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Checklist of mammals from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Lista de mamíferos do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil

Abstract

We updated the checklist of mammals from Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil based on primary records only. One hundred and sixty-six mammal species were listed as occurring in the state, 47 of them being medium to large, 47 small mammal and 73 bat species. The listed species are distributed in 31 families: Didelphidae (17 spp.), Dasypodidae (7 spp.), Myrmecophagidae (2 spp.), Cebidae (1 sp.), Callithrichidae (2 spp.), Aotidae (1 sp.), Pitheciidae (1 sp.), Atelidae (1 sp.), Leporidae (1 sp.), Felidae (7 spp.), Canidae (4 spp.), Mustelidae (5 spp.), Mephitidae (2 spp.), Procyonidae (2 spp.), Tapiridae (1 sp.), Tayassuidae (2 spp.), Cervidae (4 spp.), Sciuridae (1 sp.), Cricetidae (22 spp.), Erethizontidae (1 sp.), Caviidae (3 spp.), Dasyproctidae (1 sp.), Cuniculidae (1 sp.), Echimyidae (4 spp.), Phyllostomidae (41 spp.), Emballonuridae (2 spp.), Molossidae (16 spp.), Vespertilionidae (9 spp.), Mormoopidae (1 sp.), Noctilionidae (2 spp.), and Natalidade (1 sp.). These numbers represent an increase of fourteen species with primary records for the state in comparison with the previously published checklist. However, it is evident the scarcity of information at several regions of the state, and the need of implementation of regional zoological collections. The state of Mato Grosso do Sul represent only 4.19% of the Brazilian territory, but the number of mammal species reach 24.13% of the known species occurring in the country.

Keywords
Mammals; Mato Grosso do Sul; checklist; Biota-MS Program

Resumo

Atualizamos a lista de mamíferos do estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil com base em registros primários. Cento e sessenta e seis espécies são listadas como ocorrentes no estado, sendo 47 de mamíferos de médio e grande porte, 46 de pequenos mamíferos e 73 de morcegos. As espécies listadas estão distribuídas em 31 famílias: Didelphidae (17 spp.), Dasypodidae (7 spp.), Myrmecophagidae (2 spp.), Cebidae (1 sp.), Callithrichidae (2 spp.), Aotidae (1 sp.), Pitheciidae (1 sp.), Atelidae (1 sp.), Leporidae (1 sp.), Felidae (7 spp.), Canidae (4 spp.), Mustelidae (5 spp.), Mephitidae (2 sp.), Procyonidae (2 spp.), Tapiridae (1 sp.), Tayassuidae (2 spp.), Cervidae (4 spp.), Sciuridae (1 sp.), Cricetidae (22 spp.), Erethizontidae (1 sp.), Caviidae (3 spp.), Dasyproctidae (1 sp.), Cuniculidae (1 sp.), Echimyidae (4 spp.), Phyllostomidae (41 spp.), Emballonuridae (2 spp.), Molossidae (16 spp.), Vespertilionidae (9 spp.), Mormoopidae (1 sp.), Noctilionidae (2 spp) e Natalidade (1 sp.). Estes números representam um aumento de quatorze espécies com registro primário para o estado em comparação com a listagem publicada anteriormente. Ainda assim, é evidente a escassez de informações em diversas regiões do estado, e a necessidade de implementação de coleções zoológicas regionais. O estado de Mato Grosso do Sul representa apenas 4,19% do território brasileiro, mas o número de mamíferos atinge 24,13% do total de espécies que ocorrem no país.

Palavras-chave
Mamíferos; Mato Grosso do Sul; Lista; Programa Biota-MS

The mammalian fauna from Mato Grosso do Sul state of Brazil was first compiled by Cáceres et al. (2008Alho, C. J. R.; Fischer, E.; Oliveira-Pissini, L. F. & Santos, C. F. 2011. Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands. Brazilian Journal of Biology 71:311-320.), but checklists have been published for specific regions in the state, such as the Acurizal ranch, in the Amolar mountain range ( Schaller, 1983Santos, C. F.; Nogueira, M.; Cunha, N.; Carvalho, L. F. A. C. & Fischer, E.2010. Southernmost record of the Sanborn’s big-eared bat, Micronycteris sanborni (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). Mammalia 74:457-460.; Tomas & Mourão, 2007Tomás, W. M.; Camilo, A. R.; Ribas, C.; Leuchtenberger, C.; Lima Borges, P.A.; Mourão, G. & Pellegrin. L. A. 2014. Distribution and conservation status of giant otter ( Pteronura brasiliensis) in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Mammals (in press).), the Nhumirim ranch, in the Nhecolândia region of the Pantanal ( Alho et al., 1987Alho, C. J. R.; Lacher-Jr., T. E.; Campos, Z. M. S. & Gonçalves, H. C. 1987. Mamíferos da Fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região de Nhecolândia, Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. I - Levantamento preliminar de espécies. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 4(2):151-164.), the Bodoquena mountain range (Cáceres et al., 2007b; Camargo et al., 2009Camargo, G. & Fischer, E.2005. Primeiro registro do morcego Mimon crenulatum (Phyllostomidae) no Pantanal, sudoeste do Brasil. Biota Neotropica 5(1):1-4. Avaible at: < http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v5n1/pt/abstract?short-communication+BN00705012005>.
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), Serra de Maracaju ( Hannibal & Godoy, 2015Gregorin, R.. 2006 Taxonomia e variação geográfica das espécies do gênero Alouatta Lacépède (Primates: Atelidae) no Brasil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia23(1):64-144.), and the Urucum mountains, near Corumbá ( Bordignon & França, 2009Bordignon, M. O. & França, A. O.2009. Riqueza, diversidade e variação altitudinal em uma comunidade de morcegos filostomídeos (Mammalia: Chiroptera) no centro-oeste do Brasil. Chiroptera Neotropical 15:425-433.; Godoi et al., 2010aGarcia-Perea, R. 1994. The pampas cat group (genus Lynchailurus Svertzov, 1858 (Carnivora: Felidae), a systematic and biogeographic review. American Museum Novitates 3096:1-35.; Cáceres et al., 2011). Additional publications report the distribution of isolated species or group of species, often not comprehending solely the Mato Grosso do Sul territory (e.g., Carmignotto, 2004Camilo, A. R. 2011. Distribuição atual de onça-parda ( Puma concolor) e onça-pintada ( Panthera onca) no Pantanal Brasileiro. Dissertação de Mestrado. Campo Grande, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul.; Carmignotto & Monfort, 2006; Cáceres et al., 2006, 2007b; Santos et al., 2010Roosmalen, M. G. M.; Van Roosmalen, T. & Mittermeier, R. A. 2002. A Taxonomic review of the titi monkeys, genus Callicebus Thomas, 1903, with the description of two species, Callicebusbernhardi and Callicebus stephennashi, from Brazilian Amazonia. Neotropical Primates 10(suppl.):1-52.; Godoi et al., 2010b; Silveira et al., 2011Schaller, G. B. 1983. Mammals and their biomass on a Brazilian ranch. Arquivos de Zoologia 31:1-36.; Hannibal et al., 2012; Teribele et al., 2012Silveira, M.; Munin, R. L.; Tomas, W. M.; Fischer, E. Bordignon, M. & Silveira, G. A. 2011. The distribution of the spectral bat, Vampyrum spectrum, reaches the southern Pantanal. Biota Neotropica11(1):173-176. Avaiable at: < http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v11n1/en/abstract?article+bn02511012011>.
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).

