• Experimental and numerical investigation on the shock characteristics of U-notched ZL205A specimens under dynamic mixed-mode loading Original Articles

    Ren, Kerong; Li, Kang; Lin, Yuliang; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Zhifeng; Sun, Jing

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Shock environment assessment and improvement during stage separation is an important issue of concern in aerospace engineering. This paper focuses on shock response caused by dynamic fracture of aluminum alloy separation plate, which usually undergoes mixed mode loading during separation. Based on Split Hopkinson Tensile Bar (SHTB) apparatus, five groups of U-notched ZL205A specimens with different loading angles (0°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90°) are designed to simulate mixed mode loading for shock characteristics testing. There piezoelectric accelerometers are used to measure the acceleration time histories, and the maximum shock response spectrum (SRS) are applied for shock data analysis. Meanwhile, the ANSYS/LS-DYNA finite element software is implemented for numerical analysis. The actual fracture angles measured from the recovered specimens are used to describe the actual fracture modes. The numerical and experimental results are in good agreement, showing that the shock response along the specimen’s length and thickness directions increases with the fracture angle, while there is a slight distinction in the specimen’s width direction with different fracture angles. On average, the shock response is more remarkable in pure tensile fracture mode, which is 2.6 times the pure shear fracture mode. As a result, increasing the study of shear fracture component is meaningful for the shock reduction through the structural design of separation plate.
  • Failure behavior monitoring and evaluation of steel-confined reinforced concrete columns by acoustic emission under quasi-static loading Original Articles

    Du, Fangzhu; Li, Dongsheng; Shan, Baohua; Wang, Yanlei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The mechanical behavior and failure evolution of steel-confined and unconfined reinforced concrete (RC) columns are investigated under quasi-static loading through acoustic emission (AE) signal. The excellent hysteresis response, lighter damage characteristics and delayed catastrophe of steel-confined RC columns are verified. Characteristic AE parameters were obtained during the test process, AE monitoring results indicated that the progressive deformation of the test specimens occurred in three stages representing different damage conditions. Extended AE features, including damage severity, modified cumulative signal strength ratio, sentry function, and b-value are calculated to evaluate the damage growth, failure mechanism, and estimate the critical points. The synthesis analysis of multi-indicators mutual verify, overcome the disadvantages of using single-indicator evaluation, and successfully be used to determine the complex damage properties, identify damage statuses, and provide critical warning information for steel-confined RC columns.
  • Experimental and numerical study of I-shape slit dampers in connections Original Article

    Lor, Hossein Akbari; Izadinia, Mohsen; Memarzadeh, Parham

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper proposes a new beam to column connection which has slit dampers to increase ductility and moment capacity of structures. After Northridge and Kobe earthquakes, many researchers have tried to achieve more ductile connections. Ductility of connections causes to dissipate more energy before failure of connections. Also, some researchers have tried to find methods that plastic hinge occurs out of the beam to column connection zone. The proposed detail connects beam to column by two I-shape slit dampers. One experimental specimen of the proposed connection was tested under cyclic loading. Based on the experimental results, the connection has high seismic performance and rotational capacity more than 0.04 radians. Also, the slit damper connection has more moment capacity than other common connections and indicates a good hysteretic behavior. Experimental observations showed that no cracks and fractures occurred in welds and high energy absorption of the slit dampers prevented damages of other parts. Also, local buckling didn’t occur on the flanges and web of the beam. The column and beam remain in elastic state. Some numerical models were made in ABAQUS software. Analysis results had good agreement with experimental results and showed high energy dissipation and ductility in the proposed connection.
  • Statistics of the Pareto front in Multi-objective Optimization under Uncertainties Original Article

    Bassi, Mohamed; Cursi, Eduardo Souza de; Pagnacco, Emmanuel; Ellaia, Rachid

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract In this paper we address an innovative approach to determine the mean and a confidence interval for a set of objects analogous to curves and surfaces. The approach is based on the determination of the most representative member of the family by minimizing a Hausdorff distance. This method is applied to the analysis of uncertain Pareto frontiers in multi-objective optimization (MOO). The determination of the Pareto front of deterministic MOO is carried by minimizing the hypervolume contained between the front and the utopia point. We give some examples and we apply the approach to a truss-like structure for which conflicting objective functions such as the structure mass and the maximum displacement are both to be minimized.
  • A study on the response of single and double circular plates subjected to localised blast loading Original Article

