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Journal of Applied Oral Science, Volume: 18, Issue: 6, Published: 2010
  • Editorial - Achievements of the Journal of Applied Oral Science in the 2010 and acknowledgments

    Santos, Carlos F.
  • Comparison of debris extruded apically and working time used by ProTaper Universal rotary and ProTaper retreatment system during gutta-percha removal Original Articles

    Uezu, Mary Kinue Nakamune; Britto, Maria Leticia Borges; Nabeshima, Cleber K.; Pallotta, Raul Capp

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of ProTaper retreatment files and ProTaper Universal in the retreatment of mandibular premolars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The amount of debris extruded apically was measured and the time to reach the working length and to complete the removal of gutta-percha was observed. Thirty teeth had their canals prepared using ProTaper Universal files and were obturated by the single cone technique. The teeth were then stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for 7 days. During the use of the rotary instruments for root canal filling removal, the apical portions of the teeth were attached to the open end of a resin tube to collect the apically extruded debris. RESULTS: ProTaper Universal files were significantly faster (p=0.0011) than the ProTaper retreatment files to perform gutta-percha removal, but no significant difference was found between the files regarding the time to reach the working length or the amount of apical extrusion. CONCLUSIONS: ProTaper Universal rotary had better results for endodontic retreatment, and both techniques promote similar apical extrusion of debris.
  • Effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strengths of acrylic resin repairs Original Articles

    Elhadiry, Safa Salim; Yunus, Norsiah; Ariffin, Yusnidar Tajul

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of cavity preparation on the flexural strength of heat-curing denture resin when repaired with an auto-curing resin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety-six rectangular specimens (64x10x2.5 mm) prepared from heat-curing denture base resin (Meliodent) were randomly divided into four groups before repair. One group was left intact as control. Each repair specimen was sectioned into two; one group was repaired using the conventional repair method (Group 1). Two groups had an additional transverse cavity (2x3.5x21.5 mm) prepared prior to the repair; one repaired with (Group 2) and one without glass-fiber reinforcement (Group 3). A three-point flexural bending test according to the ISO 1567:1999 specification8 for denture base polymers was carried out on all groups after 1, 7 and 30 days of water immersion. Statistical analysis was carried out using two-way ANOVA, Kruskal Wallis and post-hoc Mann Whitney tests. RESULTS: The highest flexural strength was observed in the control group. Control and conventional repairs group (Group 1) showed reduction in the flexural strength 30 days after water immersion. No significant change in the strength was observed for Groups 2 and 3 where the repair joints were similarly prepared with additional transverse cavity. CONCLUSION: Repaired specimens showed lower flexural strength values than intact heat-curing resin. Cavity preparation had no significant effect on the flexural strength of repair with water immersion.
  • Antimicrobial resistance of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from the oral cavity Original Articles

    Gaetti-Jardim, Ellen Cristina; Marqueti, Antônio Carlos; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the resistance to antimicrobials of aerobes and facultative anaerobes isolated from patients wearing complete dentures, patients with gingivitis and periodontitis, and periodontally health subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three hundred and four isolates were tested. The minimal inhibitory concentrations of the drugs were evaluated through the agar dilution method using Mueller-Hinton agar. RESULTS: The most active antimicrobial drugs were the carbapenems (meropenem and imipenem), and resistance to these drugs was restrict to 1.6-2.3% of the isolates, as well as ciprofloxacin and rifampin. Microbial resistance to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, cephalothin, amikacin, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid was particularly high. In most cases, the resistance to β-lactams was mediated by the production of hydrolytic enzymes, especially in gram-negative enteric rods, while enterococci did not evidence production of these enzymes. The association amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was not effective in 28.3% of the tested isolates. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this investigation confirmed that the oral cavity of patients with periodontitis and gingivitis, and particularly edentulous patients wearing complete dentures could harbor microorganisms with several antimicrobial resistance markers, and these microorganisms are frequently implicated in multiresistant, systemic, oral or nosocomial infections.
  • Clinical and antimicrobial efficacy of NitrAdineTM-based disinfecting cleaning tablets in complete denture wearers Original Articles

    Silva-Lovato, Cláudia Helena; Wever, Bart de; Adriaens, Els; Paranhos, Helena de Freitas Oliveira; Watanabe, Evandro; Pisani, Maria Xavier; Souza, Rafael Freitas de; Ito, Isabel Yoko

