomyocardial biopsy was performed. The procedure was complicated by the development of complete atrioventricular block, requiring implantation of a cardiac resynchronization pacing device. A few days after device implantation, the patient developed fever. The echocardiography revealed extensive vegetations, and thus the diagnosis of a device-associated infective endocarditis was made. Even though antibiotic therapy was promptly started, the patient ended up dying. Biopsy results revealed lymphocytic myocarditis. This case is paradigmatic because it shows how the etiologic diagnosis of dilated cardiomyopathy can be challenging. Non-invasive diagnostic exams may not provide a definite diagnosis, requiring an endomyocardial biopsy. However, the benefits versus risks of such procedure must always be carefully weighted.