    Ahmad, M. Saeed; Langdon, G. S.; Nurick, G. N.; Yuen, S. Chung Kim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The response of single and double layered steel plates to localised air-blast loading was examined. Two configurations, both comprising fully clamped circular plates with a 200 mm exposed diameter, were considered: 4mm thick single and (2+2) mm double layered plates. The localised air-blast loading was applied by centrally detonating discs of PE4 plastic explosive. Similar failure modes were evident in the single and double plate configurations, namely, Mode I (large inelastic deformation) and Mode II (capping failure along with deformation) responses. The double plates exhibited larger midpoint deflections than the single plates, and partial tearing of the front plate in the double plates was observed at a lower impulse than in the single plates. However, complete capping of both plates in the double plate configuration occurred at the same charge mass as for the single plates, implying that both configurations offer equivalent protection from capping failure as a result of this type of localised blast loading. A metallographic study of the deformed and torn plate regions did not reveal any phase transformation in the steel. It was also found that the 2 mm thick plates exhibited larger increases in grain size than the 4 mm thick plates.
  • Two-scale topology optimization of macrostructure and porous microstructure composed of multiphase materials with distinct Poisson’s ratios Original Article

    Jia, Jiao; Cheng, Wei; Long, Kai

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) material attracts a lot of attentions for its unique mechanical properties. However, achieving NPR is at the expense of reducing Young’s modulus. It has been observed that the composite stiffness can be enhanced when blending positive Poisson’s ratio (PPR) material into NPR material. Based on the respective interpolation of Young’s modulus and Poisson’s ratio, two concurrent topology optimization problems with different types of constraints, called Problem A and B, are respectively discussed to explore the Poisson’s ratio effect in porous microstructure. In Problem A, the volume constraints are respectively imposed on macro and micro structures; in Problem B, besides setting an upper bound on the total available base materials, the micro thermal insulation capability is considered as well. Besides considering the influence of micro thermal insulation capability on the optimized results in Problem B, the similar and dissimilar influences of Poisson’s ratios, volume fractions in Problem A and B are also investigated through several 2D and 3D numerical examples. It is observed that the concurrent structural stiffness resulting from the mixture of PPR and NPR base materials can exceed the concurrent structural stiffness composed of any individual base material.
  • Numerical investigation of diffuse instability in sandy soil using discrete element method under proportional strain path loading Original Article

    Fan, Meng; Liu, Yang; Han, Jianqiu; Yang, Kai

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Loose sandy soil can manifest static liquefaction phenomenon under undrained condition, in which the onset of instability is within the failure line, and there is no obvious shear band. This type of failure mode, very different from localized instability that occurs in dense sand, is called the diffuse instability. In this paper, a series of proportional strain tests and fully drained tests under different initial void ratio were simulated using the discrete element method. The influence of strain increment ratio and the initial void ratio affecting the instability of sandy soil were discussed in detail. The development mechanism of pore water pressure in proportional strain tests was analyzed by comparing with the volumetric curve of fully drained test. Finally, a unified mechanism of diffuse instability of sandy soil in proportional strain tests was explained. Numerical results indicate that the strain increment ratio and the initial void ratio work together affecting the instability of specimen. The occurrence of diffuse instability is the result of effective stress reduction due to the development of pore water pressure, which depends on the difference of volumetric strain between fully drained tests and proportional strain tests. The increment of pore water pressure is determined by the difference of strain increment ratio, which can be used as an index to reflect the liquefaction potential of sandy soil.
  • Damage evaluation and failure mechanism analysis of steel tube confined reinforced-concrete columns by acoustic emission technology Original Article