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the efficacy of NitrAdineTM-based disinfecting cleaning tablets for complete denture, in terms of denture biofilm removal and antimicrobial action. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty complete denture wearers (14 men and 26 women) with a mean age of 62.3±9.0 years were randomly assigned to two groups and were instructed to clean their dentures according to two methods: brushing (control) - 3 times a day with denture brush and tap water following meals; brushing and immersion (Experimental) - brushing the denture 3 times a day with denture brush and tap water following meals and immersion of the denture in NitrAdineTM-based denture tablets (Medical InterporousTM). Each method was used for 21 days. Denture biofilm was disclosed by a 1% neutral red solution and quantified by means of digital photos taken from the internal surface before and after the use of the product. Microbiological assessment was conducted to quantify Candida sp. RESULTS: An independent t-test revealed a significant lower biofilm percentage for the experimental group (4.7, 95% CI 2.4 to 7.9) in comparison with the control group (mean 37.5, 95% CI 28.2 to 48.1) (t38=7.996, p<0.001). A significant reduction of yeast colony forming units could be found after treatment with Medical InterporousTM denture tablets as compared to the control group (Mann-Whitney test, Z=1.90; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The present findings suggest that NitrAdineTM-based disinfecting cleaning tablets are efficient in removal of denture biofilm. In addition, a clear antimicrobial action was demonstrated. Therefore, they should be recommended as a routine denture maintenance method for the prevention of the development of microbial biofilm induced denture stomatitis.
  • Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times Original Articles

    Galvão, Avilmar Passos; Jacques, Letícia Borges; Dantas, Luciana; Mathias, Paula; Mallmann, André

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. RESULTS: The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. CONCLUSION: Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application.
  • Survey on the occurrence of dental trauma and preventive strategies among Brazilian professional soccer players Original Articles

    Correa, Marcos Britto; Schuch, Helena Silveira; Collares, Kauê; Torriani, Dione dias; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Demarco, Flavio Fernando

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to verify the occurrence of dental injuries in professional Brazilian soccer players, the level of knowledge of the teams' medical departments about mouthguards, and the conducts adopted in cases of dental trauma during the match. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Closed questionnaires were sent to the physicians in charge of the medical departments of the 40 teams enrolled in the first and second divisions of the Brazilian professional soccer league in 2007. The data obtained were subjected to descriptive analysis to determine absolute and relative frequencies of answers for each one of the questions. RESULTS: Physicians from 38 (95%) of the 40 teams in the first and second divisions answered the questionnaires and 71.1% reported the occurrence of some type of dental injury during soccer practice, dental fractures (74.1%) and avulsions (59.3%) being the most prevalent ones. Regarding emergency conducts, approximately 50% answered that a successful replantation could be obtained in periods from 6 to 24 h after injury, and 27.8% were not able to answer this question. Regarding mouthguard use, 48.6% of the physicians did not know about mouthguards, and only 21.6% usually recommended their use by the soccer players. Among the physicians who do not recommend the use of mouthguards, 50% justified that it was not necessary. Almost 50% of the medical departments do not have a dentist as part of the health professional staff. CONCLUSIONS: It was possible to conclude that dental injuries are common during professional soccer practice and that there is a lack of information in the medical departments related to the emergency conducts and prevention of dental trauma.
  • Influence of powder/liquid ratio on the radiodensity and diametral tensile strength of glass ionomer cements Original Articles

    Fonseca, Rodrigo Borges; Branco, Carolina Assaf; Quagliatto, Paulo Sérgio; Gonçalves, Luciano de Souza; Soares, Carlos José; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    Abstract in English:

