Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: This study aimed to review the literature, summarizing the existing evidence on the effects of the pandemic on children, adolescents and parents, with an emphasis on the psychological, emotional, and sleep quality consequences. Source of data: Empirical studies identified in the following databases: MEDLINE, ISI Web of Knowledge/Web of Science, and preprint servers. Synthesis of data: The findings point to a wide range of consequences for children and adolescents resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, which mainly includes an increase in depressive mood symptoms. There is also an increase in anxiety symptoms, suicidal ideation, as well as potential delays in language and motor development resulting from deprivation of social interaction and the closing of schools. These effects are more severe due to previous neuropsychiatric conditions. For parents, there is an increase in anxiety, depressive and post-traumatic symptoms, which are more accentuated in those who suffered socioeconomic damage due to the pandemic. There was an important increase in situations of violence towards children by parents and caregivers during the pandemic. Also, changes in routine and fear of the pandemic have negatively impacted sleep quality, globally. Conclusions: It is noteworthy that most studies published to date used a cross-sectional design and applied online screening questionnaires. The few studies with a longitudinal design suggest that these changes may have been transitory and more prevalent at the beginning of the pandemic.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: To describe the concept of toxic stress, present the basics of epigenetics and discuss their relationship with child development. Data source: Narrative literature review through a search in the SciELO, Lilacs, Medline databases using the terms Adverse Childhood Experience OR Early Life Stress, Epigenomic OR Epigenetic, Child Development OR Infant Development. Data synthesis: Continuing stress response, known as toxic stress, can occur when a child experiences intense, frequent, and/or prolonged adversity–such as physical or emotional abuse, chronic neglect, for example–without adequate adult support. This toxic stress can have harmful effects on learning, behavior, and health throughout life. Epigenetics, an emerging scientific research area, shows how environmental influences affect gene expressions and explains how early experiences can impact throughout life. Conclusions: Toxic stress causes changes in the human body response systems that can be explained in part by epigenetic changes, which can be temporary or long-lasting. Pediatricians must be aware of these mechanisms and their consequences, seeking to prevent them and thus promote the health, well-being, and quality of life of children, contributing to their full development.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: To discuss the associations between habits and environment in childhood and cardiovascular effects on adults. Source of data: Search in PubMed, Scielo and Science databases, cohort or case-control studies, and systematic or scope-based reviewson the causal relationship among exposures in the pediatric age group and cardiovascular effects in adults. Synthesis of data: The authors identified 41 eligible articles, which demonstrated an impact on cardiovascular health (characterized as surrogate events - structural or functional vascular alterations or left ventricular dysfunction - or clinical events - myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death) with environmental aspects (intrauterine or economically poor environment, violence, reduced life expectancy and serious infections) and habits (nutrition, physical activity and tobacco exposure). In addition to the direct and independent associations between exposures and outcomes, several traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) or family histories are also intermediate pathophysiological pathways in the described phenomena. Conclusions: There are direct relationships between lifestyle and inadequate environments in childhood and cardiovascular effects, although the observed associations showed divergences in terms of results and interpretation. In spite of these, it is recommended to encourage healthy lifestyles and protection against childhood adverse exposures, as habit formation occurs at this age, and its relationship with CVRF since childhood has already been well established. On the other hand, the format and intensity of the stimulus must respect the social, cultural and psychological aspects of each population, aiming to obtain the best and most lasting result without generating harmful consequences for the individuals.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: In this brief review, the authors focus on the effects of gestational exposures to urban air pollution on fetal development and neonatal outcomes. Source of data: In this review the authors used PubMed, Web of Science and SciELO research platforms, analyzing papers from the last 30 years. Summary of the findings: Epidemiological and experimental evidence agree that gestational exposure to air pollution in urban increases the risks for low birth weight, preterm birth, congenital malformation, intrauterine growth restriction, and neonatal mortality. Furthermore, exposures are associated with increased risks for preeclampsia, hypertension, gestational diabetes. Conclusions: Therefore, it is time for greater involvement and engagement of the health sector in the discussion of public policies that may affect the quality of the environment, and that directly or indirectly impact the health of those who were not yet born.