Checklist of the Heleomyzidae, Neriidae and Oestridae (Insecta, Diptera) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Lista de Heleomyzidae, Neriidae e Oestridae (Insecta, Diptera) no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

Julia Calhau Alessandre Pereira-Colavite Tatiana Sepúlveda Claudio José Barros de Carvalho Priscylla Moll de Arruda Silvio Shigueo Nihei Cecília Kosmann Cristiane V. A. Pujol-Luz José Roberto Pujol-Luz About the authors

ABSTRACT

We provide a checklist of flies of the families Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Heleomyzidae are represented in Brazil by 13 species, and only Neorhinotora aristalis (Fischer) is recorded to the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The two reported species of Neriidae, Longina abdominalis Wiedemann and Nerius pilifer Fabricius, are among the 15 species now known in Brazil. The Oestridae family is represented by two species distributed in two genera: Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr.) and Cuterebra rufiventris Macquart.

KEYWORDS
Biodiversity; catalogue; taxonomy; Biota-MS Program

RESUMO

É apresentada uma checklist de espécies de Heleomyzidae, Neriidae e Oestridae do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil. Heleomyzidae, família representada no Brasil por 13 espécies, possui registro apenas de Neorhinotora aristalis (Fischer) para o Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul. Duas espécies de Neriidae, Longina abdominalis Wiedemann e Nerius pilifer Fabricius, das 15 com registro de ocorrência para o Brasil, foram identificadas. A família Oestridae é representada no Estado por duas espécies distribuídas em dois gêneros: Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr.) e Cuterebra rufiventris Macquart.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE
Biodiversidade; catálogo; taxonomia; Programa Biota-MS

This article is part of a series of checklists of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) and comprises data of three groups of cyclorrhaphan flies: the families Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae (Insecta, Diptera). Those three groups are very poorly known in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, with very few species recorded. For this reason, we provide here data concerning those three groups in a single work.

Heleomyzidae are a cosmopolitan group of flies, being most commonly found in temperate forests, and in in mountainous and cooler areas in the tropics ( Sinclair & McAlpine, 1995Sinclair, B. J. & McAlpine, D. K. 1995. Zinza, a new genus of rhinotorine flies from northern Queensland, Australia (Diptera: Heleomyzidae). Records of the Australian Museum 47(3):225-230.). The group is composed of 22 tribes ( McAlpine, 1985McAlpine, D. K. 1985. The Australian genera of Heleomyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) and a reclassification of the family into tribes. Records of the Australian Museum 36(5):203-251.), of which Rhinotorini and Diaciini are the only tribes recorded from Brazil ( Papavero, 1967Papavero, N. 1967. Family Rhinotoridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , p. 1-4.; Gill, 1968Gill, G. D. 1968. Family Heleomyzidae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-13.; McAlpine, 1985McAlpine, D. K. 1985. The Australian genera of Heleomyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) and a reclassification of the family into tribes. Records of the Australian Museum 36(5):203-251.). Rhinotorini are represented in Brazil by three genera: Neorhinotora Lopes, with four species, Rhinotoroides Lopes, with a single species and Rhinotora Schiner, with six species ( Papavero, 1967Papavero, N. 1967. Family Rhinotoridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , p. 1-4.). The tribe Diaciini, in turn, is represented in Brazil by only two species, Diacia diadema ( Wiedemann, 1830Wiedemann, C. R. W. 1830. Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. Als Fortsetzung des Meigenschen Werkes. Hamm, Zweiter Theil, Schulz. 684p.) and Dichromya sanguiniceps ( Wiedemann, 1830Wiedemann, C. R. W. 1830. Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. Als Fortsetzung des Meigenschen Werkes. Hamm, Zweiter Theil, Schulz. 684p.). In Brazil, the Heleomyzidae are very rarely observed in the field, and rarely collected.

Adults of Rhinotorini adults can be trapped with “MacPhail” traps, using fruit or cane syrup as bait, although the collection efficiency is quite low ( Almeida & Ale-Rocha, 2008Almeida, J. C. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2008. Taxonomic review of Neorhinotora Lopes 1934 (Diptera, Heleomyzidae). Zootaxa 1936:40-58.). Eventually, Rhinotorini are also collected with Malaise traps. Any other information on the natural history of Brazilian Heleomyzidae is unavailable.

