Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures, Volume: 10, Issue: 6, Published: 2013
  • An inverse model for locating skin tumours in 3D using the genetic algorithm with the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method

    Bueno, Fabrício Ribeiro; Partridge, Paul William

    Abstract in English:

    Here, the Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method is used to solve the 3D Pennes Bioheat Equation, which together with a Genetic Algorithm, produces an inverse model capable of obtaining the location and the size of a tumour, having as data input the temperature distribution measured on the skin surface. Given that the objective function, which is solved inversely, involves the DRBEM (Dual Reciprocity Boundary Element Method) the Genetic Algorithm in its usual form becomes slower, in such a way that it was necessary to develop functions based the solution history in order that the process becomes quicker and more accurate. Results for 8 examples are presented including cases with convection and radiation boundary conditions. Cases involving noise in the readings of the equipment are also considered. This technique is intended to assist health workers in the diagnosis of tumours.
  • Propagation of plane waves at the interface of an elastic solid half-space and a microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space

    Kumar, Rajneesh; Garg, S.K.; Ahuja, Sanjeev

    Abstract in English:

    The problem of reflection and refraction phenomenon due to plane waves incident obliquely at a plane interface between uniform elastic solid half-space and microstretch thermoelastic diffusion solid half-space has been studied. It is found that the amplitude ratios of various reflected and refracted waves are functions of angle of incidence, frequency of incident wave and are influenced by the microstretch thermoelastic diffusion properties of the media. The expressions of amplitude ratios and energy ratios are obtained in closed form. The energy ratios have been computed numerically for a particular model. The variations of energy ratios with angle of incidence are shown for thermoelastic diffusion media in the context of Lord-Shulman (L-S) (1967) and Green-Lindsay (G-L) (1972) theories. The conservation of energy at the interface is verified. Some particular cases are also deduced from the present investigation.
  • Static and dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete shells

    Tamayo, Jorge L. P.; Morsch, Inácio B.; Awruch, Armando M.

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this work is to provide a reliable numerical model using the finite element method (FEM) for the static and dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete (RC) shells. For this purpose two independently computer programs based on plasticity and viscoplasticity theories are developed. The well known degenerated shell element is used for the static analysis up to failure load, while 3D brick elements are used for the dynamic application. The implicit Newmark scheme with predictor and corrector phases is used for time integration of the nonlinear system of equations. Two benchmark examples analyzed by others are solved with the present numerical model and results are compared with those obtained by other authors. The present numerical model is able to reproduce the path failure, collapse loads and failure mechanism within an acceptable level of accuracy.
  • Dynamic response of low frequency Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board (PSSDB) floor system

    Gandomkar, Farhad Abbas; Badruzzaman, Wan Hamidon Wan; Osman, Siti Aminah; Ismail, Imiruddin

    Abstract in English:

    Slender structural floors could experience irritating vibration problems due to human walking load and so, vibration acceptability of such floors is an essential subject in addition to the usual strength criterion. This paper focuses on the dynamic response of a lightweight composite structural system known as Profiled Steel Sheet Dry Board (PSSDB) to evaluate its vibration acceptability under human walking load. For this point, twelve (12) PSSDB panels in the category of Low Frequency Floor (LFF) were developed via Finite Element Method (FEM). The natural frequencies and mode shapes of the studied panels were determined based on the developed finite element models. For more realistic evaluation on dynamic response of the panels, dynamic load models representing human walking load were considered based on their Fundamental Natural Frequency (FNF), and also time and space description. The peak accelerations of the studied panels were determined and then compared to the limiting value proposed by the standard code of ISO 2631-2. Effects of changing thickness of the Profiled Steel Sheet (PSS) and Dry Board (DB), screw spacing, damping ratio, type of support, and floor span on the dynamic responses of the PSSDB panels were evaluated. According to literature, effect of presence of concrete on the dynamic response of the PSSDB system was revealed. The results demonstrated that although some factors reduced dynamic response of the PSSDB system under human walking load, low frequency PSSDB floor system could reach high vibration levels resulting in lack of comfortableness for users.
  • Seismic response of aboveground steel storage tanks: comparative study of analyses by six and three correlated earthquake components

    Ghazvini, Taher; Tavakoli, Hamid Reza; Neya, Bahram Navayi; Sarokolayi, Leyla Kalani

    Abstract in English:

    Ground motions at a point on the ground surface can be decomposed to six components, namely three translational components and three rotational components; translational components include two components in the horizontal plane, and one in the vertical direction. Rotation about horizontal axes leads to rising of rocking, while the rotational component about a vertical axis generates torsional effects even in symmetrical buildings. Due to evident and significant contribution of ground shakings to the overall response of structures, rocking and torsional components of these motions resulted by strong earthquakes are recently subjected to widespread researches by engineering and research communities. In this study, first rotational components of ground motion are determined using a method developed by Hong-Nan Li and et al (2004). This method is based on frequency dependence on the angle of incidence and the wave velocity. In consequence, aboveground steel storage tanks (ASSTs) with different water elevations have been analyzed with the effects of these six components of earthquake. Three translational components of six important earthquakes have been adopted to generate relevant rotational components based on SV and SH wave incidence by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with the discrete frequencies of time histories of translational motion. Using finite element method, linear properties of tank material including steel for cylindrical tanks have been taken into with considering fluid-structure interaction. Numerical linear dynamic analysis of these structures considering six components of earthquake motions is presented; results are compared with cases in which three translational components are considered.
  • A shell finite element formulation to analyze highly deformable rubber-like materials