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: This review aimed to verify indoor and outdoor pollution, host and environmental microbiome, and the impact on the health of the pediatric population. Sources: A review of the literature, non-systematic, with the search for articles since 2001 in PubMed with the terms “pollution” AND “microbiome” AND “children’s health” AND “COVID-19”. Summary of the findings: Prevention of allergic diseases includes the following aspects: avoid cesarean delivery, the unnecessary overuse of antibiotics, air pollution, smoking in pregnancy and second-hand tobacco smoke, stimulate breastfeeding, soil connection, consume fresh fruits and vegetables, exercise and outdoor activities and animal contact. The children’s microbiota richness and diversity decrease the risk of immune disbalance and allergic disease development. Conclusions: Lifestyle and exposure to pollutants, both biological and non-biological, modify the host and the environment microbiome provoking an immune disbalance with inflammatory consequences and development of allergic diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To describe the participation of the environment in the childhood obesity epidemic, since childhood obesity currently represents a great challenge, with high prevalence worldwide, including in Brazil. Data source: Survey of articles published in the last 10 years in PubMed, evaluating the interface between the environment and childhood obesity. Data synthesis: Recent studies show that the environment is very important in the etiopathogenesis of obesity and its comorbidities. Therefore, factors such as air pollution, exposure to chemical substances that interfere with the metabolism, excessive consumption of ultra-processed foods, changes in the intestinal microbiota, and sedentary lifestyle are associated with increased obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and changes in lipid metabolism. These factors have a greater impact on some stages of life, such as the first thousand days, as they affect the expression of genes that control the adipogenesis, energy expenditure, and the mechanisms for hunger/satiety control. Conclusions: Environmental aspects must be taken into account in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, both from the individual and the population point of view, with adequate and comprehensive public health policies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To analyze the impacts of climate change on the development of immature respiratory and immune systems in children. Source of data: The authors of the present study performed a non-systematic review of English, Spanish, and Portuguese articles published in the last five years in databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, and SciELO. The terms used were air pollution OR climate changes OR smoke, AND children OR health. Synthesis of data: The increase in the prevalence of some diseases, such as allergic ones, is attributed to the interactions between genetic potential and the environment. However, disordered growth combined with inadequate waste management has caused problems for the planet, such as heatwaves, droughts, forest fires, increased storms and floods, interference in food crops and their nutritional values, changes in the infectious disease pattern, and air pollution resulting from the continuous use of fossil fuels. Children, beings still in the development stage with immature respiratory and immune systems, are the primary victims of the climate crisis. Conclusions: The authors documented that prenatal and postnatal exposure to ambient air pollutants will accelerate or worsen the morbidity and mortality of many health conditions, including allergic diseases. Ambient air pollutants change the microbiota, interfere with the immune response, and take direct action on the skin and respiratory epithelium, which facilitates the penetration of allergens. Understanding how the children and adolescent health and well-being are affected by climate change is an urgent matter.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To describe the consequences of social inequalities on children's health as a global and persistent problem, demonstrating its historical and structural roots in different societies. Data sources: Relevant articles in the PubMed/MEDLINE database, in addition to those found in a manual search and in the bibliographic references of selected studies and consultation to the websites of international organizations to obtain relevant data and documents. Data synthesis: To understand how inequities affect health, it is necessary to know the unequal distribution of their social determinants among population groups. In the case of children, the parental pathway of determinants is central. The non-equitable way in which many families or social groups live, determined by social and economic inequalities, produces unequal health outcomes, particularly for children. This is observed between and within countries. Children from the most vulnerable population groups consistently have worse health conditions. Interventions aimed at children's health must go beyond care and act in an integrated manner on poverty and on social and economic inequalities, aiming to end systematic and unfair differences. Conclusions: Despite the considerable advances observed in children's health in recent decades at a global level, the inequalities measured by different indicators show that they persist. This scenario deserves attention from researchers and decision-makers, especially in the context of the global health crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has further intensified the situation of vulnerability and social inequalities in health around the world.