    Clinicians tend to make reductions in glass ionomer power/liquid (P/L) ratios since some materials are difficult to mix and flow into small cavities, grooves or pits. In general, changing the P/L ratio decreases the physical and mechanical properties of conventional glass ionomer cements (GICs) and resin modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs), but alterations seem to depend on their composition. OBJECTIVE: To determine the influence of P/L ratio on the radiodensity and diametral tensile strength (DTS) of glass ionomer cements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: There were 2 factors under study: P/L ratio (manufacturer's recommended P/L ratio and a 50% reduced P/L ratio), and materials (Vitro Molar, Vitro Fil, Vitro Cem conventional GICs and Vitro Fil LC, Ortho Glass LC RMGICs. Five 1-mm-thick samples of each material-P/L ratio were produced for radiodensity evaluation. Samples were x-ray exposed onto Digora phosphor plate and radiodensity was obtained using the software Digora for Windows 2.5 Rev 0. For DTS, five (4.0x8.0 mm) cylinder samples of each material were tested (0.5 mm/min). Data were subjected to one- and two-way ANOVA (5x2) followed by Tukey's HSD test, or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's method. For paired comparisons, t-test or Mann-Whitney test were used (α=0.05). RESULTS: There was a significant interaction (P=0.001) for the studied factors (materials vs. P/L ratio). Reduced P/L ratio resulted in significantly lower DTS for the RMGICs, but radiodensity was affected for all materials (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Reduced P/L ratio affected properties of the tested glass ionomer cements. RMGICs were more susceptible to lower values of DTS, but radiodensity decreased for all materials following P/L ratio reduction.
  • Effect of chemical degradation followed by toothbrushing on the surface roughness of restorative composites Original Articles

    Voltarelli, Fernanda Regina; Santos-Daroz, Claudia Batitucci dos; Alves, Marcelo Corrêa; Cavalcanti, Andrea Nóbrega; Marchi, Giselle Maria

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of the exposure to food-simulating liquids prior to brushing simulation on the surface roughness of five composite materials (Quixfil, Filtek Supreme, Esthet-X, Filtek Z250, Tetric Ceram). Material and METHODS: Twenty cylinders (5 mm diameter and 4 mm height) of each composite were randomly allocated to 4 groups (n=5), according to the food-simulating liquid in which they were immersed for 7 days at 37°C: artificial saliva, heptane, citric acid, and ethanol. After this period, the top surface of composite cylinders was submitted to 7,500 brushing cycles (200 g load). Measurements of the surface roughness (Ra, ¼m) were carried out before and after the exposure to the chemicals/brushing simulation. Changes on the morphology of composite surfaces were observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). RESULTS: The statistical analysis (ANOVA with cofactor / Tukey's test, α=5%) detected a significant interaction between solutions and composite resins. Esthet-X, Filtek Z250 and Tetric Ceram were not affected by the food-simulating liquids/toothbrushing. Citric acid and ethanol increased the surface roughness of Quixfil and Filtek Supreme, respectively. SEM images corroborate the surface roughness findings, demonstrating the negative effect from chemical solutions and mechanical abrasion. CONCLUSIONS: The surface roughness of composite resin materials are differently affected by the food-simulating solutions, depending on the immersion media.
  • Evaluating resin-enamel bonds by microshear and microtensile bond strength tests: effects of composite resin Original Articles

    Andrade, Andrea Mello de; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Garcia, Eugenio Jose; Grande, Rosa Helena Miranda

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of resin composite (Filtek Z250 and Filtek Flow Z350) and adhesive system [(Solobond Plus, Futurabond NR (VOCO) and Adper Single Bond (3M ESPE)] on the microtensile (μTBS) and microshear bond strength (μSBS) tests on enamel, and to correlate the bond strength means between them. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-six extracted human molars were sectioned to obtain two tooth halves: one for μTBS and the other one for μSBS. Adhesive systems and resin composites were applied to the enamel ground surfaces and light-cured. After storage (37(0)C/24 h) specimens were stressed (0.5 mm/min). Fracture modes were analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). RESULTS: The correlation between tests was estimated with Pearson's product-moment correlation statistics (α =0.05). For both tests only the main factor resin composite was statistically significant (p<0.05). The correlation test detected a positive (r=0.91) and significant (p=0.01) correlation between the tests. CONCLUSIONS: The results were more influenced by the resin type than by the adhesives. Both microbond tests seem to be positive and linearly correlated and can therefore lead to similar conclusions.
  • Non-surgical instrumentation associated with povidone-iodine in the treatment of interproximal furcation involvements Original Articles

    Ribeiro, Érica del Peloso; Bittencourt, Sandro; Sallum, Enilson Antônio; Sallum, Antônio Wilson; Nociti Júnior, Francisco Humberto; casati, Márcio Zaffalon