Collections of zoological material have been conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul since 1817 by naturalist expeditions crossing the western region of Brazil, with specimens usually deposited in several overseas and national museums. J. Natterer, for example, visited the western region of the modern state of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1824 to 1830 ( Pelzen, 1883Ojasti, O. 1990. Las comunidades de mamiferos en sabanas neotropicales. In: Sarmiento, G. ed. Las sabanas Americanas. Caracas, Fondo Editorial Acta Científica de Venezuela, p. 259-293.; Vanzolini, 1993Vanzolini, P. E. 1993. As viagens de Johann Natterer no Brasil, 1817-1835. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 38(3):17-60. ); H. H. Smith travelled through the state up to Cuiabá, in the modern state of Mato Grosso, navigating along the Paraguay river in 1882 and 1886 ( Cope, 1889Coelho, D. C. 2005. Ecologia e conservação da quiropterofauna no corredor Cerrado-Pantanal. Tese de Doutorado. Brasília, Universidade de Brasília.; Allen, 1891Allen, J. A. 1891. On a collection of birds from Chapada, Mato Grosso, Brazil, made by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. Part I - Oscines. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 5:107-158. , 1892 Allen, J. 1892. On a collection of birds from Chapada, Mato Grosso, Brazil, made by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. Part II - Tyrannidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History4:331-350., 1893 Allen, J. 1893. On a collection of birds from Chapada, Mato Grosso, Brazil, made by Mr. Herbert H. Smith. Part III - Pipridae to Rheidae. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History5:107-158.); many mammal records and specimens were obtained during the construction of telegraph lines by Marechal Cândido M. S. Rondon, crossing also many parts of the sate ( Miranda Ribeiro, 1914Mendes Pontes, A. R.; Malta, A. & Asfora, P. H. 2006. A new species of capuchin monkey, genus Cebus Erxleben (Cebidae, Primates): found at the very brink of extinction in the Pernambuco Endemism Centre. Zootaxa 1200:1-12.), and by the Roosevelt-Rondon Expedition, which crossed the Pantanal region from 1913 to 1914 ( Miller, 1915Mamede, S. B. & Alho, C. J. R. 2006. Responses of wild mammals to seasonal shrinking and expansion of habitats due to flooding regime of the Pantanal, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology66(4):991-998.). The Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, conducted expeditions to the Cuiabá and São Lourenço rivers in 1922, which separate Mato Grosso from Mato Grosso do Sul states ( Travassos et al., 1927Travassos, L.; Pinto, C. & Muniz, J. 1927. Excursão scientifica ao Estado de Matto Grosso na Zona do Pantanal (margens dos rios S. Lourenço e Cuyabá) realizada em 1922. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz20:249-269. ). Collections of zoological material were also conducted in Salobra region, Mato Grosso do Sul, along the Noroeste do Brasil railway (e.g., Vieira, 1940Vieira, C. C. 1940. Algumas observações sobre a fauna da região de Salobra, estado de Mato Grosso. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz35:557-567., 1955; Travassos, 1940). These expeditions provided relevant scientific material that become the basis for many published mammal checklists for Brazil (e.g, Vieira, 1955) and are still supporting regional analysis of the vertebrate fauna in the western region of the country.