    Pascon, J. P.; Coda, H. B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract: In this paper, a shell finite element formulation to analyze highly deformable shell structures composed of homogeneous rubber-like materials is presented. The element is a triangular shell of any-order with seven nodal parameters. The shell kinematics is based on geometrically exact Lagrangian description and on the Reissner-Mindlin hypothesis. The finite element can represent thickness stretch and, due to the seventh nodal parameter, linear strain through the thickness direction, which avoids Poisson locking. Other types of locking are eliminated via high-order approximations and mesh refinement. To deal with high-order approximations, a numerical strategy is developed to automatically calculate the shape functions. In the present study, the positional version of the Finite Element Method (FEM) is employed. In this case, nodal positions and unconstrained vectors are the current kinematic variables, instead of displacements and rotations. To model near-incompressible materials under finite elastic strains, which is the case of rubber-like materials, three nonlinear and isotropic hyperelastic laws are adopted. In order to validate the proposed finite element formulation, some benchmark problems with materials under large deformations have been numerically analyzed, as the Cook's membrane, the spherical shell and the pinched cylinder. The results show that the mesh refinement increases the accuracy of solutions, high-order Lagrangian interpolation functions mitigate general locking problems, and the seventh nodal parameter must be used in bending-dominated problems in order to avoid Poisson locking.
  • Strengthening the composite protective shield of light-weight ship against ballistic impacts: analytical and experimental

    Jalili, I.; Nouri, Z. H.; Aabady, A. Z.; V., K. Akbari

    Abstract in English:

    Light and medium protection for small naval vessels guarantees their high performance and safety during the guard duties. In this study, a protective shield fabricated from Dyneema HB25 fibers has been utilized as an add-on layer on the coast guard boat hull. Finite element analyses have been conducted using Chocron's model. Two standards of gun-fire were employed and various thicknesses of the composite layers were examined by ballistic impacts. Afterward, numerical simulations results compared with experiments and revealed a good consistency. Finally, some graphs have been presented to help designers for choosing more convenient shield based on protection and weight characteristics after judgment of vessel requirements.
  • Calculation of impedances for axial symmetric foundation embedded in half-space medium using solutions for one layer stratum

    Chung, Ie-Lung; Liou, Gin-Show

    Abstract in English:

    The paper is devoted to develop a new scheme to calculate impedance matrices for axial-symmetric foundations embedded in half-space medium. The half-space medium can be approximated by increasing thickness of one layer stratum on rigid bedrock due to the effect of material damping. However, as thickness increases, the numerical problem will arise. This problem is caused by the numerical contamination by some negligible reflection waves from rigid bedrock. In reality, the effect of these reflection waves on impedance is getting small as the thickness of the one layer stratum increases. Therefore, the scheme will employ the solutions for one layer stratum with suppressing these reflection waves to generate the impedance for the case of half-space. The numerical results by the presented scheme are compared with the results by other scheme in order to show that the new numerical scheme is effective and the solutions in layered medium can be extended to obtain the results for the cases of layered half-space medium. Some numerical results of torsional, vertical, horizontal, coupling and rocking impedances with different embedded depths will be presented and comments on the numerical scheme will be given.
  • Dynamic response of functionally graded skew shell panel

    A, GulshanTaj M.N.; Chakrabarti, Anupam

    Abstract in English:

    The dynamic response of functionally graded skew shell is investigated using a C0 finite element formulation. Reddy's higher order theory has been employed to perform the analysis and the volume fractions of the ceramic and metallic components are assumed to follow simple linear distribution law. The present study attempts to focus mainly on the influence of skew angle on frequency parameter and displacement of shell panel with various geometries. Comprehensive numerical results are demonstrated for cylindrical, spherical and hypar shells for different boundary conditions and skew angles.The findings obtained for functionally graded skew shell panels are new and can be used as bench mark for researchers in this field.
  • An object-oriented class design for the generalized finite element method programming

    Piedade Neto, Dorival; Ferreira, Manoel Dênis Costa; Proença, Sergio Persival Baroncini

    Abstract in English:

    The Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM) is a numerical method based on the Finite Element Method (FEM), presenting as its main feature the possibility of improving the solution by means of local enrichment functions. In spite of its advantages, the method demands a complex data structure, which can be especially benefited by the Object-Oriented Programming (OOP). Even though the OOP for the traditional FEM has been extensively described in the technical literature, specific design issues related to the GFEM are yet little discussed and not clearly defined. In the present article it is described an Object-Oriented (OO) class design for the GFEM, aiming to achieve a computational code that presents a flexible class structure, circumventing the difficulties associated to the method characteristics. The proposed design is evaluated by means of some numerical examples, computed using a code implemented in Python programming language.
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