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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 85, Issue: 3, Published: 1990
  • The thymic microenvironment in infectious diseases

    Savino, Wilson
  • Trypanosoma cruzi: serum antibody reactivity to the parasite antigens in susceptible and resistant mice

    De Gaspari, Elizabeth N.; Umezawa, Eufrosina S.; Zingales, Bianca; Stolf, Ana Maria S.; Colli, Walter; Abrahamsohn, Ises A.

    Abstract in English:

    The specific antibody responses were compared among susceptible (A/Sn), moderately susceptible (Balb/c) and resistant (C57 BL/lOJ) mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain). Sera obtained during the second week of infection recognized a surface trypomastigote antigen of apparent Mr 80 kDa while displaying complex reactivity to surface epimastigote antigens. Complex trypomastigote antigens recognition was detected around the middle of the third week of infection. No major differences were observed along the infection, among the three strains of mice, neither in the patterns of surface antigen recognition by sera, nor in the titres of antibodies against blood trypomastigotes (lytic antibodies), tissue culture trypomastigotes or epimastigotes. On immunoblot analysis, however, IgG of the resistant strain displayed the most complex array of specificities against both trypo and epimastigote antigens, followed by the susceptible strain. IgM antibodies exhibited a more restricted antigen reactivity, in the three mouse strains studied. Balb/c sera (IgG and IgM) showed the least complex patterns of reactivity to antigens in the range of 30 kDa to 80 kDa. The onset of reactivity in the serum to trypomastigote surface antigens was also dependent on the parasite load to which the experimental animal was subjected.
  • The metazoan parasites of Stellifer minor (Tschudi, 1844): an ecological approach

    Oliva, Marcelo E.; Luque, Jose L.; Iannacone, Jose A.

    Abstract in English:

    A quantitative and qualitative analysis of the parasite fauna of the sciaenid Stellifer minor (Tschudi) from Chorrillos, Peru, was made. Some characteristics of the infectious processes, in terms of intensity and prevalence of infection, as a function of host sex and size, are given. Moreover, comments on the characteristics of the parasite fauna, related with host role in the marine food webs are included. The parasite fauna of Stellifer minor taken of Chorrillos, Peru, include the monogeneans Pedocotyle annakohni, Pedocotyle bravoi, Rhamnocercus sp. and Cynoscionicola sp., the digenean Helicometra fasciata, the adult acantocephalan Rhadinorhynchus sp. and the larval Corynosoma sp., the nematode Procamallanus sp., the copepods Caligus quadratus, Clavellotis dilatata and Bomolochus peruensis and one unidentified isopod of the family Cymothoidae. A distinctive characteristic of the parasite fauna (Metazoa) of S. minor is the almost absence of larval forms.
  • A morphological, isoenzymatic and behavioural study of ten populations of Anopheles(Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Lynch-Arribalzaga, 1878 (Diptera: culicidae) including from the type-locality - Baradero, Argentina

    Rosa-Freitas, Maria Goreti; Deane, Leonidas M.; Momen, Hooman

    Abstract in English:

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Lynch-Arribalzaga, 1878 shows morphological and behavioural variations which results in it being sometimes considered as a major malaria vector and at other times as playing no important role in epidemiology. With the aim of clarifying the taxonomy of the species, comparative morphological and isoenzymatic studies were made in populations from the type-locality, Baradero, Argentina and from 9 different localities inBrazil. Morphological studies consisted of the observation of eggs in scanning electron microscopy, of complete chaetotaxy of larvae and pupae and of the detailed drawing of male and female adults. Only Guajara-Mirim and Rio Branco populations, described previously as Anopheles deaneorum sp.n., showed morphological differences. Isoenzymes were studied using 4th instar larvae homogenate and agarosegel electrophoresis. Eleven enzymatic loci were analyzed. By calculation of Nei's Genetic Distance (D), the populations could be separated into 5 groups: i)Baradero, ii)Marajo, iii)Boa Vista, iv)Angra, Itaguai and Paraipaba and v)Guajara-Mirim and Rio Branco. These groups belong to 2 major clusters called I and II, separated by D = 0.345. In the I cluster are groups i, ii and iii and in II clusteriv and v. In I, D=0.246 separates i and ii from iii, while i is separated by D =0.181 from ii. In II, D = 0.223 between iv and v. Only the population of group vcould be distinguished morphologically from the others, leading to the description of an independent species An. deaneorum.
  • Methods for field detection of resistance to temephos in simuliids. Larval esterase level and topical application of the insecticide to adults