The Neriidae comprise a small family of Acalyptrate flies, with about 110 species in 19 genera. These flies are found in all biogeographic regions, the majority of which are circumtropical. Of the tropical species, 42 are from the New World, with 15 in Brazil. In Brazil, these flies have been most studied in states of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

The Neriidae are best known in the Neotropical Region by the studies of three researchers. Enderlein (1922Enderlein, G. 1922. Klassifikation der Micropeziden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 88:140-229.) contributed by naming nine species in nine genera and defining the family with 19 species in 11 genera. Hennig (1937Hennig, W. 1937. Übersicht über die Arten der Neriiden und über die Zoogeographie dieser Acalyptraten-Gruppe (Diptera). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 98:240-280.) revalidated Enderlein’s study and named an additional nine species, providing a list of 39 species in nine genera. Finally, Aczél (1949Aczél, M. L. 1949. Catálogo de la Familia de las «Tylidae» (Calobatidae + Micropezidae + Neriidae, Diptera) en la Region Neotropical. Acta Zoológica Lilloana 8:309-389., 1951 Aczél, M. L. 1951. Morfologia externa y division sistemática de las «Tanypezidiformes» com sinopsis de las espécies argentinas de «Tylidae» («Micropezidae») y «Neriidae» (Dipt.). Acta Zoológica Lilloana 11:483-589., 1961 Aczél, M. L. 1961. A Revision of American Neriidae (Diptera, Acaliptratae). Studia Entomologica 4:257-346.) produced several studies including a catalog, systematic revision and a revision of American species. Aczél (1951 Aczél, M. L. 1951. Morfologia externa y division sistemática de las «Tanypezidiformes» com sinopsis de las espécies argentinas de «Tylidae» («Micropezidae») y «Neriidae» (Dipt.). Acta Zoológica Lilloana 11:483-589.) raises the group to the status of family and described seven species and two new genera. The most recent information about the Neriidae in the Neotropical Region is found in the catalog by Steyskal (1968Steyskal, G. C. 1968. Family Neriidae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , 49:1-7.), which includes the 15 species known from Brazil. Only two species in the family are known from the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, but to date, no study has focused on the fauna of the west-central region of Brazil.

The family Oestridae is widely distributed in the tropical region and comprises species characterized by the obligate parasitic habit of mammals ( Guimarães & Papavero, 1999 Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1999. Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Neotropical Region; Bibliographic Database. São Paulo, Plêiade. 308p.; Pape, 2010 Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. v. 2. Boca Raton, NCR Research Press, p.1305-1311.), causing myiasis ( Guimarães & Papavero, 1999 Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. v. 2. Boca Raton, NCR Research Press, p.1305-1311.). This defines them as one of the most important dipterous group of medical and veterinary interest ( Guimarães & Papavero, 1999 Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. v. 2. Boca Raton, NCR Research Press, p.1305-1311.). The adults, rarely seen or collected ( Catts, 1982Catts, E. P. 1982. Biology of the New World bot flies: Cuterebridae. Annual Review of Entomology 27:313-338.), are large and robust flies, their coloration varying from black to yellowish, with some metallic species ( Pape, 2010 Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. v. 2. Boca Raton, NCR Research Press, p.1305-1311.). Their mouthparts are reduced or totally absent at adult stage and their life are brief, dedicated to reproduction, host seeking, and oviposition ( Catts, 1982Catts, E. P. 1982. Biology of the New World bot flies: Cuterebridae. Annual Review of Entomology 27:313-338.). Approximately 190 species are distributed worldwide, and 37 of them are found in the Neotropical Region ( Guimarães & Papavero, 1999 Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. v. 2. Boca Raton, NCR Research Press, p.1305-1311.). The group is divided into four subfamilies, Hypodermatinae, Gasterophilinae, Oestrinae e Cuterebrinae (Pape, 2001), the latter being distributed exclusively in the Neotropical Region ( Guimarães, 1967a Guimarães, J. H. 1967a. Family Cuterebridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-11.).

