Abstract in English:This paper presents a finite element formulation for the numerical analysis of three-dimensional framed steel, reinforced concrete or composite steel and concrete structures subjected to fire. Several specialized and commercial programs may be used for the analysis of structures in fire condition. Within this context, the purpose of this work is to present the steps taken to extend a previously developed static analysis procedure with beam elements in order to cope with the thermal and structural analysis of structures under fire action. Physical nonlinearity and material property degradation considering the temperature distribution are taken into account at the cross section level, which is divided into quadrilateral or triangular finite elements. Thermal strains are considered through the effective strain concept, and the resulting nonlinear system of equations is solved by the Newton-Raphson scheme. The accuracy and capability of the formulation to simulate the behavior of framed structures under fire action are assessed through comparison with various numerical and experimental results.
Abstract in English:Based on the feasibility and reliability of a forward analytical model updating method with uniform design having been proven, this paper studies the effectiveness of the method in the condition that structural measured information is uncertain and incomplete. By taking the experimental data of a steel truss as an example, this paper studies the method of experimental data processing, the determination of structural model with unknown parameters, the interval estimation of identification results and stepwise uniform design considered the correlation among identification parameters. The results show that the errors between the numerical results computed by the updated model and the experimental data are acceptable, which means the method in this paper is feasible and reliable. In the end, based on our experiences and lessons, we summarize a model updating method for complex structures using stepwise uniform design schemes considered the primary and secondary factors, and expound its computational steps.
Abstract in English:The effect of viscoelasticity of epoxy adhesive on creep behavior in the adhesive layer of a double-lap joint is studied in this paper. The joint is comprised of three elastic single isotropic adherend layers joined by an epoxy adhesive that is under shear loading. Prony series is used to modeling the relaxation modulus of epoxy adhesive. The differential equation is derived in Laplace domain, and numerical inversion from the Laplace domain to the time domain is achieved by the Fixed Talbot method. Results show that for an impulse load of 100N, maximum shear stress in the adhesive layer is reduced to 38% of its initial value after almost 12 days and 79% of its initial value over a very long time. The rate of increase in tensile load P has a direct effect on peak shear stress developed in the adhesive layer and holding P0 as a constant, increasing t p will lower the induced peak shear stress in the joint. Also, an increase in the thickness of the adhesive layer reduced the induced peak shear stress and strain in the joint.
Abstract in English:Fully nonlinear wave interaction with a fixed breakwater is investigated in a numerical wave tank (NWT). The potential theory and high-order boundary element method are used to solve the boundary value problem. Time domain simulation by a mixed Eulerian-Lagrangian (MEL) formulation and high-order boundary integral method based on non uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) formulation is employed to solve the equations. At each time step, Laplace equation is solved in Eulerian frame and fully non-linear free-surface conditions are updated in Lagrangian manner through material node approach and fourth order Runge-Kutta time integration scheme. Incident wave is fed by specifying the normal flux of appropriate wave potential on the fixed inflow boundary. To ensure the open water condition and to reduce the reflected wave energy into the computational domain, two damping zones are provided on both ends of the numerical wave tank. The convergence and stability of the presented numerical procedure are examined and compared with the analytical solutions. Wave reflection and transmission of nonlinear waves with different steepness are investigated. Also, the calculation of wave load on the breakwater is evaluated by first and second order time derivatives of the potential.
Abstract in English:The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF) structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.
Abstract in English:The paper presents a rational procedure for evaluating the concrete shear strength in reinforced concrete beams. Previous research has shown that the shear in concrete is resisted by various mechanisms and the resistance degrades with the increase of flexural deformation. The paper introduces a novel approach in utilizing the knowledge about shear resistance degradation by coupling the shear resistance with the shear demand. Both the shear resistance and shear demand are correlated with flexural tensile strain from compatibility and equilibrium requirements. The basic shear strength, under a given loading is determined from the intersection of the demand and resistance curves. The procedure was verified against a database of 232 beams collected from 10 sources with a broad range of parameters. It showed good prediction capability and can be useful to design practice.
Abstract in English:This study introduces a method based on real-coded genetic algorithm to design an elliptical shaped fuel tank. This method enhances the advantage of the system such as roll stability, and reduces disadvantages like fluid c.g. height and overturning moment. These parameters corresponding to the elliptical tanks with different filling levels are properly optimized. Moreover the effects of these optimized shapes on natural sloshing frequency are investigated. Comparing presented results with experimental ones indicate the reliability and accuracy of the present work. In addition, a new method based on genetic algorithm, which enhances tank rollover threshold, is presented. This optimization enhances roll stability, although reducing the natural sloshing frequency in comparison to cylindrical tanks. In contrast, the sloshing frequency of the optimized elliptical tank is enhanced in compare with conventional elliptical tanks, which is considered as an advantageof the presented work.
Abstract in English:This paper presents the experimental results of recycled aggregate concrete (RAC) specimens prepared with five different amount of recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) [i.e. 0, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%] subjected to compressive loading based on split Hopkinson pressure bar tests. Strain-rate effects on dynamic compressive strength and critical strain of recycled aggregate concrete were studied. Results show that impact properties of recycled aggregate concrete exhibit strong strain-rate dependency, and increase approximately linearly with strain-rate. The transition point from low strain-rate sensitivity to high sensitivity decreases with the increase of matrix strength.
Abstract in English:Nowadays, optimization techniques based on the analogy with swarming principles and collective activities of social species in nature have been used in the development of methodologies for solving a variety of real-world optimization problems. In this context, the social behavior of fish colonies has been recently explored to develop a novel algorithm, the so-called Fish Swarm Optimization Algorithm (FSOA), based on the behavior of fish swarm in search for food. In this paper, the FSOA is applied to four engineering systems, involving typical structural design and distillation column design. The results obtained are then compared with those obtained from other classical evolutionary approaches.
Abstract in English:In this paper, nonlinear responses of a clamped-clamped buckled beam are investigated. Two efficient and easy mathematical techniques called He's Variational Approach and Laplace Iteration Method are used to solve the governing differential equation of motion. To assess the accuracy of solutions, we compare the results with the Runge-Kutta 4th order. The results show that both methods can be easily extended to other nonlinear oscillations and it can be predicted that both methods can be found widely applicable in engineering and physics.