    Andrade, Carlos Fernando S. de; Castello Branco Junior, Armando

    Abstract in English:

    Two practical field methods for indirect detection of simuliid populations resistant to temephos are proposed. The first is based on high esterase activity in resistant larvae and involves adaptations of a filter paper test in which faintly stained spots indicate susceptible populations and strongly stained ones reveal populations resistant to temephos. The second is based on the resistance to the larvicide when adults are topically exposed, and involves the use of diagnostic doses obtained by the comparison between the LD50 for susceptible and resistant populations. The relevance of such methods is discussed in order to help resistance detection in Simulium pertinax Kollar control programmes.
  • Comparative studies on the growth and reproductive performances of Rhodnius prolixus reared on different blood sources

    Gomes, José Eugenio P. Lima; Azambuja, P.; Garcia, E. S.

    Abstract in English:

    Host blood source was found to affect both the development and the reproductive performance of Rhodnius prolixus. The insects were reared on citrated human, rabbit, chicken, sheep and horse blood sources, through a membrane feeder, during an entire life cycle, from eggs to adults. Development and reproduction in terms of the number of unfed insects, number of moulting, mortality intermoulting period, number of egg/female, conversion of blood into egg (mg meal/egg) and percentage of hatch as effective physiological parameters were investigated. Our results showed that human or rabbit blood meals were more nutritionally efficient than the other blood samples used because (i) the insects developed faster, presented low mortality and about 80% of them reached the adult stage; and (ii) females oviposited an average of at least 100% more eggs. The inefficiency of chicken and horse blood sources as diets for R. prolixus was manifested in (i) a decrease of the amount of ingested blood and (ii) only a reasonable nutritional quality. The inadequacy of sheep blood was observed by a mortality extremely high, poor moulting response and drastic reduction in egg production.
  • Ultrastructure of the ovary of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: cuterebridae). I. Development during the 3rd larval instar

    Gregorio, E. A.; Secco, V. N. D. P.; Toledo, L. A.; Lello, E.

    Abstract in English:

    The ultrastructure and distribution of gonial and somatic cells in the ovary of Dermatobia hominis was studied during the 3rd larval instar. In larvae weighing between 400 and 500 mg, the ovary is partially divided into basal and apical regions by oblong somatic cells that penetrate from the periphery; these cells show ovoid nucleus and cytoplasm full of microtubules. In both regions, gonial cells with regular outlines, large nucleus and low electron-density cytoplasm are scattered among the interstitial somatic cells. These later cells have small nucleus and electrodense cytoplasm. Clear somatic cells with small nucleus and cytoplasm of very low electron-density are restrict to the apical region of the gonad. Degenerating interstitial somatic cells are seen in the basal portion close to the ovary peduncle. During all this larval period the morphological features of the ovary remain almost the same. At the end of the period there is a gradual deposition of glycogen in the cytoplasm of the somatic cells, increase in the number and density of their mitochondria plus nuclear modification as membrane wrinkling and chromatin condensation in masses.
  • Ultrastructure of the ovary of Dermatobia hominis (Diptera: cuterebridae). II. Origin of the tunica propria in ovarioles

    Gregório, E. A.; Secco, V. N. D. P.; Toledo, L. A.; Lello, E.