Larvae of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr.) have been reported in 94% of the Brazilian municipalities ( Guimarães & Papavero, 1999 Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1999. Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Neotropical Region; Bibliographic Database. São Paulo, Plêiade. 308p.). In the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, the following Dipteran families were identified as D. hominis egg vectors: Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Muscidae, Fanniidae, and Tabanidae ( Gomes et al., 1998Gomes, A.; Honer, M. R.; Koller, W. W. & da Silva, R. L. 1998. Egg carriers of Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781) (Diptera: Cuteribridae [Cuterebridae]) in a Brazilian savanna area, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 7(1):37-40.). Additionally, Guimarães & Papavero (1999) Pape, T. 2010. Oestridae. In: Brown, B. V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J. M.; Wood, D. M.; Woodley, N. E. & Zumbado, M. A. eds. Manual of Central American Diptera. v. 2. Boca Raton, NCR Research Press, p.1305-1311. list also Culicidae, Simuliidae, Anthomyiidae, and ticks of the family Ixodidae.

In the present paper, we provide a checklist of the species of the families Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae occurring in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The following sources were used for this checklist to determine species that occur or are likely to occur in Mato Grosso do Sul: Wiedemann (1830Wiedemann, C. R. W. 1830. Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. Als Fortsetzung des Meigenschen Werkes. Hamm, Zweiter Theil, Schulz. 684p.), Schiner (1868Schiner, J. R. 1868. Diptera. In: Wüllerstorf, U. ed. Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. v.2, Part 1, Section B. Wien, Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, p. 1-388.), Lopes (1934Lopes, H. S. 1934. Nota prévia sobre alguns Rhopalomeridae (Dipt.). Revista de Entomologia 4:517., 1935 Lopes, H. S. 1935. A sub-família Rhinotorinae Williston (Dipt.-Rhopalomeridae). Arquivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal 2(1):19-26., 1936 Lopes, H. S. 1936. Sôbre duas espécies brasileiras de Rhinotora Schiner (Dipt. Rhopalomeridae). Revista de Entomologia 6(1):106-109.), Papavero (1967Papavero, N. 1967. Family Rhinotoridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , p. 1-4.), Gill (1968Gill, G. D. 1968. Family Heleomyzidae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-13.), McAlpine (1985McAlpine, D. K. 1985. The Australian genera of Heleomyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) and a reclassification of the family into tribes. Records of the Australian Museum 36(5):203-251.), and Almeida & Ale-Rocha (2008Almeida, J. C. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2008. Taxonomic review of Neorhinotora Lopes 1934 (Diptera, Heleomyzidae). Zootaxa 1936:40-58.) (for Heleomyzidae), Enderlein (1922Enderlein, G. 1922. Klassifikation der Micropeziden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 88:140-229.), Hennig (1937Hennig, W. 1937. Übersicht über die Arten der Neriiden und über die Zoogeographie dieser Acalyptraten-Gruppe (Diptera). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 98:240-280.), Aczél (1961 Aczél, M. L. 1961. A Revision of American Neriidae (Diptera, Acaliptratae). Studia Entomologica 4:257-346.), and Buck & Marshall (2004Buck, M. & Marshall, S. A. 2004. A review of the genus Longina Wiedemann, with descriptions of two new species (Diptera, Neriidae). Studia Dipterologica 11(1):23-32.) (for Neriidae) and Guimarães (1967a Guimarães, J. H. 1967a. Family Cuterebridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-11., b Guimarães, J. H. 1967b. Family Gasterophilidae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-4., c Guimarães, J. H. 1967c. Family Oestridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , p. 1-4.), Guimarães & Papavero (1966Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1966. A tentative annotated bibliography of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, Jr.) (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 14(4):223-294.), Gomes et al. (1998Gomes, A.; Honer, M. R.; Koller, W. W. & da Silva, R. L. 1998. Egg carriers of Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781) (Diptera: Cuteribridae [Cuterebridae]) in a Brazilian savanna area, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 7(1):37-40.), Papavero (1977 Papavero, N. 1977. The World Oestridae (Diptera), mammals and continental drift. The Hague, W. Junk Publishers. 248p.), Colwell et al. (2006Colwell, D. D.; Hall, M. J. R. & Scholl, P. J. 2006. The Oestrid Flies: Biology, host-parasite relationships, impact and management. Cambridge, CAB International. 376p. ), and Papavero & Guimarães (2008Papavero, N. & Guimarães, J. H. 2008. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Cuterebridae. Neotropical Diptera 12:1-17.) (for Oestridae). Additionally, for Neriidae, we also examined material in the Coleção Entomológica ‘Padre Jesus Santiago Moure’ (DZUP), in the Departamento de Zoologia of the Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