    Du, Fangzhu; Pan, Shengshan; Li, Dongsheng

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract As a new kind of composite structures and its advantages, the using of steel tube confined reinforced concrete (STCRC) columns have received increasing attention in civil engineering. Acoustic emission (AE) technique is applied to monitor the damage process of STCRC columns during an uniaxial compression test. The aim of this study is to investigate the damage evaluation and failure mechanisms of the STCRC columns from the perspective of microscopic damage. Typical AE parameters are extracted to quantify different damage condition and identify the critical point. Peak-frequency analysis classify the damage signal into groups, representing different AE generation mechanisms. Extended AE features, such as the RA value and the average frequency are calculated to discriminate the cracking modes of core concrete. The probability based Gaussian mixture model (GMM) are proposed for unsupervised damage pattern recognition. All presented AE results are good in accordance with the observed experimental outcomes. The AE technology enabled evaluating the damage condition, identifying critical point, disclosing the failure mechanism, and classifying damage modes for steel confined RC columns effectively.
  • Damage index analysis of prefabricated segmental bridge columns under cyclic loading Original Article

    Zhai, Yong; Zhang, Yuye

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The damage index is usually applied to evaluate the damage states of bridge structures, which is the basis of structural fragility study. The present study investigates the seismic damage index of the prefabricated segmental bridge columns (PSBC) under cyclic loading by theoretical and numerical analysis. Based on the previous pseudo-static experiments, different damage states characteristics of the monolithic cast-in-place bridge columns (MCBC) and the PSBC are discussed and analyzed to propose the limit-state capacities for each damage state of the PSBC. The limit-state capacities include four parameters: compressive strain of concrete, the tensile strain of steel, the prestress level and the residual displacement. Two finite element models of the PSBC are developed by OpenSees to carry on numerical analysis. Using the numerical results, the damage indexes for the PSBCs are obtained based on the limit-state capacities obtained above. The results indicate that the numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results of the bridge columns. The damage index formula of the PSBC, derived in this study, is reasonable and can be further applied. The maximum error between the proposed damage index and that obtained in the verified case is 20.3%. The proposed method in this paper for developing the damage index of the PSBC can be used in the seismic vulnerability analysis assessment of the bridge structures with prefabricated segmental columns.
  • Effectiveness of track stiffness reduction in attenuation of metro induced vibrations received by historical buildings Original Article

    Sadeghi, J.; Esmaeili, M. H.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Preservation of historical buildings is a main challenge in civil engineering field. One of the main concerns in this regard is metro induced vibration received by historical structures. There is a need to evaluate effectiveness of vibration mitigation measures in preservation of monumental buildings. The most widely used method of reducing metro vibrations is changes in the structure of the vibration source (not sufficiently investigated in the literature). In response to this need, effectiveness of track stiffness reduction in mitigation of vibration was investigated in this research. Comprehensive field tests were conducted in the Iranian metro lines. The track stiffness as well as the induced vibrations were measured. It was shown that track stiffness has noticeable role in the track levels of vibration, and in turn in metro vibration reduction. The amounts of vibration reduction were derived as a function of track stiffness reduction.
  • Numerical experiments with the Generalized Finite Element Method based on a flat-top Partition of Unity Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Sato, Fernando Massami; Piedade, Dorival; Proença, Sergio Persival Baroncini