Since then, little effort has been applied to establish regional zoological collections, as well as to conduct sound inventories in most of the state. Two comprehensive inventories were conducted more than 30 years ago, both in the Pantanal wetland ( Schaller, 1983Santos, C. F.; Nogueira, M.; Cunha, N.; Carvalho, L. F. A. C. & Fischer, E.2010. Southernmost record of the Sanborn’s big-eared bat, Micronycteris sanborni (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae). Mammalia 74:457-460.; Alho et al., 1987Alho, C. J. R.; Lacher-Jr., T. E.; Campos, Z. M. S. & Gonçalves, H. C. 1987. Mamíferos da Fazenda Nhumirim, sub-região de Nhecolândia, Pantanal do Mato Grosso do Sul. I - Levantamento preliminar de espécies. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 4(2):151-164.). Recently, some inventories have been conducted in Mato Grosso do Sul, such as those in the Aporé and Sucuriú river basins, in the northeastern region of the state ( Bordignon et al., 2006Bordignon, M. O.; Cáceres, N. C.; França, A. O.; Casella, J. & Vargas, C. F. 2006. Inventário da mastofauna no Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú. In: Pagotto, T. C. S. & Souza, P. R. eds. Biodiversidade do Complexo Aporé-Sucuriú. Subsídios à conservação e manejo do bioma Cerrado. Campo Grande, Editora da UFMS, 304p. ), in the Bodoquena mountain range, in the southwestern region of the state ( Cáceres et al., 2007aCáceres, N. C.; Ferreira, V. L. & Carmignotto, A. P. 2006. The occurrence of the mouse opossum Marmosops ocellatus (Marsupialia, Didelphidae) in western Brazil. Mammalian Biology 72(1):45-48. ), in the Pousada Araraúna, located in the southeastern region of the Pantanal ( Mamede & Alho, 2006Lim, B. K.; Engstrom, M. D.; Lee, T. E.; Patton, J. C. & Bickham, J. W. 2004. Molecular differentiation of large species of fruit-eating bats ( Artibeus) and phylogenetic relationships based on the cytochrome b gene. Acta Chiropterologica 6:1-12.), in the northwestern region ( Pulchério-Leite et al., 1998Paglia, A. P.; Fonseca, G. A. B. Rylands , A. B.; Herrmann, G.; Aguiar, L. M. S.; Chiarello, A. G.; Leite, Y. L. R.; Costa, L. P.; Siciliano, S.; Kierulff, M. C. M.; Mendes, S. L.; Tavares, V. C.; Mittermeier, R. A. & Patton, J. L. 2012. Lista Anotada dos Mamíferos do Brasil/Annotated Checklist of Brazilian Mammals. 2ed. Occasional Papers in Conservation Biology 6:1-76. ; Alho et al., 2011), at the Serra do Amolar ( Tomas & Mourão, 2007Tomás, W. M. & Mourão, G. M. 2007. Mastofauna de médio e grande portes. In: Relatório Executivo da Expedição Exploratória e Científica da Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural Engenheiro Eliezer Batista. Corumbá, Instituto Homem Pantaneiro, p. 121-134. ), Serra de Maracaju ( Hannibal & Godoy, 2015Groves, C. P. 2001. Primate Taxonomy. Washington, Smithsonian Institution Press. 350p.) and in the Urucum mountains near Corumbá ( Godoi et al., 2010aGardner, A. L. & Dagosto, M. 2008. Tribe Metachirini Reig, Kirsch, and Marshall, 1985. In: Gardner, A. L.ed. Mammals of South America. Marsupials, Xenarthrans, Shrews, and Bats. vol. 1. London, The University of Chicago Press. 669p. ; Cáceres et al., 2011). However, these inventories do not include all taxonomic groups among mammals. Additional publications are restricted to species distribution, such as Tomas et al. (2009).

This article aims to update the checklist of mammal species from Mato Grosso do Sul in the light of recent data, especially those based on museum specimens and geo-referenced photographs and videos cataloged in image collections. As a result, the present checklist should be considered conservative, as non-primary records were excluded. We also intend to point out taxonomic inconsistencies that should be subjected to more detailed studies concerning taxonomy and species distribution.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The list of mammal species ( Tab. I) is based only on primary records. Specimens deposited at regional and national collections were obtained directly from specimens examination and from recent publications that listed vouchers used to report species occurrence, taxonomic reviews, and species distributions. Given the difficulties in accessing important mammal collections at relevant national and international museums, especially those that do not offer online information on the specimens, we consider this list as a basic checklist. Overall taxonomic nomenclature follows Paglia et al. (2012), which incorporates Wilson & Reeder (2005Wetzel, R. M. 1980. Revision of the naked-tailed armadillos, genus Cabassous McMurtrie. Annals of Carnegie Museum 49:323-357.). Recent modifications were used, such as Lim et al. (2004IUCN. 2012. “Initiatives Mammals”. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. IUCN. Retrieved 2014-07-10. Available at: < http://www.iucnredlist.org/initiatives/mammals>.
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) for Artibeus planirostris, Weksler et al. (2006Weksler, M. 2003. Phylogeny of Neotropical oryzomyine rodents (Muridae: Sigmodontinae) based on the nuclear IRBP exon. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 29:331-349.) for the genera Cerradomys, Euryoryzomys and Hyaleamys, Lynch Alfaro et al. (2011Jan, C.; Dawson, D. A.; Altringham, J. D.; Burke, T. & Butlin, R. K. 2012. Development of conserved microsatellite markers of high cross-species utility in bat species (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia). Molecular Ecology Resources 12:532-548.) for Cebus, Garbino & Tejedor (2012Eriksson, A.; Graciolli, G. & Fischer, E.2011. Bat flies on phyllostomid hosts in the Cerrado region: component community, prevalence and intensity of parasitism. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 106:274-278.) for Natalus macrourus, and Nascimento et al. (2013Mourão, G. M.; Coutinho, M.; Mauro, R. A. Campos, Z.; Tomás, W. & Magnusson, W.2000. Aerial surveys of caiman, marsh deer and pampas deer in the Pantanal Wetland of Brazil. Biological Conservation 92:175-183.) for Thrichomys. The specimens and image records considered in this article are listed in the Table III. To avoid an inflated list of species, we did not include in the present checklist undetermined or not yet described species (reported as Genus). Taxonomic entities described as “group” were not considered, as the authors who published them stated that this treatment was adopted due to the impossibility to precisely identify the voucher species with cariotipying as not suitable samples are available. Data from and reports based on interviews were avoided. Pictures of signs (tracks, burrows and other evidence) were included only if they permit unmistakably identification of the species. All taxa were considered up to the species level, not considering sub-species. Non-native species were not included.

Tab. I
Checklist of mammal species from Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