    Abstract in English:

    Ovaries up to the 8th day pupae of Dermatobia hominis were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Ovarioles were recognized in ovaries of 4-day old pre-pupae, surrounded by a thin tunica propria of acellular fibrilar material similar in structure to the internal portion of the external tunica of the ovary. There is continuity of the tunica propria and the ovarian tunica, indicating that the former structure originates from the tunica externa. In 5 to 7-day pupae the interstitial somatic cells from the apical region of the ovary, close to the ovarioles, show delicate filamentous material inside of their rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae; similar material is seem among these cells. Our observations suggest that interstitial somatic cells do not originate the tunica propria but contribute to its final composition.
  • Potential schistosome-vector snails and associated trematodes in ricefields of Corrients province, Argentina: preliminary results

    Rumi, Alejandra; Hamann, Monika Ines

    Abstract in English:

    Considering the possibility of introduction of schistosomiasis mansoni into Argentina as a consequence of dam construction on the Rio De La Plata basin, preliminary studies have been carried out on agrosystems such as ricefields in Corrientes province with the following purposes: 1) to survey and estimate the relative abundance of planorbids and identify potential vector species; 2) to identify environmental factors capable of influencing Biomphalaria population dynamics; and 3) to find out snail-parasite associations and estimate snail infection rates in order to detect possible competitive interactions between larval stages of native trematodes that could be used in biological control of Schistosoma mansoni. Three potential schistosome vectors were detected in ricefields, namely Biomphalaria straminea, B. tenagophila and B. peregrina, although B. orbignyi, a species refractory to infection with S. mansoni, proved the most frequent and abundant. Positive correlations (P<0.05) were found between Biomphalaria abundance and some environmental parameters: conductivity, hardness, calcium, nitrites plus nitrates, ammonium and bicarbonates. Water temperature correlation was negative (P<0.05). No correlation (P>0.05) was found in total iron, phosphates (SRP), pH and soil granulometry. Echinocercariae developed from rediae and belonging to Petasiger sp., Paryphostomum sp., and other undetermined species were found.
  • Study on thermostabilizers for trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine

    Leal, M. L. F.; Lopes, F. J. C.; Carvalho, M. H. G.; Moura, H. A. B.; Soares, S. A. F.

    Abstract in English:

    Different formulations of trivalent oral poliomyelitis vaccine were tested, in order to obtain better thermostability, reduce corrosion of machinery and improve production costs. Magnesium chloride, sucrose, arginine and 199-Hank's medium were used in the formulations. The most appropriate formulation was a mixture of MgCl2 and arginine, which was highly thermostable, and had low production costs. The low corrosive formulation was rejected, due to low thermostability on storage.
  • The thermal stability of yellow fever vaccines

    Ishak, Ricardo; Howard, Colin R.

    Abstract in English:

    The assessment of yellow fever vaccine thermostability both in lyophilized form and after reconstitution were analyzed. Two commercial yellow fever vaccines were assayed for their thermal stability. Vaccines were exposed to test temperatures in the range of 8 (graus) C to 45 (graus) C. Residual infectivity was measured by a plaque assay using Vero cells. The titre values were used in an accelerated degradation test that follows the Arrhenius equation and the minimum immunizing dose was assumed to be 10 (ao cubo) particles forming unit (pfu)/dose. Some of the most relevant results include that (i) regular culture medium show the same degradation pattern of a reconstituted 17D-204 vaccine; (ii) reconstituted YF-17D-204 showed a predictable half life of more than six days if kept at 0 (graus) C; (iii) there are differences in thermostability between different products that are probably due to both presence of stabilizers in the preparation and the modernization in the vaccine production; (iv) it is important to establish a proper correlation between the mouse infectivity test and the plaque assay since the last appears to be more simple, economical, and practical for small laboratories to assess the potency of the vaccine, and (v) the accelerated degradation test appears to be the best procedure to quantify the thermostability of biological products.
  • Serological diagnosis of dengue by an Elisa inhibition method (EIM)

    Fernandez, R. J.; Vazquez, S.