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Stable Generalized Finite Element Method (SGFEM) is essentially an improved version of the Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM). Besides of retaining the good flexibility for constructing local enriched approximations, the SGFEM has the advantage of presenting much better conditioning than that of the conventional GFEM. Actually, bad conditioning is well known as one of the main drawbacks of the GFEM, while affecting severely the precision of the numerical scheme used for solving the linear system associated to the problem. Despite of its consistent mathematical basis, the numerical experiments so far conducted on using SGFEM are not yet clearly conclusive, especially regarding the robustness of the method. Therefore, the main purpose of the present paper is to give a contribution in this direction, through further investigating the SGFEM accuracy and stability. In particular, the so called Flat-Top SGFEM is a recent proposed version of the method hereby considered. As a flat-top Partition of Unit (PoU) is used for constructing the augmented approximation space with polynomial enrichments this version of the method is called SGFEM with flat-top PoU, or simply FT-SGFEM. Some computational aspects are briefly addressed, as the ones related to the implementation and integration of the flat-top for 2-D analysis. The numerical simulations consist essentially of linear analysis of panels presenting edge cracks and reentrant corners on its boundaries. Our findings from the numerical tests done are highly relevant regarding accuracy of the SGFEM versions, which present order of convergence similar to the conventional GFEM. Moreover, the measure of stability given by the scaled condition number presented in particular by the FT-SGFEM is comparable to the conventional FEM order.
  • Analysis of sensor placement in beams for crack identification Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Oliveira, Marcus Vinícius M.; Ipiña, Juan Elías Perez; Bavastri, Carlos Alberto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract A previous study has shown that the mode shapes of a beam are more sensitive to damage than other vibrational parameters, thus making them better suited for crack identification purposes. However, they have the disadvantage of being more difficult to be measured. To overcome this difficulty, an interesting idea is to monitor changes produced by cracks on the mode shapes only in a few strategic points, instead of performing a complete experimental modal analysis. Considering this possibility, the aim of the present work was to determine the most appropriate locations for installing sensors in beams in order to identify and characterize structural damages. The effect of different locations of cracks on the mode shapes of beams was studied through a numerical (computational) model using the finite element model. The results were plotted in 3D graphs relating the relative nodal displacement of damaged and intact beams with the crack position and the location of the point analyzed. Through the analysis of these graphs, it was possible to point out the most adequate sites for placing sensors aiming at identifying cracks in a beam in fixed-free and fixed-fixed boundary conditions. Aiming at testing the results, an optimization problem for crack identification was proposed and solved through genetic algorithm (GA). The cracks were identified with an accuracy that is appropriate for engineering applications, showing that the proposed method is effective and could be used in Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) issues. Limitations on its use were also discussed.
  • Optimal design of beam-column connections of plane steel frames using the component method Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Hortencio, Rafael da Silva; Falcón, Gines Arturo Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper presents a methodology for optimization of beam-column connections of plane steel frames. The objective is to obtain beam- column connections mechanically more efficient and with minimum cost by determination of the optimal dimensions for the components of the connection; satisfying mechanical constraints associated with the bending moment and the rotational stiffness of the connection, without compromising its safety and integrity. Minimum and maximum limits of geometric parameters are considered, according to current regulations. Algorithms were developed to calculate the bending moment and the rotational stiffness of the connection using the “Method of Components” of Eurocode 3. Initially, it was developed a digital database with structural profiles, steel plates and commercial bolts obtained from catalogs of manufacturers, with automatic access of the data by the computational modules of structural analysis and optimization. In the optimization model, it is adopted the connection with extended end plate without stiffeners, the design variables are the dimensions and the thickness of the end plate, the diameter and the location of the bolts. In the optimization process, we use genetic algorithms with continuous and discrete variables, with the discrete variables being associated to the database. In this way, this paper presents a computational tool fully developed in MATLAB® environment for analysis and optimal design of beam-column connections for plane steel frames. Applications that show quite satisfactory results when compared with results available in the literature are presented.
  • GFEM STABILIZATION TECHNIQUES APPLIED TO DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF NON-UNIFORM SECTION BARS Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Weinhardt, Paulo de O.; Debella, Leticia B. Col; Arndt, Marcos; Machado, Roberto Dalledone

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The Finite Element Method (FEM), although widely used as an approximate solution method, has some limitations when applied in dynamic analysis. As the loads excite the high frequency and modes, the method may lose precision and accuracy. To improve the representation of these high-frequency modes, we can use the Generalized Finite Element Method (GFEM) to enrich the approach space with appropriate functions according to the problem under study. However, there are still some aspects that limit the GFEM applicability in problems of dynamics of structures, as numerical instability associated with the process of enrichment. Due to numerical instability, the GFEM may lose precision and even result in numerically singular matrices. In this context, this paper presents the application of two proposals to minimize the problem of sensitivity of the GFEM: an adaptation of the Stable Generalized Finite Element Method for dynamic analysis and a stabilization strategy based on preconditioning of enrichment. Examples of one-dimensional modal and transient analysis are presented as bars with cross section area variation. Numerical results obtained are discussed analyzing the effects of the adoption of preconditioning techniques on the approximation and the stability of GFEM in dynamic analysis.
  • Prediction of Shape Distortions in Composite Wing Structures Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Makinde, Olumide Mayowa; Faria, Alfredo Rocha de; Donadon, Maurício Vicente