One hundred and sixty-six mammal species were listed as occurring in the Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil, 47 of them being medium to large, 46 small mammal and 73 bat species. These numbers represent an increase of fourteen species to the previous publication ( Cáceres et al., 2008Cáceres, N. C.; Napoli, R. P.; Lopes, W. H. Casella, J. & Gazeta, G. S. 2007b. Natural history of the marsupial Thylamys macrurus (Mammalia, Didelphidae) in fragments of savannah in southwestern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 41(29-32):1979-1988.), considering that we did not account for undefined species cited as Genus, or group of species, or species with no primary records. The mammal species confirmed to the state are distributed in 31 Families: Didelphidae (17 spp.), Dasypodidae (7 spp.), Myrmecophagidae (2 spp.), Cebidae (1 sp.), Callithrichidae (2 spp.), Aotidae (1 sp.), Pitheciidae (1 sp.), Atelidae (1 sp.), Leporidae (1 sp.), Felidae (7 spp.), Canidae (4 spp.), Mustelidae (5 spp.), Mephitidae (2 sp.), Procyonidae (2 spp.), Tapiridae (1 sp.), Tayassuidae (2 spp.), Cervidae (4 spp.), Sciuridae (1 sp.), Cricetidae (22 spp.), Erethizontidae (1 sp.), Caviidae (3 spp.), Dasyproctidae (1 sp.), Cuniculidae (1 sp.), Echimyidae (4 spp.), Phyllostomidae (41 spp.), Emballonuridae (2 spp.), Molossidae (17 spp.), Vespertilionidae (9 spp.), Mormoopidae (1 sp.), Noctilionidae (2 spp.) and Natalidade (1 sp.). However, these numbers should be considered not definitive, as sound inventories are still rare in several regions of the state. As an example, in the Southern Cone (south of the Ivinhema river basin), once covered by the Atlantic Forest, little is known about the mammal fauna, and only one checklist for this region has been published (Hannibal, 2014). We estimate that about 14 species may be included in future checklists as additional inventories and taxonomic studies are developed. To date, there is no evidence of any endemic mammal species occurring in the state.

The total number of mammal species in the world is nearly 5,490 (IUCN, 2012), while the estimated number of bat species is 1,100 ( Jan et al., 2012 IBAMA. 2003. Fauna ameaçada de extinção no Brasil. Avaiable at: < http://www.mma.gov.br/biodiversidade/especies-ameaçadas-de-extinção/fauna-ameaçada>.
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), resulting in 4,390 non-flying mammal species. In comparison, the number of mammal species in Brazil has been estimated as 688 ( Reis et al., 2011Pulchério-Leite, A.; Meneghelli, M. & Taddei, V. A. 1998. Morcegos (Chiroptera: Mammalia) dos pantanais de Aquidauana e da Nhecolândia, Mato Grosso do Sul. I. Diversidade de espécies. Ensaios e Ciências 2(2):167-174.), including bats and cetaceans. The Mato Grosso do Sul state comprises only 4.19% of the Brazilian Territory (357,125 km2 and 8,515,767 km2, respectively), but the number of species in the state represent 24.13% of the known mammalian fauna for the entire country. The number of non-flying mammal species in the Mato Grosso do Sul fits well in an expected species-area relationship curve ( Fig. 1), which includes data from Brazil, Okavango Delta ( Ramberg et al., 2006Pelzen, A. 1883. Brasilische Säugetiere. Resultate von Johann Nattererʼs Reise in den Jahren 1817 bis 1835. Verhandlungen der Zoologisch-Botanischen Gesellschaft in Wiener Vienna 33:1-140.), Amazon Rainforest, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Cerrado, Chaco, Llanos from Venezuela and Colombia ( Ojasti, 1990Myers, N.; Mittermeier, R. A.; Mittermeier, C. G.; Fonseca, G. A. B. & Kent, J. 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature 403:853-858.), Congo Rainforest, Borneo Rainforest, Guinean Rainforest (see Tomas et al., 2011Teribele, R.; Concone, H. V. B.; Godoi, M. N. Bianchi, R.C.; Santos, J. C. C.; Mauro, R. A. . Filho, N. L. X & Mello, A. V. 2012. New records for bush dog in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Canid News [on line]:1-4.Avaiable at: < http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_dog_MatoGrosso.pdf>.
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; Myers et al., 2000Mourão, G. M.; Coutinho, M. E.; Mauro, R. A.; Tomás, W. M. & Magnusson, W. 2002. Levantamento aéreos de espécies introduzidas no Pantanal: porco ferais (porco monteiro), gado bovino e búfalos. Corumbá, Embrapa Pantanal. Boletim de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento 28:1-22.), Paraguay ( Yahnke et al., 1998Wilson, D. E. & Reeder, D. M. 2005. Mammal species of the world - a taxonomic and geographic reference. 3ed. Baltimore, The John Hopkins University Press. 2.142p.), the São Paulo State ( De Vivo et al., 2011Cunha, N. L.; Fischer, E. & Santos, C. F.2011. Bat assemblage in savanna remnants of Sonora, central-western Brazil. Biota Neotropica 11(3):97-201. Avaiable at: < http://www.biotaneotropica.org.br/v11n3/pt/abstract?inventory+bn03311032011>.
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), and Brazil as a whole (Reis et al., 2011).

Fig 1
Species-area relationship for the number of non-flying mammal species from several tropical ecosystems and regions/countries (modified from Tomas et al., 2011Teribele, R.; Concone, H. V. B.; Godoi, M. N. Bianchi, R.C.; Santos, J. C. C.; Mauro, R. A. . Filho, N. L. X & Mello, A. V. 2012. New records for bush dog in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Canid News [on line]:1-4.Avaiable at: < http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_dog_MatoGrosso.pdf>.
http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_...
). The fitted model is: Number of species = 11.78*AREA0.41; Mean corrected R2(1-residual/corrected) = 0.88; Regions: AM, Amazon rainforest; AR, Argentina; AT, Atlantic rainforest; BO, Borneo rainforest; BR, Brazil; CA, Caatinga; CE, Cerrado; CH, Chaco; CO, Congo rainforest; GU, Guinean rainforest; LL, Llanos; MS, Mato Grosso do Sul state (this checklist); OK, Okavango delta; PA, Pantanal wetland; PY, Paraguay; SP, São Paulo state.