List of species in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul

HELEOMYZIDAE, RHINOTORINI

Neorhinotoraaristalis (Fisher, 1932)

Localities: Fazenda Murtinho, Três Lagoas. Geographic distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo). Type-locality: “Fazenda Murtinho” [Holotype male deposited at Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, MZSP]. Ref.: Lopes (1935 Lopes, H. S. 1935. A sub-família Rhinotorinae Williston (Dipt.-Rhopalomeridae). Arquivos do Instituto de Biologia Vegetal 2(1):19-26.), Papavero (1967Papavero, N. 1967. Family Rhinotoridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , p. 1-4.), Gill (1968Gill, G. D. 1968. Family Heleomyzidae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States. São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-13.), McAlpine (1985McAlpine, D. K. 1985. The Australian genera of Heleomyzidae (Diptera: Schizophora) and a reclassification of the family into tribes. Records of the Australian Museum 36(5):203-251.), Almeida & Ale-Rocha (2008Almeida, J. C. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2008. Taxonomic review of Neorhinotora Lopes 1934 (Diptera, Heleomyzidae). Zootaxa 1936:40-58.).

The following species of Rhinotorini are known from adjacent Brazilian states, and might be found in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul: Neorhinotora mutica ( Schiner, 1868Schiner, J. R. 1868. Diptera. In: Wüllerstorf, U. ed. Reise der österreichischen Fregatte Novara um die Erde in den Jahren 1857, 1858, 1859, unter den Befehlen des Commodore B. von Wullerstorf-Urbair. Zoologischer Theil. v.2, Part 1, Section B. Wien, Hof- und Staatsdruckerei, p. 1-388.); Neorhinotora fonsecai ( Lopes, 1934Lopes, H. S. 1934. Nota prévia sobre alguns Rhopalomeridae (Dipt.). Revista de Entomologia 4:517.); Rhinotora diversipennisLopes, 1936 Lopes, H. S. 1936. Sôbre duas espécies brasileiras de Rhinotora Schiner (Dipt. Rhopalomeridae). Revista de Entomologia 6(1):106-109.; Rhinotora lopesiGuimaraes & Papavero, 1966Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1966. A tentative annotated bibliography of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, Jr.) (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 14(4):223-294.; Rhinotora pluricellata Schiner, 1868; Rhinotora salesopolitanaGuimarães & Papavero, 1966Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1966. A tentative annotated bibliography of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, Jr.) (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 14(4):223-294.; Rhinotora spilopteraGuimarães & Papavero, 1966Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1966. A tentative annotated bibliography of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, Jr.) (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 14(4):223-294.; Rhinotora travassosiLopes, 1934Lopes, H. S. 1934. Nota prévia sobre alguns Rhopalomeridae (Dipt.). Revista de Entomologia 4:517.; Rhinotoroides bifurcataLopes, 1934Lopes, H. S. 1934. Nota prévia sobre alguns Rhopalomeridae (Dipt.). Revista de Entomologia 4:517..

NERIIDAE, NERIINAE

Longina abdominalis Wiedemann, 1830Wiedemann, C. R. W. 1830. Aussereuropäische zweiflügelige Insekten. Als Fortsetzung des Meigenschen Werkes. Hamm, Zweiter Theil, Schulz. 684p.

Localities: Maracaju. Type-locality: “Brasilien”. Geographic distribution: Brazil (Mato Grosso, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul), Paraguay, Argentina (Misiones).

Ref.: Buck & Marshall (2004Buck, M. & Marshall, S. A. 2004. A review of the genus Longina Wiedemann, with descriptions of two new species (Diptera, Neriidae). Studia Dipterologica 11(1):23-32.).

Neriuspilifer Fabricius, 1805

Localities: Corumbá, Dois Irmãos do Buriti (Palmeiras), Miranda, and Salobra. Type-locality: “America meridionali”. Geographic distribution: Mexico (Tabasco), Haiti, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Surinam, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Acre, Tocantins, Rondônia, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Mato Grosso do Sul, São Paulo), Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Paraguai, Argentina (Tucumán).

Ref.: Hennig (1937Hennig, W. 1937. Übersicht über die Arten der Neriiden und über die Zoogeographie dieser Acalyptraten-Gruppe (Diptera). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 98:240-280.), Aczél (1961 Aczél, M. L. 1961. A Revision of American Neriidae (Diptera, Acaliptratae). Studia Entomologica 4:257-346.), DZUP.