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Shape distortions and warpage are a major source of problems for composite manufacturers. These distortions are usually accompanied by built up residual stresses. They can deform a component so that it becomes useless. It also has the capability to reduce the strength of the structure. In this paper, the three-dimensional version of the constitutive model originally proposed by Svanberg and Holmberg is employed to predict the warpage of a wing planform. The model takes into account important mechanisms such as thermal expansion, resin shrinkage and frozen-in strains developed during curing cycles. The model was implemented into ABAQUS Finite Element code as a user subroutine UMAT. The macromechanical properties of each composite layer were predicted using a micromechanics based approach, implemented into MATLAB. Results show that wings with cross ply laminates with reducing thickness along the span experienced more warpage than quasi-isotropic laminates. Furthermore, for wings with equal thickness along the span, the results show that the quasi-isotropic laminates experienced more warpage than cross ply laminates. Lastly, the results show that wings with progressively reducing thickness experience twist that is varying from the wing root to the wing tip while wings with a constant thickness experience twist mainly at the centre of the wing
  • A computational framework for predicting onset and crack propagation in composite structures via eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Angelo, Marcus Vinícius; Ribeiro, Marcelo Leite; Tita, Volnei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The eXtended Finite Element Method (XFEM) has been reliably used for analyzing crack growth in 3D structural elements over last years. In fact, many researchers have worked in this field, but it is scarce to find scientific contributions about 3D XFEM models applied to the failure of non-standard composite parts, such as tapered structures and thick laminated composites. Thus, a new computational framework is developed, which is based on a new enhanced golden section search algorithm and 3D Puck’s action plane principle in order to define the crack initiation direction. This in-formation is integrated into a XFEM and used to enrich elements, which have failed during analysis. Compared to the traditional algorithm, the new methodology has convergence one order higher than the traditional one; and it is 20 times more efficient computationally. Therefore, if more precision is needed, then higher gains are achieved combined to lower computational cost by using the proposed framework. Moreover, thick laminated composites with layers mainly oriented to 90o were simulated under tension and compression via the computational framework, displaying results as reported in the literature. Also, compact tension tests with 0°, 90° and 45° specimens were evaluated, and numerical results were qualitatively coherent with experimental data.
  • Numerical stress-life curves for the AISI 4340 steel using two sets of materials properties and different bi-axial stress ratios Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Duran, Jorge Alberto Rodriguez; Costa, Dionisio Jose Rodrigues da; Ribeiro, Luiz Carlos de A.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Fatigue assessments by the more robust strain-based approach demand the determination of the local strain history from nominal stresses. For notched members, a cyclic constitutive relation, the stress concentration factor (SCF) and a strain concentration rule are used with this aim in some approximate solutions. The plastic part of the cyclic constitutive relations for many materials is well adjusted by a Ramberg-Osgood (RO) type equation. The parameters in the RO equation are the cyclic strength coefficient and exponent (H’ and n’) respectively. These parameters can be experimentally determined or estimated from the condition of strain compatibility between the RO and the Coffin-Manson-Basquin (CMB) equations. The present paper discusses the influence that the use of both types of parameters, independent (or experimentally determined) and compatible (or estimated), has on the numerical stress-life curves of the AISI 4340 Aircraft Quality steel. By numerical stress-life curves we mean the stress amplitudes and the fatigue-life that result from the numerical solution of both, the strain-life (CMB) and the stress-strain (RO) relations, for the same strain amplitude. This would be equivalent to using a linear strain concentration rule (notched members) with two RO equations, one with independent parameters and the other with compatible parameters, for stress and life calculations. The effects of the stress state are also accounted for in the present investigation since both, stress-life and stress-strain equations are modified in accordance with the total deformation theory of plasticity and through the introduction of a plane stress biaxial ratio. The principal finding of the present paper is that, for the studied material, the numerical stress-life curves that result from the use of compatible and independent parameters are indistinguishable for the same stress state. Consequently, there are no important implications on life time calculations when the cyclic stress-strain curve is estimated in such a way that compatibility conditions for the AISI 4340 aircraft quality steel are ensured.
  • Structural Health Monitoring of Sandwich Structures Based on Dynamic Analysis Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Marques, Denys; Flor, Felipe R.; Medeiros, Ricardo de; Pagani, Carlos do Carmo; Tita, Volnei