The present list of species reveals a necessity of better taxonomic evaluation for specific taxa. One example is the Callicebus from the western limit of the Pantanal wetland, in the border with Bolivia. The species recognized as occurring in this region is Callicebus pallescens ( Groves, 2001Godoi, M. N.; Teribele, R.; Bianchi, R.; Olifiers, N.; Concone, H. V. B. & Xavier Filho, N. L. 2010b. New records of pampas cat ( Leopardus colocolo, Molina 1782) for Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Cat News 52:28-29. ; Roosmalen et al., 2002Reis, N. R.; Shibata, O. A.; Peracchi, A. L. Pedro, W. A. & Lima, I. P. 2011. Sobre os Mamíferos do Brasil. In:; Reis, N. R.; Peracchi, A. L. Pedro, W. A.& Lima, I. P.eds. Mamíferos do Brasil. Londrina, Second Edition, p. 23-29.), despite several publications since Hershkovitz (1990Hannibal, W.; Figueiredo, V. V.; Landgref Filho, P. & Godoi, M. N. 2012. New records of Monodelphis kunsi (Didelphimorphia, Didelphidae) from Brazil. Mastozoología Neotropical19:317-320.), including the last review of the Genus (Roosmalen et al., 2002), place the species as occurring inside the Pantanal wetland. In reality, within Mato Grosso do Sul State, Callicebus is restricted to the mountainous region near Corumbá and in the Serra do Amolar range ( Tomas et al., 2011Teribele, R.; Concone, H. V. B.; Godoi, M. N. Bianchi, R.C.; Santos, J. C. C.; Mauro, R. A. . Filho, N. L. X & Mello, A. V. 2012. New records for bush dog in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Canid News [on line]:1-4.Avaiable at: < http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_dog_MatoGrosso.pdf>.
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). The taxonomic identity of these Callicebus populations are still confuse, since both phenotypic traits, such as coat color patterns ( Tomas et al., 2011Teribele, R.; Concone, H. V. B.; Godoi, M. N. Bianchi, R.C.; Santos, J. C. C.; Mauro, R. A. . Filho, N. L. X & Mello, A. V. 2012. New records for bush dog in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Canid News [on line]:1-4.Avaiable at: < http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_dog_MatoGrosso.pdf>.
http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_...
), and molecular genetic data ( Auricchio, 2005Auricchio, P. 2005. História evolutiva de Primates: Análise filogenética de Callicebus Thomas, 1903 (Primates - Pitheciidae - Callicebinae). Tese de Doutorado. São Paulo, Universidade de São Paulo.) indicate that individuals from Corumbá are distinguishable from both C. pallescens and C. donacophilus. The northern populations from the Serra do Amolar region resemble C. donacophilus ( Tomas et al., 2011Teribele, R.; Concone, H. V. B.; Godoi, M. N. Bianchi, R.C.; Santos, J. C. C.; Mauro, R. A. . Filho, N. L. X & Mello, A. V. 2012. New records for bush dog in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Canid News [on line]:1-4.Avaiable at: < http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_dog_MatoGrosso.pdf>.
http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_...
), while the southern population seems to differ from both valid species ( C. pallescens and C. donacophilus). Thus, it is possible that the populations from Corumbá will correspond to a separated species, requiring more detailed taxonomic studies based on molecular genetics at finer geographic detail. Among primates, Sapajus seems to be represented by two species, considering the presumable occurrence of Sapajus libidinosus in the northeastern portion of the state. This species is well known to occur at Emas National Park and it is distributed along a diagonal gradient from northeastern to central Brazil ( Lynch Alfaro et al., 2011Jan, C.; Dawson, D. A.; Altringham, J. D.; Burke, T. & Butlin, R. K. 2012. Development of conserved microsatellite markers of high cross-species utility in bat species (Vespertilionidae, Chiroptera, Mammalia). Molecular Ecology Resources 12:532-548.; Cáceres et al., 2015Cáceres, N. C.; Godoi, M. N.; Hannibal, W. & Ferreira, V. L.2011. Effects of altitude and vegetation on small-mammal distribution in the Urucum Mountains, western Brazil. Journal of Tropical Ecology 27:279-287.). There is no reason for its absence in the northeastern region of the Mato Grosso do Sul, as a portion of the Emas National Park is within the state.

Among carnivores, relatively common species are still little known regarding occurrence and taxonomic identity. The lack of museum specimens difficults the analysis on the occurrence and distribution of Conepatus and Galictis. Rare records have been published on Conepatus, but we present evidence of two species occurring in the state. Conepatus semistriatus occurs at Emas National Park ( Rodrigues et al., 2002Ramberg, L.; Hancock, P.; Llindholm, M.; Meyer, T.; Ringrose, S.; Silva, J.; Van As, J. & Vanderspot, C.. 2006 Species diversity of the Okavango Delta, Botswana. Aquatic Sciences 68:310-337.), part of which is located in Mato Grosso do Sul, and we present a photographic record of this species in the northeastern region of Mato Grosso do Sul (MCPAPI 515). The dimensions of several tracks documented in the Pantanal wetland suggest C. semistriatus in the floodplains, but this evidence is not sufficient to confirm the species there. Another species of this genus, Conepatus chinga have been reported from Maracaju municipality (AMNH 133946), in the central-southern region of the state ( Dragoo et al., 2003D’elía, G.J.; Hanson, D.; Mauldin, M. R.; Teta, P. & Pardiñas, U. F. J. 2015. Molecular systematics of South American marsh rats of the genus Holochilus (Muroidea, Cricetidae, Sigmodontinae). Journal of Mammalogy 96(5):1081-1094.). Based on these evidences, we included the two species in our checklist. Yensen & Tarifa (2003aYahnke, C. J.; Fox, I. G. & Colman, F. 1998. Mammalian species richness in Paraguay: the effectiveness of National Parks in preserving biodiversity. Biological Conservation84:263-268. ) report the occurrence of Galictis vitatta for the state, but we found no museum specimen to document it. We included this species in our list based on photograph documentation from Pantanal, which is placed in the mammal reference collection at Embrapa Pantanal (MCPAPI 501). The occurrence of G. cuja follows the same situation (Yensen & Tarifa, 2003bYensen, E. & Tarifa, T. 2003a. Galictis vitatta. Mammalian Species 727:1-8.:), and we have included this species in our list based on two photographic records placed in the Embrapa’s reference collection (MCPAPI 5008, 516). Among cats, we found no evidence of L. geofroyii in the state despite distribution maps often include this species in the southwestern region (e.g., Cheida & Santos, 2010Sánchez-Soto, S. 2007. Nuevo registro de Oncifelis colocolo (Felidae) para el Pantanal de Brasil. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 78:211-212.).