The following species of Neriidae are known from near Mato Grosso do Sul and are almost certainly found in the state: Cerantichir peruana ( Hennig, 1937Hennig, W. 1937. Übersicht über die Arten der Neriiden und über die Zoogeographie dieser Acalyptraten-Gruppe (Diptera). Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung 98:240-280.), distribution: Mato Grosso (east); Glyphidops (Glyphidops) filosus Fabricius, 1805, distribution: Mato Grosso (west); Glyphidops (Oncopsia) limbatusEnderlein, 1922Enderlein, G. 1922. Klassifikation der Micropeziden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 88:140-229., distribution: São Paulo (west); Nerius terebratusEnderlein, 1922Enderlein, G. 1922. Klassifikation der Micropeziden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 88:140-229., distribution: Paraguay (north-central); Nerius robustusEnderlein, 1922Enderlein, G. 1922. Klassifikation der Micropeziden. Archiv für Naturgeschichte (A) 88:140-229., distribution: Bolivia (east).

OESTRIDAE, CUTEREBRINAE

Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781)

Localities: Campo Grande, in Cerrado macroregion. Type-locality: “Peru”. Geographic distribution: From Mexico to northern Argentina, except Chile. Ref.: Gomes et al., 1996Gomes, A.; Honer, M. R. & Silva, R. I. 1996. Intensidade parasitária de larvas de Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae) em bovinos de diferentes raças criadas extensivamente na região de cerrado em Mato Grosso do Sul. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 5:103-106., 2002Gomes, P. R.; Koller, W. W.; Gomes, A.; Carvalho, C. J. B. & Zorzatto, J. R. 2002. Dípteros faniídeos vetores de ovos de Dermatobia hominis em Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira 22(3):114-118. .

Cuterebra rufiventris Macquart, 1843

Localities: Maracaju, in Cerrado macroregion. Type-locality: Brazil, Pará. Geographic distribution: Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Mato Grosso do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Santa Catarina), Ecuador, Peru. Ref.: Guimarães & Papavero, 1999 Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1999. Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Neotropical Region; Bibliographic Database. São Paulo, Plêiade. 308p.; Colwell et al., 2006Colwell, D. D.; Hall, M. J. R. & Scholl, P. J. 2006. The Oestrid Flies: Biology, host-parasite relationships, impact and management. Cambridge, CAB International. 376p. .

Main research groups on Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae. Heleomyzidae: in Brazil, the only specialists in the family are Drs. Nelson Papavero, Julia Calhau and, and Rosaly Ale Rocha. Almeida. Among the most prominent taxonomists currently working with the group in other parts of the world, Dr David McAlpine (Australian Museum, Australia) and Dr Andrzej Woznika (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland) can be cited.

Neriidae: the only group studying taxonomy and systematics of the family Neriidae is the Laboratório de Sistemática e Biogeografia: Diptera, in the Departamento de Zoologia of the Universidade Federal do Paraná (UFPR), with Alessandre Pereira-Colavite and Tatiana Sepúlveda.

Oestridae: according to Directory of South American Dipterists ( Carvalho, 2009Carvalho, C. J. B. 2009. Directory of South American Dipterists. Available at: < http://zoo.bio.ufpr.br/diptera/south/index.html>.
http://zoo.bio.ufpr.br/diptera/south/ind...
), there are no taxonomists or systematists of Oestridae nowadays. However, there is at least one research group concerned to study the systematics of Oestridae, which is the Laboratory headed by Dr. José Roberto Pujol-Luz (Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de Brasília).

Main collections. Heleomyzidae: the Heleomyzidae are very rare in entomological collections in Brazil, being the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZSP) and the Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) the most representative museums in terms of number of specimens, including type-specimens. The Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), in turn, has the largest collection of specimens of Heleomyzidae collected in Brazilian Amazon.