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objectives: To review the literature about the environmental impact on children’s mental, behavior, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Sources of data: A nonsystematic review of papers published on MEDLINE-PubMed was carried out using the terms environment and mental health or psychiatric disorders or neurodevelopmental disorders. Summary of findings: Psychopathology emerges at different developmental times as the outcome of complex interactions between nature and nurture and may impact each person in different ways throughout childhood and determine adult outcomes. Mental health is intertwined with physical health and is strongly influenced by cultural, social and economic factors. The worldwide prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents is 13.4%, and the most frequent are anxiety, disruptive behavior disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and depression. Neurodevelopment begins at the embryonic stage and continues through adulthood with genetic differences, environmental exposure, and developmental timing acting synergistically and contingently. Early life experiences have been linked to a dysregulation of the neuroendocrine-immune circuitry which results in alterations of the brain during sensitive periods. Also, the environment may trigger modifications on the epigenome of the differentiating cell, leading to changes in the structure and function of the organs. Over 200 million children under 5 years are not fulfilling their developmental potential due to the exposure to multiple risk factors, including poverty, malnutrition and unsafe home environments. Conclusions: Continued support for the promotion of a protective environment that comprises effective parent-child interactions is key in minimizing the effects of neurodevelopmental disorders throughout the lifetime.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in many areas and materials of the common life, and exposure to these chemicals can occur from products to personal care, from air and food. This review aims to summarize the more recent epidemiological findings for the impact of EDCs on endocrine system health in children, including effects in growth, metabolism, sexual development, and reproduction. Sources: The MEDLINE database (PubMed) was searched on August 24th, 2021, filtering for EDCs, endocrine disruptors, children, and humans. Summary of the findings: Intrauterine exposure of EDCs can have transgenerational effects, thus laying the foundation for disease in later life. The dose-response relationship may not always be predictable as even low-level exposures that may occur in everyday life can have significant effects on a susceptible individual. Although individual compounds have been studied in detail, the effects of a combination of these chemicals are yet to be studied to understand the real-life situation where human beings are exposed to a “cocktail effect” of these EDCs. Epidemiological studies in humans suggest EDCs’ effects on prenatal growth, thyroid function, glucose metabolism, obesity, puberty, and fertility mainly through epigenetic mechanisms. Conclusions: EDCs cause adverse effects in animals, and their effects on human health are now known and irrefutable. Because people are typically exposed to multiple endocrine disruptors, assessing public health effects is difficult. Legislation to ban EDCs and protect especially pregnant women and young children is required and needs to be revised and adjusted to new developments on a regular basis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Objective: To review in the literature the environmental problems in early life that impact the respiratory health of adults. Sources: Non-systematic review including articles in English. Search filters were not used in relation to the publication date, but the authors selected mainly publications from the last five years. Summary of the findings: In this review, the authors present the exposure pathways and how the damage occurs depending on the child’s stage of development; the authors describe the main environmental pollutants - tobacco smoke, particulate matter, air pollution associated with traffic, adverse childhood experiences and socioeconomic status; the authors present studies that evaluated the repercussions on the respiratory system of adults resulting from exposure to adverse environmental factors in childhood, such as increased incidence of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), asthma and allergies; and, a decline in lung function. The authors emphasize that evidence demonstrates that adult respiratory diseases almost always have their origins in early life. Finally, the authors emphasize that health professionals must know, diagnose, monitor, and prevent toxic exposure among children and women. Conclusion: The authors conclude that it is necessary to recognize risk factors and intervene in the period of greatest vulnerability to the occurrence of harmful effects of environmental exposures, to prevent, delay the onset or modify the progression of lung disease throughout life and into adulthood.