After the review by Trigo et al.(2013), we considered Leopardus guttulus as the species valid for Mato Grosso do Sul, instead of L. tigrinus, cited by other authors before(e.g., Cáceres et al., 2008Cáceres, N. C.; Napoli, R. P.; Lopes, W. H. Casella, J. & Gazeta, G. S. 2007b. Natural history of the marsupial Thylamys macrurus (Mammalia, Didelphidae) in fragments of savannah in southwestern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 41(29-32):1979-1988.). Trigo et al. (2013) used in their analysis one sample collected from one individual originated from Miranda-MS, and kept in a Zoo at Catanduva, São Paulo state (bLti-072, deposited in the Banco de Amostras from the Laboratório de Biologia Genômica e Molecular, from the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul; this individual is identified as the number 017 in the Plano de Manejo de Pequenos Felinos Brasileiros). Thus, in the Tables II and III, all the specimens formerly considered as L. tigrinus will be considered as L. guttulus, despite additional genetic analysis is still required to clarify this issue.

We found in the Order Cingulata that Cabassous chacoensis has no confirmed records in Brazil, although it occurs in the Chaco region of Paraguay and Bolivia ( Wetzel, 1980Weksler, M.; Percequillo, A. R. & Voss R. S.. 2006 Ten new genera of oryzomyine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae). American Museum Novitates3537:1-29.). One C. chacoensis specimen has been labeled as “from Brazil”, but no further information is available about the locality of its collection ( Wetzel, 1980Weksler, M.; Percequillo, A. R. & Voss R. S.. 2006 Ten new genera of oryzomyine rodents (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae). American Museum Novitates3537:1-29.). Thus, the species has not been included in our list, even considering that the southwestern region of the state is in close contact with the Chaco, and presents typical Chacoan vegetation along the border with Paraguay in the Porto Murtinho municipality.

Among small mammals, we excluded Akodon gr. cursor reported by Carmignotto (2004Camilo, A. R. 2011. Distribuição atual de onça-parda ( Puma concolor) e onça-pintada ( Panthera onca) no Pantanal Brasileiro. Dissertação de Mestrado. Campo Grande, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul.), and also Proechimys gr . goeldii and Oecomys gr. catherinae listed by Carmignotto (2004) and Cáceres et al. (2008Cáceres, N. C.; Napoli, R. P.; Lopes, W. H. Casella, J. & Gazeta, G. S. 2007b. Natural history of the marsupial Thylamys macrurus (Mammalia, Didelphidae) in fragments of savannah in southwestern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 41(29-32):1979-1988.), as we adopted a conservative approach to construct the present checklist. Following the same approach, we did not include in our checklist Rhipidomys sp., listed by Carmignotto (2004)Camilo, A. R. 2011. Distribuição atual de onça-parda ( Puma concolor) e onça-pintada ( Panthera onca) no Pantanal Brasileiro. Dissertação de Mestrado. Campo Grande, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul., and Akodon sp. and Callomys sp., listed by Carmignotto (2004) and Cáceres et al. (2008) Cáceres, N. C.; Napoli, R. P.; Lopes, W. H. Casella, J. & Gazeta, G. S. 2007b. Natural history of the marsupial Thylamys macrurus (Mammalia, Didelphidae) in fragments of savannah in southwestern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 41(29-32):1979-1988.respectively (see Tables III and IV). Among potential species to be occurring in the state, we speculate that in the northeastern region of Mato Grosso do Sul it is possible to find Thylamys velutinus, Calomys expulsus and Carterodon sulcidens. These species do occur in the nearby region contiguous to the state of Goiás, where there are no evident geographic barriers, which would limit dispersion between both states (e.g., large rivers). Micoureus paraguayanus and Phillander frenatus may also occur in the southernmost part of the state, once covered by the Atlantic forest, as these species are known to occur in the adjacent eastern regions of Paraguay. The occurrence of Metachirus nudicaudatus was reported by Gardner & Dagosto (2008Garbino, G. S. T. & Tejedor, A. 2012. Natalus macrourus (Gervais, 1856) (Chiroptera: Natalidae) is a sênior synonym of Natalus espiritosantensis (Ruschi, 1951). Mammalia 4:1-4.) in the Urucum Mountains, near Corumbá, and in the Dourados municipality. However, the authors did not provide information about voucher specimens. Thus, this species was not included in our checklist. A probable new species of Dasyprocta may occurs in the Serra do Amolar region ( Iack-Ximenez, 1999Hannibal, W. & Godoi, M. N. 2015. Non-volant mammals of the Maracaju Mountains, southwestern Brazil: Composition, richness and conservation. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 86: 1-9.), but we did not include it in the present checklist, as it is still not formally described. As for bats, Coelho (2005Cheida, C. C. & Santos, L. B. 2010. Ordem Carnivora. In: Reis, N. R.; Peracchi, A. L.; Fregonezi, M. N. & Rossaneis, B. K. eds. Mamíferos do Brasil Guia de Identificação. Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books Editora, p. 463-492.) reported Rhinophylla pumilio for the northern region of the state, however without a voucher specimen.

The specimens from Mato Grosso do Sul considered by Cáceres et al. (2008Cáceres, N. C.; Napoli, R. P.; Lopes, W. H. Casella, J. & Gazeta, G. S. 2007b. Natural history of the marsupial Thylamys macrurus (Mammalia, Didelphidae) in fragments of savannah in southwestern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 41(29-32):1979-1988.) and Carmingnoto (2004) as Holochilus sciureus are still in need of analysis to clarify if they actually correspond to H. chacarius, as the presence of the former species in the state have been questioned by Brandão & Nascimento (2015). These specimens originated in the state and deposited elsewhere are AMNH 37077, FMNH 26758-2678, USNM 390249-39050, MN 1989-4207-4209- 4205-4271, AMNH 37077, MN 1987, MZUSP 3780-27430, UFSM 266, USNM 390249, and those deposited as MCPAP 217-218-221-223 (see Table III for the institution names). The consistence of H. chacarius occurring in the state is indicated in the recent publication by D’elía et al.(2015), based on molecular analysis.