Neriidae: the main collections of the Diptera in Brazil comprise over 2,000 specimens in the Neriidae (and the number continues to grow; Carvalho et al., 2002Carvalho, C. J. B. de; Couri, M. S.; Toma, R.; Rafael, J. A.; Harada, A. Y.; Bonatto, S. R.; Henriques, A. L. & Gastal, H. A. de O. 2002. Principais coleções brasileiras de Diptera: histórico e situação atual, 37-52. In: Costa, C.; Vanin, S. A.; Lobo, J. M. & Melic, A. eds. Proyecto de Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografia y Entomologia Sistemática (PrIBES). Monografías Tercer Milenio, vol. 2. Zaragoza SEA. 329p.). The collections include the DZUP, with 200 specimens, the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) has 581 specimens, the Museu Nacional of the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ) has 28 specimens, the Museu Paranaense ‘Emílio Goeldi’ of Pará (MPEG) has 285 specimens and finally, the Museu de Zoologia of the Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP) has 920 specimens.

Oestridae: species of Oestridae are extremely low represented in Brazilian collections. According to Carvalho et al. (2002Carvalho, C. J. B. de; Couri, M. S.; Toma, R.; Rafael, J. A.; Harada, A. Y.; Bonatto, S. R.; Henriques, A. L. & Gastal, H. A. de O. 2002. Principais coleções brasileiras de Diptera: histórico e situação atual, 37-52. In: Costa, C.; Vanin, S. A.; Lobo, J. M. & Melic, A. eds. Proyecto de Red Iberoamericana de Biogeografia y Entomologia Sistemática (PrIBES). Monografías Tercer Milenio, vol. 2. Zaragoza SEA. 329p.), the following institutions possess adult pinned specimens of Oestridae: Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro-RJ (MNRJ), with 61 specimens of 18 species; Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo-SP (MZSP), with 32 specimens; and Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba-PR (DZUP), with four specimens of two species. There are also 35 specimens of four species of this family deposited in the entomological collection of the Universidade de Brasília (J. R. Pujol-Luz, pers. comm .).

Main knowledge gaps in the study of Heleomyzidae, Neriidae, and Oestridae in Brazil. As several families of Acalyptratae Diptera, Heleomyzidae are considered very problematic from the standpoint of taxonomy, with wide variation in its classification throughout its history. There is a large gap in systematics knowledge of Heleomyzidae. Phylogenetic studies with the group are unavailable, and therefore the monophyly of the family and their tribes have not been tested. Knowledge about species distribution in Brazil is also quite precarious, since most records of occurrence are concentrated in well-sampled areas like Southeast Brazil. Bionomic and behavioral studies with the Brazilian species are nonexistent, and constitute a major challenge due to the rarity of specimens in the field.

Like heleomyzids, the Neriidae of Mato Grosso do Sul are poorly known for two main reasons. First, the lack of collecting studies, in contrast to the adjacent and better studies areas that include the Amazon to the north, southeastern and southern Brazil, Paraguay, and Argentina to the south, and Peru and Bolivia to the west. Second, species in this family are difficult to identify and thus it is likely that zoological collections have specimens that remain unidentified.