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This work aims to contribute to the development of SHM systems based on vibration methods to be applied on sandwich structures. The main objective is focused on experimental damage identification via changes in the Frequency Response Function (FRF) with the usage of damage metrics. Specimens of sandwich structures made from skins of epoxy resin reinforced by glass fiber and a core of PVC foam are manufactured. First, preliminary non-damped Finite Element (FE) models are performed, and results obtained are used to define the frequency range of interest for the experimental procedure. After that, vibration experimental analyses are carried out on undamaged specimens. The natural frequencies are compared to the preliminary FE results. Second, experimental analyses are performed on damaged specimens with and without piezoelectric sensors. Then, damage metric values are calculated based on FRFs for damaged and undamaged structures, which were obtained from experimental and FE analyses (with damping effects). In addition, a new procedure is proposed to improve the quality of results provided by the damage metric. It is shown that the new procedure is very effective to identify the damage using both amplitude and phase from FRFs. Lastly, it is discussed the potential and limitations of the FE model to predict damage metric values, comparing to experimental data.
  • Ultimate strength formulations for FPSO stiffened panels under combined compression and shear with initial imperfections and damage Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Rizzo, Nicolau Antonio dos Santos; Caire, Marcelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Accidental collision of striking objects, such as a supply vessel, into the side panel of a FPSO highly influences its ultimate strength assessment. An empirical formula for predicting the ultimate strength of damaged stiffened panels under combined loading of shear and longitudinal compression is empirically derived in this work based on curve fitting of quasi-static nonlinear finite element (FE) analyses. Initial imperfections are introduced by scaling the first buckling mode shape and the damage is caused by residual deformation from a rigid sphere indentation. A pure shear loading is applied at several levels followed by compression loading using the modified Riks method for a number of sphere indentation damages. The suggested formula for a typical FPSO stiffened side shell panel presented an excellent correlation with the nonlinear FE results and can be particularly useful in the preliminary design phase (no damage) and for a quick estimation of the panel residual strength with indentation damage.
  • Multiscale Failure Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Pressure Vessel: A Parametric Study Thematic Section: Solid Mechanics in Brazil 2017

    Vignoli, Lucas Lisbôa; Savi, Marcelo Amorim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract This paper deals with a multiscale approach to model thick-walled laminate cylinder with internal pressure. Micromechanics defines material homogenization considering two steps: determination of equivalent properties of each lamina from matrix and fiber properties according to the Mori-Tanaka model for elastic properties and to the Bridging model for strengths; and determination of anisotropic homogeneous properties of the laminate built with a set of laminae using asymptotic homogenization. On the other hand, macromechanics determines stress and failure analysis. Lekhnitskii formalism is used to obtain the elastic solution of the stress and strain distributions and failure is analyzed employing the Tsai-Wu criterion. Three different pressure vessel configurations are analyzed according to end conditions: restrained-ends, open-ends and closed-ends. Angle-ply laminates made of carbon fibers and epoxy matrix are considered to evaluate the influence of lay-up angle, fiber volume fraction, wall thickness and end-conditions. The optimum angles as well as the maximum internal pressure are obtained and a parametric analysis is presented. The main results indicate that the optimum angle is almost constant for restrained and closed-ends. On the other hand, for open-end, angle varies in a significant way. Besides, results show that the increase the fiber volume fraction is more effective to increase vessel strength than the increase of the number of layers.
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