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this controlled clinical trial was to evaluate the effect of topically applied povidone-iodine (PVP-I) used as an adjunct to non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-two patients presenting at least one interproximal class II furcation involvement that bled on probing with probing pocket depth (PPD) >5 mm were recruited. Patients were randomly chosen to receive either subgingival instrumentation with an ultrasonic device using PVP-I (10%) as the cooling liquid (test group) or identical treatment using distilled water as the cooling liquid (control group). The following clinical outcomes were evaluated: visible plaque index, bleeding on probing (BOP), position of the gingival margin, relative attachment level (RAL), PPD and relative horizontal attachment level (RHAL). BAPNA (N-benzoyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanilide) testing was used to analyze trypsin-like activity in dental biofilm. All parameters were evaluated at baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months after non-surgical subgingival instrumentation. RESULTS: Six months after treatment, both groups had similar means of PPD reduction, RAL and RHAL gain (p>0.05). These variables were, respectively, 2.20±1.10 mm, 1.27±1.02 mm and 1.33±0.85 mm in the control group and 2.67±1.21 mm, 1.50±1.09 mm and 1.56±0.93 mm in the test group. No difference was observed between groups at none of the posttreatment periods, regarding the number of sites showing clinical attachment gain >2 mm. However, at 6 months posttreatment, the test group presented fewer sites with PPD >5 mm than the control group. Also at 6 months the test group had lower BAPNA values than control group. CONCLUSION: The use of PVP-I as an adjunct in the non-surgical treatment of interproximal class II furcation involvements provided limited additional clinical benefits.
  • Biaxial flexural strength of Turkom-Cera core compared to two other all-ceramic systems Original Articles

    Al-Makramani, Bandar Mohammed Abdullah; Razak, Abdul Aziz Abdul; Abu-Hassan, Mohamed Ibrahim

    Abstract in English:

    Advances in all-ceramic systems have established predictable means of providing metal-free aesthetic and biocompatible materials. These materials must have sufficient strength to be a practical treatment alternative for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the biaxial flexural strength of three core ceramic materials. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Three groups of 10 disc-shaped specimens (16 mm diameter x 1.2 mm thickness - in accordance with ISO-6872, 1995) were made from the following ceramic materials: Turkom-Cera Fused Alumina [(Turkom-Ceramic (M) Sdn Bhd, Puchong, Selangor, Malaysia)], In-Ceram (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany) and Vitadur-N (Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany), which were sintered according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The specimens were subjected to biaxial flexural strength test in an universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The definitive fracture load was recorded for each specimen and the biaxial flexural strength was calculated from an equation in accordance with ISO-6872. RESULTS: The mean biaxial flexural strength values were: Turkom-Cera: 506.8±87.01 MPa, In-Ceram: 347.4±28.83 MPa and Vitadur-N: 128.7±12.72 MPa. The results were analyzed by the Levene's test and Dunnett's T3 post-hoc test (SPSS software V11.5.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, IL, USA ) at a preset significance level of 5% because of unequal group variances (P<0.001). There was statistically significant difference between the three core ceramics (P<0.05). Turkom-Cera showed the highest biaxial flexural strength, followed by In-Ceram and Vitadur-N. CONCLUSIONS: Turkom-Cera core had significantly higher flexural strength than In-Ceram and Vitadur-N ceramic core materials.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-9 in radicular and residual radicular cysts Original Articles

    Ruiz, Patrícia Alvarez; Toledo, Orlando Ayrton de; Nonaka, Cassiano francisco Weege; Pinto, Leão Pereira; Souza, Lélia Batista de

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: This study assessed and compared the immunoexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in radicular cysts (RCs) and residual radicular cysts (RRCs), relating them to the angiogenic index and the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty RCs and 10 RRCs were evaluated by immunohistochemistry using anti-VEGF and anti-MMP-9 antibodies. The angiogenic index was determined by microvessel count (MVC) using anti-von Willebrand factor antibody. RESULTS: The expression of both VEGF and MMP-9 was higher in RCs than in RRCs. RCs and RRCs presented strong epithelial expression of VEGF, irrespective of the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. Lesions with strong expression of MMP-9 showed significantly higher number of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05) and higher MVC (p<0.05). Lesions with dense inflammatory infiltrate exhibited significantly higher MVC (p<0.05) and higher number of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05). There was a positive correlation between both MVC (p<0.05) and the quantity of immunopositive cells for VEGF (p<0.05), with intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. In addition, it was observed a positive correlation between the number of immunopositive cells for VEGF and MVC (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: VEGF and MMP-9 might play important roles in the angiogenesis in RCs and RRCs. In these lesions, the expression of these molecules and the MVC is closely related to the intensity of the inflammatory infiltrate. The expression of VEGF in the epithelial lining of RCs and RRCs might be important for the enlargement of these lesions.
  • Removal efficiency of propolis paste dressing from the root canal Original Articles