    Abstract in English:

    An ELISA Inhibition Method (EIM) was proposed for the serologic diagnosis of dengue, comparing its results with the Hemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and the IgM capture-ELISA (MAC-ELISA). Advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed according to sensitivity, specificity, performance and usefulness. As a conclusion we recommend the complementary inclusion of the EIM and MAC-ELISA substituting the HI for laboratories engaged in the diagnosis and surveillance of dengue.
  • Pharmacokinetic profile of tert-butylaminoethanethiol

    Andrade, M. H. Guerra; Freire, A. C. T.; Nelson, D. L.

    Abstract in English:

    A preliminary study of the pharmacokinetic parameters of t-Butylaminoethanethiol (TBAESH) was performed after administration of a single dose (35 mg/kg) either orally or intravenously. Plasma or blood samples were treated with dithiothreitol, perchloric acid and, after filtration, submitted to further purification with anionic resin. In the final step the drug was retained on a cationic resin column, eluted with NaCl lM and detected according to the method of Ellman (1958). The results suggested a pharmacokinetic behavior related to a one open compartment model with the following values for the total drug: area under the intravenous curve (AUC i.v.): 443(+ ou -) 24.0; AUC oral: 85.5(+ ou -) 14.5 ug a -1); elimination rate constant: 0.069(+ ou -) 0.0055 min(elevado a -1), biological half-life: 10.0(+ ou -) 0.80 min; distribution volume 1.15(+ ou -) 0.15 ml/g; biodisponibility: 0.19(+ ou -) 0.02. From a pharmacokinetic standpoint, TBAESH seems to have no advantage over the analogous disulfide compound.
  • Estudos bionomicos de Cavernicola lenti Barrett & Arias, 1985 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae)

    Costa, Jane Margaret; Jurberg, José

    Abstract in English:

    In the biological study, the development of the biological cycle of the insect under different feeding conditions was evaluated. The insects were fed on either mouse blood (c) or pigeon blood (p) using two types of rearing techniques (individual or group) at 28(graus) C and 90% relative humidity (which is equivalent to their natural environment). A fifth cycle studied, was fed on mouse blood reared on group, and mantained at laboratory environmental temperature. In the five cycles analyzed, it was found that groups on mouse blood at near natural conditions developed more rapidly (between 60 and 73 days) and had a lower rate of mortality (16.66%). The daily handling and changes in environment, of the individually reared insects, for observation of biological characteristics (no. and duration of bloodmeal, defecation and first fed of each stage) had a negative influence. None of the individuals fed on mouse or pigeon blood reached adult hood. It was found that the longevity and the fertility rate were significantly superior on couples maintained individually on mouse blood. These males had an average lifespan of 110,26 days and the females had an average lifespan of 104,46 days. The average number of eggs laid by each female was 21,26. Four couples kept in groups (five couples in each group) under the same condition, the longevity for males was 51,86 days and for females was 81,06 days. An average of 10,5 eggs were laid by each female. However, the percentage of fertile eggs was higher in couples kept in groups (72.15%) than in the individual couples (57.68%).
  • Chronic chagasic cardiopathy: role of CD4 T cells in the anti heart autoreactivity

    Santos, Ricardo Ribeiro dos; Laus, Jose Luis; Mengel, Jose O.; Savino, Wilson
  • Isolation and partial purification of a lectin from Swartzia pickellii Killip (white jacaranda)

    Cavalcanti, M. S. M.; Coelho, L. C. B. B.
  • Combined antimonial allopurinol therapy in mucosal leishmaniasis

    Sampaio, R. N.; Marchán, E. M.; Vexenat, A.; Tristão, R. J.; Marsden, P. D.
  • Preliminary survey of the planorbidic fauna in Santa Catarina island, Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Espindola, Karen Schmidt; Hofmann, Paulo Roberto Petersen; Machado, Maria Marques
  • Triatomine's hemocytes and granuloma formation around biological and non-biological material

    Alvarenga, N. J.; Bronfen, Elizabeth; Alvarenga, R. J.; Barracco, M. A.
  • Dead Mycobacterium leprae inhibits phagocytosis by inflammatory macrophages in vivo. Participation of the bacteria cell lipids in the phenomenon

    Moura, A. C. N.; Mariano, M.
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