Due to the parasitic habit of oestrids, the majority of the studies concerning this group are focused on medical and veterinary studies (e.g. Moya-Borja et al., 1993Moya-Borja, G. E.; Muniz, R. A.; Sanavria, A.; Gonçalves, L. C. B. & Rew, R. S. 1993. Therapeutic and persistent efficacy of doramectin against Dermatobia hominis in cattle. Veterinary Parasitology 49:85-93.; Gomes et al., 1996Gomes, A.; Honer, M. R. & Silva, R. I. 1996. Intensidade parasitária de larvas de Dermatobia hominis (L. Jr. 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae) em bovinos de diferentes raças criadas extensivamente na região de cerrado em Mato Grosso do Sul. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 5:103-106.), or on the findings of hosts carrying oestrids eggs (e.g. Brum et al., 1996Brum, J. G. W.; Vianna, E. E. S.; Gentilini, F. & Pinto, L. S. 1996. Fannia punctipennis (Diptera: Fanniidae), vetor de ovos de Dermatobia hominis (Oestridae: Cuterebridae) em Pelotas, RS. Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária 5(1):59-60.; Gomes et al., 2002, 1998; Marchi et al., 2012Marchi, M. J.; Pereira, P. A.; Menezes, R. M. T. & Tubaki, R. M. 2012. New records of mosquitoes carrying Dermatobia hominis eggs in the State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 28(2):116-118.; Marinho et al., 2003Marinho, C. R.; Barbosa, L. S.; Azevedo, A. C. G.; Queiroz, M. M. C.; Valgode, M. A. & Coelho, V. M. A. 2003. Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805) (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as new biological vector of eggs of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) (Diptera: Oestridae) in Reserva Biológica do Tinguá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98(7):937-938.). Taxonomic studies for the Neotropical fauna were mainly published by Dr José Henrique Guimarães and Dr Nelson Papavero (Guimarães & Carrera, 1941Guimarães, L. R. & Carrera, M. 1941. Contribuição ao conhecimento dos cuterebrídeos do Brasil. Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 3:1-12.; Guimarães, 1966Guimarães, J. H. 1966. Nota sobre os hábitos dos machos de Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, Jr.) (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Papéis Avulsos do Departamento de Zoologia 18(25):277-279., 1967a Guimarães, J. H. 1967a. Family Cuterebridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-11., b Guimarães, J. H. 1967b. Family Gasterophilidae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura, p. 1-4., c Guimarães, J. H. 1967c. Family Oestridae. In: Papavero, N. ed. A Catalogue of Diptera of the Americas South of the United States . São Paulo, Departamento de Zoologia, Secretaria da Agricultura , p. 1-4., 1971 Guimarães, J. H. 1971. Note on the hosts of Neotropical Cuterebrini (Diptera, Cuterebridae) with new records from Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 25(10):89-94., 1984 Guimarães, J. H. 1984. New genera and species of Neotropical Cuterebridae (Diptera, Cyclorrhapha). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 28(1):23-27. 1989 Guimarães, J. H. 1989. Revision of the Subfamily Rogenhoferinae Stat-Nov (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 84(4):255-261.; Guimarães & Papavero, 1966Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1966. A tentative annotated bibliography of Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus, Jr.) (Diptera, Cuterebridae). Arquivos de Zoologia do Estado de São Paulo 14(4):223-294., 1999 Guimarães, J. H. & Papavero, N. 1999. Myiasis in Man and Animals in the Neotropical Region; Bibliographic Database. São Paulo, Plêiade. 308p.; Papavero & Guimarães, 2008Papavero, N. & Guimarães, J. H. 2008. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Cuterebridae. Neotropical Diptera 12:1-17.). Regarding the systematics, the major publication is the Oestridae phylogeny by Pape (2001Pape, T. 2001. Phylogeny of Oestridae (Insecta: Diptera). Systematic Entomology 26:133-171.) recovering the phylogenetic relationships among the world genera of Oestridae.

Besides the major interest in Oestridae by veterinary and medical research, there is also the difficulty in collecting these flies. The maggots can only be collected in their hosts, which requires very distinct equipment and methods of collection, in comparison to free-living dipterous collection. The adults have an extremely short life, being rarely seen by specialists in the field or collected by their traps. For all these reasons, a larger collection effort covering different locations, at different periods of the year, is needed in order to better sample the diversity of the family and provide material for further systematic studies of the group.

Prospects for study for the next 10 years. Future study of the families over the next 10 years is strongly linked to the development of the SISBIOTA project for the western-central region of Brazil, especially in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul.

Acknowledgments

The involvement of the authors was not the same in the whole study: JCA was responsible for the Heleomyzidae data; APC, TS and CJBC prepared all the Neriidae data; while PMA, SSN, CK, CVAPL and JRPL were responsible for the Oestridae data. We thank Fundação de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento do Ensino, Ciências e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Fundect) and Superintendência de Ciências e Tecnologia do Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul (Sucitec/MS) for the invitation to participate in this special issue of Iheringia, Série Zoologia and financial support for publication. This study is part of the SISBIOTA project with financial support from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (Proc. #563256/2010-9) and Fundação de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP) (Proc. #2010/52314-0). JCA thanks FAPESP for the PhD scholarship (Proc. No. 2009/07803-6). APC, TS and CJBC thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the research grants (APC proc. #140754/2011-3; TS proc. #130370/2011-8; CJBC proc. #304713/2011-2). We would like to thank James J. Roper for translating the Neriidae part from the original Portuguese. PMA thanks FAPESP for the Master’s scholarship (Proc. #2012/9256-5). CK and CVAPL thank the following financial supports: CNPq, FAPDF, Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), and Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos (FINEP).

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2017

History

  • Received
    21 Nov 2016
  • Accepted
    06 Feb 2017
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