    Victorino, Fausto Rodrigo; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Zapata, Ronald Ordinola; Casaroto, Ana Regina; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes de; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi

    Abstract in English:

    OBJETIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) the cleaning of root canal walls after the use of experimental propolis or calcium hydroxide root canal dressings. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty single-rooted teeth were used. After conventional cleaning and shaping procedures and removal of the smear layer with 17% EDTA, the teeth were divided into four groups according to the medication used (N=5): Group I (control) - No drug, Group II - Calcium hydroxide dressing, Group III - Propolis paste A70D and Group IV - Propolis paste D70D. The medications were introduced into the root canals and maintained for 7 days, then removed with a K-file and 5 mL of 1% sodium hypochlorite irrigation. Finally, the canals were flushed with 2 mL of 17% EDTA for 3 min. For SEM analysis, the roots were cleaved and microphotographs from the middle third of the root canal were taken at 750x. The cleaning of the root canal walls was determined by the number of open dentinal tubules as verified with the software Image Tool 3.1. The statistical analysis was performed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The results showed no statistically significant difference between the calcium hydroxide and propolis groups. CONCLUSIONS: The experimental propolis pastes presented acceptable physical characteristics to be used as intracanal medicaments.
  • Mesiodistal root angulation of permanent teeth in children with mixed dentition and normal occlusion Original Articles

    Jesuino, Flávia A. S.; Costa, Luciane R.; Valladares-Neto, José

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: There is little information regarding the mesiodistal angulation of permanent teeth in mixed dentition. The aim of this study was to evaluate mesiodistal root angulation of permanent incisors, canines and first molars of 100 Brazilian children, using a new horizontal reference plane based on the midpoint of the intercuspation of primary canines and permanent first molars in panoramic radiographs during the mixed-dentition phase. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Children were equally divided between the genders with a mean age of 8.9 years (SD=0.76), normal occlusion and no eruptive disturbances. RESULTS: The angulation of the permanent maxillary first molars was close to the vertical, whereas the mandibular molars presented approximately 25 degrees of distal root angulation. The maxillary canines were the most distally angulated teeth, whereas the permanent mandibular canines were vertically positioned. The evaluation of the anterior maxillary area showed vertical position of permanent lateral, and central incisors with a slight distal angulation, whereas the permanent mandibular incisors tended to a mesial radicular convergence. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed reference line could be useful in mixed dentition root angulation evaluation; there was a slight asymmetry in the mesiodistal angulation among homologous teeth, and also a small variation between the male and the female groups, but no difference between 8-and 10-year-old children.
  • Treatment with paracetamol, ketorolac or etoricoxib did not hinder alveolar bone healing: a histometric study in rats Original Articles

    Fracon, Ricardo Nogueira; Teófilo, Juliana Mazzonetto; Moris, Izabela Cristina; Lamano, Teresa

    Abstract in English:

    Prostaglandins control osteoblastic and osteoclastic function under physiological or pathological conditions and are important modulators of the bone healing process. The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and consequently prostaglandins synthesis. Experimental and clinical evidence has indicated a risk for reparative bone formation related to the use of non-selective (COX-1 and COX-2) and COX-2 selective NSAIDs. Ketorolac is a non-selective NSAID which, at low doses, has a preferential COX-1 inhibitory effect and etoricoxib is a new selective COX-2 inhibitor. Although literature data have suggested that ketorolac can interfere negatively with long bone fracture healing, there seems to be no study associating etoricoxib with reparative bone formation. Paracetamol/acetaminophen, one of the first choices for pain control in clinical dentistry, has been considered a weak anti-inflammatory drug, although supposedly capable of inhibiting COX-2 activity in inflammatory sites. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether paracetamol, ketorolac and etoricoxib can hinder alveolar bone formation, taking the filling of rat extraction socket with newly formed bone as experimental model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The degree of new bone formation inside the alveolar socket was estimated two weeks after tooth extraction by a differential point-counting method, using an optical microscopy with a digital camera for image capture and histometry software. Differences between groups were analyzed by ANOVA after confirming a normal distribution of sample data. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Histometric results confirmed that none of the tested drugs had a detrimental effect in the volume fraction of bone trabeculae formed inside the alveolar socket.
  • Experimental periodontal disease treatment by subgingival irrigation with tetracycline hydrochloride in rats Original Articles