At least four exotic species are known to occur in the Mato Grosso do Sul as feral populations. The feral pig, Sus scrofa, also known as “porco monteiro”, has been introduced by the first settlers two centuries ago, and is presently abundant in the Pantanal wetland. The wild hog, also Sus scrofa, is invading several regions of the state after releases from captivity few years ago, and is about to become a nuisance in the central and southern areas of the state. The European hare, Lepus europaeus, have been reported for the Bodoquena mountains ( Cáceres et al., 2007aBrandão, M. V. & Nascimento, F. O. 2015. On the occurrence of Holochilus chacarius (Cricetidae: Sigmodontinae) in Brazil, with taxonomic notes on Holochilus species. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 55 (3): 47-67.), despite no primary records are available to the present. Rattus rattus has been reported by Cáceres et al. (2007a). Finally, relatively small populations of feral water buffaloes Bubalus bubalis scattered in the Pantanal floodplains ( Mourão et al., 2002Miller, L. 1915. Mammal collected by the Roosevelt Brazilian Expedition with field notes by Leo E. Miller. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History35:559-610.).

Twelve mammal species listed by the Brazilian government as threatened do occur in the Mato Grosso do Sul state, all of them classified as Vunerable: nine for Carnivora, one for Artiodactyla, one for Cingulata, and one for Pilosa. The IUCN Red List included 17 globally threatened species recorded in the state: eight for Carnivora, three for Artiodactyla, two for Cingulata, two Chiroptera, one for Pilosa, and one for Didelphimorphia, from which eight species are Vulnerable, 10 are Near Threatened, and one Edangered ( Tab. II). Some of these species are known to present large populations in the state ( Tomas et al., 2011Teribele, R.; Concone, H. V. B.; Godoi, M. N. Bianchi, R.C.; Santos, J. C. C.; Mauro, R. A. . Filho, N. L. X & Mello, A. V. 2012. New records for bush dog in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Canid News [on line]:1-4.Avaiable at: < http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_dog_MatoGrosso.pdf>.
http://www.canids.org/canidnews/15/Bush_...
), especially in the Pantanal wetlands, 65% of which is located in Mato Grosso do Sul. For example, we may cite the Marsh deer ( Mourão et al., 2000Miranda Ribeiro, A. 1914. Zoologia. Commisão de Linhas Telegráphicas Estratégicas de Matto-Grosso ao Amazonas. História Natural, Mamíferos 17:1-49.), the Giant otter (Tomas et al., 2014, in press), the Jaguar ( Cavalcanti et al., 2012Carmignotto, A. P. & Monfort, T. 2006. Taxonomy and distribution of the Brazilian species of Thylamys (Didelphimorphia: Didelphidae). Mammalia 2006:126-144.; Camilo, 2011Camargo, G.; Fischer, E. Gonçalves, F.; Fernandes, G. & Ferreira, S. 2009. Morcegos do Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Chiroptera Neotropical15:417-424.), and the Pampas deer (Mourão et al., 2000).

Tab. II
Threatened mammals species listed by Brazilian government (Ministério do Meio Ambiente, 2014) and International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) occurring in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Categories: NT, Near Threatened; VU, Vulnerable; EN, Endangered).

Tab. III
Specimens considered in the elaboration of the checklist of non-flying mammals of the Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. The specimens examined by other authors are followed by the reference to the correspondent publication. The taxons follow an alphabetical order, independent of their higher level taxonomic classification (Subfamily, Family, Order). The collections included are: MCPAP, Coleção de Referência de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; MCPAPI, Coleção de Imagens de Referência de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; MN, Museu Nacional; MZUSP, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo; UFSM, Coleção de Mamíferos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria; AMNH, American Museum of Natural History; CEUCM, Centro Universitário de Corumbá - Coleção de Mamíferos; FMNH, Field Museum of Natural History; MHNCI, Museu de História Natural Capão da Imbuia; OMNH, Oklahoma Museum of Natural History; UEMS, Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul; UFMG, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais; UFSC, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina; USNM, National Museum of Natural History; JLP, James L. Patton (voucher at UFMG mammal collection, as cited by Weksler, 2003 Vieira, C. C. . 1955. Lista remissiva dos mamíferos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 8:341-474.); CRB (Cibele R. Bonvicino); LBCE (Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios silvestres, Fiocruz); MVZ (Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California, Bekerley) (*, records not included in present checklist; see Material and Methods).

Tab. IV
Specimens considered in the elaboration of the checklist of Chiroptera of the Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. The specimens examined by other authors are followed by the reference to the correspondent publication. The taxons follow an alphabetical order, independent of their higher level taxonomic classification (Subfamily, Family, Order). The collections included are: MCPAP: Coleção de Referencia de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; MCPAPI: Coleção de Imagens de Referência de Mamíferos da Embrapa Pantanal; ZUFMS: Coleção Zoológica da Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul; UNIDERP - Coleção do Laboratório de Quiróteros da Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal/ Anhanguera; UFSM: Coleção de Mamíferos da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria.

The previous checklist of mammals from the Mato Grosso do Sul reports 151 species, including 61 bat species ( Cáceres et al., 2008Cáceres, N. C.; Napoli, R. P.; Lopes, W. H. Casella, J. & Gazeta, G. S. 2007b. Natural history of the marsupial Thylamys macrurus (Mammalia, Didelphidae) in fragments of savannah in southwestern Brazil. Journal of Natural History 41(29-32):1979-1988.). In comparison, the present list represents an increase in the number of 15 species with primary records for the state, even considering that we avoided the inclusion of grouped specimens, interview data, non-confirmed or cataloged records, and non-native species. Although we attempted to produce a conservative checklist, we maintained few taxa that are still in need of taxonomic evaluation, such as Callicebus cf . pallescens and Callomys aff . callidus. It is evident also that Dasyprocta, Akodon, Rhipidomys, and Callomys deserve detailed taxonomic studies, and that scientific, regional mammal collections should be implemented to better document the species from Mato Grosso do Sul. Finally, it is clear that inventories at specific regions in the state are urgent, such as in the Chaco of the southwestern region, in the southern region previously covered by the Atlantic forest, and in the northeastern region near the border with Goiás and Mato Grosso states. Beyond the list of species, data on species occurrence are also required, as distribution maps are not available, what difficult the evaluation of the effectiveness of protected areas in conserving the species diversity, as well as the elaboration of an endangered species list for the Mato Grosso do Sul state.