    Fernandes, Leandro Araújo; Martins, Thiago Marchi; Almeida, Juliano Milanezi De; Nagata, Maria José Hitomi; Theodoro, Leticia Helena; Garcia, Valdir Gouveia; Bosco, Alvaro Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare subgingival irrigation with tetracycline hydrochloride (TTC-HCL) as adjunctive treatment to scaling and root planning (SRP) on induced periodontitis in rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 60 rats, periodontal disease was ligature-induced at the mandibular left first molar. After 7 days, the ligature was removed and all animals were submitted to SRP, and divided into 2 groups according to the following treatment: C (n=30) - subgingival irrigation with 1 mL of saline; T (n=30) - subgingival irrigation with 1 mL of TTC-HCL (50 mg/mL). Ten animals in each group were euthanized at 7, 15 and 30 days posttreatment. The histometric values were statistically analyzed (p<0.05). RESULTS: In the histometric analysis, at 7, 15 and 30 days, Group T (0.72±0.05 mm², 0.57±0.14 mm², 0.62±0.07 mm²), showed less bone loss (p<0.05) than Group C (1.35±0.25 mm²; 1.40±0.31 mm²; 1.29±0.27 mm²), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Subgingival irrigation with TTC-HCL was an effective adjunctive treatment for periodontal disease induced in rats.
  • Chromatic stability of acrylic resins of artificial eyes submitted to accelerated aging and polishing Original Articles

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Santos, Daniela Micheline dos; Souza, Josiene Firmino; Moreno, Amália; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves

    Abstract in English:

    Esthetics and durability of materials used to fabricate artificial eyes has been an important issue since artificial eyes are essential to restore esthetics and function, protect the remaining tissues and help with patients' psychological therapy. However, these materials are submitted to degrading effects of environmental agents on the physical properties of the acrylic resin. OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the color stability of acrylic resins used to fabricate sclera in three basic shades (N1, N2 and N3) when subjected to accelerated aging, mechanical and chemical polishing. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Specimens of each resin were fabricated and submitted to mechanical and chemical polishing. Chromatic analysis was performed before and after accelerated aging through ultraviolet reflection spectrophotometry. RESULTS: All specimens revealed color alteration following polishing and accelerated aging. The resins presented statistically significant chromatic alteration (p<0.01) between the periods of 252 and 1008 h. CONCLUSIONS: Both polishing methods presented no significant difference between the values of color derivatives of resins.
  • Goldenhar syndrome: clinical features with orofacial emphasis Original Articles

    Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Miranda, Roseli Teixeira de; Fernandes, Cassandro Moreira; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Paranaíba, Lívia Máris Ribeiro; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.

    Abstract in English:

    OBJECTIVES: Goldenhar syndrome (GS) is a relatively common developmental disorder characterized by craniofacial anomalies in association with vertebral, cardiac, renal, and central nervous system defects. This paper describes GS features with special emphasis on oral characteristics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The clinical features of 6 patients with GS aged 3 months to 12 years are described, and a brief review of the literature about this genetic disorder is presented. RESULTS: All patients demonstrated the classical triad of GS, including mandibular hypoplasia resulting in facial asymmetry, ear and/or eye malformation, and vertebral anomalies. In addition, renal and gastrointestinal abnormalities were observed in 2 patients. Regarding the oral involvement, 2 patients presented cleft lip and palate, and 1 patient had temporomandibular joint malformation. Malocclusion was found in all patients. CONCLUSION: Our orofacial findings correlate with the reported cases in the literature, and point out that after diagnosis GS patients need to be examined for systemic abnormalities.
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