Main research groups. At Mato Grosso do Sul there are few institutions studying mammals. At Embrapa Pantanal, in Corumbá, most of the research has been focused on ecology of medium to large mammals, and small mammals, with little effort on taxonomy and distributions. At the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS) there are specialists on small mammals, primates and bats. Both institutions usually interact well, and partnership with several other institutions in Brazil increases the potential approaches to study the mammal fauna in the state. It is particularly relevant the role of post-graduation programs, such as the Ecology and Conservation Program, and the Animal Biology Program, at UFMS, in the establishment of partnership among institutions.

Main collections. The main in-state zoological collections are the Reference Vertebrate Collection of Embrapa Pantanal at Corumbá, the Zoological Collection of the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul and the Zoological Collection of Laboratório de Quirópteros of Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal (UNIDERP) at Campo Grande. However, these are relatively small collections, which do not comprehend all taxonomic groups among mammals. It is clear from the data used in this article that most of the specimens came from larger collection in Brazil and abroad. The main depositories of specimens from the state are Museu Nacional, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP; American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, USA; the collections of the Laboratório de Biologia e Parasitologia de Mamíferos Reservatórios Silvestres - Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ; Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, University of California at Bekerley, USA; and the Mammal Collection of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS. Therefore, it is important to incentive the implementation of representative zoological collections by the local universities and research institutions to improve the knowledge and the data base for taxonomic studies and distribution assessments.

Main knowledge gaps. It is still necessary to develop studies on distributions of most of the mammalian species in the state, especially in regions where the man-made changes has eliminated the natural ecosystems, such as in the southern, central and eastern regions of the state. The southern region was once covered by the Atlantic forest, and it is presently highly developed with mechanized agriculture. Little is known about the mammal fauna in this area, especially along the border with Paraguay. It is possible that new records would be produced in the region, as several species known to occur in the other side of the frontier has not yet been found in Mato Grosso do Sul. In the central and eastern regions little has been done to increase the knowledge on the mammal fauna, and these areas are currently under expansion of forestry and biofuel projects (sugarcane plantations), as well as the intensification of cattle ranching and agriculture. Most of these areas are in the Cerrado ecosystem, but several types of wetlands exist in the headwaters. Hydroelectric developments are also a threat to these ecosystems as wetlands are usually located in lower terrain, which are the first to be eliminated together with its terrestrial mammalian fauna. The southwestern region, influenced by the Paraguayan Chaco, requires sound inventories as some species may be restricted in Brazil to this relatively small area. There is still a need for specific studies on taxonomy and distribution of some taxa, such as Oligoryzomys, Callomys, and Callicebus. The role of protected areas in conserving representative mammalian faunas in the state is still in need of consistent evaluation, including estimation of population sizes and trends for the most sensitive or endangered species. The knowledge on mammalian ecological functions (e.g. predators, pollinators, seed dispersers, vector/host of diseases) have been well studied only for some particular species or sites, lacking a more general picture across species and regions. Other relevant research hiatus are related to population dynamics, genetic structure, landscape use, dispersal, and local evolutionary histories. Furthermore, the general focus of available studies is on biological patterns rather than on the process shaping them. The use of mammals as indicator species is also necessary for habitat recovery and impact evaluations. Finally, the Mato Grosso do Sul is still requiring an official list of endangered species and their habitats, in order to influence public policies to protect them.

Perspectives for the next 10 years. In the following decade the perspectives for mammals from Mato Grosso do Sul will depend on the development of a strategic approach to increase the knowledge on this taxonomic group, particularly if partnership among specialists and institutions is achieved. In this sense, the BIOTA-MS Program, focused on the biodiversity at the state, certainly will play an important role. The BIOTA-MS should incentive and coordinate inventories at priority regions in the state, as well as help to increase the institutional capacity to organize, maintain and make available information from zoological collections. Among priority areas, we may list the Chaco in the southwestern region, the wetlands, the southern region, the northeastern region, and the western region along the border with Bolivia. For the future, ongoing new research lines will provide knowledge on some identified gaps. For instance, research projects in progress, including Ph.D. thesis and Master dissertations, have increasingly focused important lines in population ecology, dispersal, genetics and landscape use. Large-scale biogeographical patterns and local community assembly processes are other research lines which have been recently launched, which tend to substantially improve the knowledge on Mato Grosso do Sul’s bat fauna and other mammalian groups in the state. Also, it may be expected an increase of the knowledge on ecology, natural history, and distribution of mammal species, as post-graduation program has been established and consolidated in the state. However, it is still necessary to understand the impact of economic development on mammal species, with focus on the responses to habitat fragmentation and degradation, and on the abundance and distribution of their populations. These types of knowledge are fundamental to establish conservation priorities, such as the selection of areas to be protected, the recovering of endangered species populations and habitats, the elaboration of public policies for ecosystem services payment schedules, and the strategies to ensure wildlife conservation in private lands.

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciências e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Fundect) and Superintendência de Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Sucitec/MS), through the BIOTA-MS Program, for the invitation to participate in this special fascicle of the Iheringia, série Zoologia, as well as for their financial support for the publication; Atenise Pulchério-Leite, Janaína Casella, Ricardo Bocchese, and Thiago Bernardes Maccarini shared their records with us. We thank Marco Costacurta for sharing his photographic record of Dasypus sptemcinctus. NLC was supported by FUNDECT (Ph.D. fellowship 23/200.118/2011). MS was granted by CNPq (MSc. fellowship) and CAPES (Ph.D. fellowship). MAT was granted by the Fundect/CNPq fellowship linked to the BIOTA-MS Program. MNG was supported by FUNDECT/CNPq (DCR 32282/422/3208./3010/2014). GM and EF receive a CNPq Productivity fellowship (n. 308631/2011-0 and 311001/2012-2, respectively).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2017

History

  • Received
    21 Nov 2016
  • Accepted
    06 Feb 2017
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