Abstract in English:The article discusses the current use and mis-use of ecological terms and concepts in epidemiological literature, and in special, in works dealing with zoonotic diseases. A selection of examples was taken from papers recently published on the transmission of Chagas' disease by Triatoma sordida. Proper definitions are listed, with the intent of helping non-ecologists to use those terms and concepts correctly.
Abstract in English:Five species of monogeneans collected from marine fishes of the Pacific coast of Chile and Perú were studied. Three of them are new species: Interniloculus chilensis n. sp. (Capsalidae), Neoheterobothrium insalaris n. sp. (Diclidophoridae) and Loxura peruensis n. sp. (Axinidae) parasitic on Sebastes capensis (Scorpaenidae), Paralichthys sp. (Bothiidae) and Belone scapularis (Belonidae), respectively. Two new combinations are proposed, Intracotyle neghmei (Microcotylidae) for Neobivagina neghmei Villalba, 1987 and Hargicotlyle conceptionensis (Diclidophoridae) for Choricotyle conceptionensis Villalba, 1987.
Abstract in English:A morphological study was made of a population of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) rondoni (Neiva and Pinto) from northern Mato Grosso, Brazil. This population usually lacked the primary key character of a dark basal band on hindtarsomere 3, i.e., hindtarsomere 3 was all white as in most other members of the subgenus. It was determined that this species can be recognized instead by the presence of a dark spot on the thorax made up of a large dark prescutellar space that is contiguous with a concolorous central area on the scutellum. A secondary character of a dark area on the costa created by the fusion of the humeral dark, presector dark and sector dark proximal spots is also usually reliable. Regression analyses comparing the lengths and ratios of the dark bands on hindtarsomeres 2 to those on 3 describe a straight line relationship. This suggests that the "atypical" population is at one end of a character gradient. We propose that in the subgenus Nyssorhynchus individuals that have a long basal band on hindtarsomere 2 are more likely to also have a basal band on hindtarsomere 3. The pupal stage of this species has not been previously described. Reared-associated specimens from this study show that the pupa can be easily differentiated from all other Nyssorhynchus by the relatively stout, usually 2 or 3 branched (1-5), setae 1 and 5 on segments IV-VII.
Abstract in English:The adults and male genitalia of two new species of Sabethes subgenus Peytonulus are described from Colombia. The male genitalia are illustrated and the species are distinguished from one another and other members of the subgenus.
Abstract in English:Endogenous stages of a Schellackia species are described in histological sections of the intestine of the tree-frog, Phrynohyas venulosa, from North Brazil. Most oocysts sporulate within the epithelial cells of the gut, but a few were detected in the lamina propria.
Abstract in English:Two species of the genus Proteocephalus (Cestoda: Proteocephalidae) were collected in fishes from the Paraná River. Proteocephalus vazzolerae n. sp. from Piaractus mesopotamicus and Proteocephalus chubbi, n. sp. from Gymnotus carapo are new species, and are described and illustrated. Proteocephalus vazzolerae n. sp. is characterized mainly by the number of testes and the development of vitellaria. Proteocephalus chubbi n. sp. can be differentiated from its congeners by a combination of characters which include, number of testes, number of proglottids, strobila length, scolex shape and disposition of vitellaria. This is the first record of proteocephalidean in P. mesopotamicus and G. carapo.
Abstract in English:Ultrastructural aspects of spermatogenesis, spermiogenesis and of the mature spermatozoon of a microcotylid monogenean Metamicrocotyla macracantha parasite from Mugil liza, are described. The irregularly-shaped spermatogonia divides by successive mitoses, forming the primary spermatocytes, identified by the presence of synaptonemal complexes in their nuclei. The spermatids formed by meiotic cell divisions of the secondary spermatocytes, differentiate into a mature spermatozoon. Cross sections of the head and the middle region of mature spermatozoa show the nucleus with strong condensed chromatin, the mitochondria with short cristae, peripheral microtubules and two axonemes with a 9+1 pattern, confirming the characteristics of this genus.
Abstract in English:A description is given of the shell, renal organ, reproductive system and radula of topotypic specimens of Lymnaea cousini Jousseaume, 1887. A diagnosis between it and four other lymnaeids which also occur in South America and were previously studied by the author (L. columella, L. diaphana, L. viatrix and L. rupestris) is presented.
Abstract in English:Peckia chrysostoma obtained mean viability of 97.0±2.4% for larvae and of 96.9±2.5% for pupae (total viability of 94.0±3.7%). Adiscochaeta ingens obtained mean viability of 93.0±7.5% for larvae and of 92.8±7.6% for pupae (total viability of 86.0±7.3%). P. chrysostoma obtained mean larval period of 185±4 hr at 18ºC, of 94±2 hr at 27ºC and of 88±2 hr at room temperature (range of 23ºC and 29ºC). A. ingens obtained mean larval period of 169±1 hr at 18ºC, of 77±1 hr at 27ºC and of 84±2hr at room temperature. P. chrysostoma obtained mean pupal period of 23.5±1.3 days at 18ºC, of 12.5±0.7 days at 27ºC and of 15.5±0.7 days at room temperature. A. ingens obtained mean pupal period of 33.0±2.2 days at 18ºC, of 16.0±1.0 days at 27ºC and of 19.0±1.0 days at room temperature.
Abstract in English:Tetrameres (T.) spirospiculum n. sp. is proposed, taking into account the very unusual aspect of the longer spicule, which is slender and progressively spiralled from its middle, towards the distal end, that promptly distinguishes it from all the species of the genus.
Abstract in English:Given the suspected role of mycobacteria in the establishment of disorders with an autoimmune background and joint damage, a study was conducted to analize whether rheumatic symptoms were likely to be present in tuberculosis (TB) patients. To this end, 330 patients with a bacteriologic confirmation of tuberculosis were investigated for the presence of arthritic complaints. The latter were recorded in five of them with rheumatic symptoms mostly involving interphalangeal and metacarpophalanged joints, and preceding the clinical manifestations of the TB illness. Three out of these five patients remained arthritic by the time of the bacteriologic conversion and fulfilled the criteria for the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the two remaining patients sputum negativization was accompanied by a disappearance of rheumatic manifestations. These patients were also assessed for their peripheral levels of major T cell subsets as well as for the presence of autoantibodies. Comparisons with a series of non-arthritic TB cases, rheumatoid arthritis patients, and controls revealed that presence of rheumatic manifestations was associated with a different profile of autoantibody formation and T cell subset changes. Evidence recorded in the present study indicates that joint affectation in TB is a rare event, being rather the exception than the rule.
Abstract in English:Infection of Oxydoras kneri by the acanthocephalan Paracavisoma impudica is described. The parasites do not penetrate deeply into the host gut wall and do not reach the muscularis layers. Host reaction is minimal, consisting of limited fibrosis around the proboscides. Haemorrhages and lymphocyte infiltration are not observed, and phagocytic cells are only present occasionally. Oxydoras kneri is a newly reported host for Paracavisoma impudica.
Abstract in English:The number of eggs laid per snail in Bradybaena similaris and the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) in the albumen gland and ovotestis were quantified in snails infected with sporocysts of the digenetic trematode Eurytrema coelomaticum. The total number of eggs laid per mollusc was reduced by 96.32% at the end of the larval development. The DNA concentration increased by 700% and the RNA concentration was reduced by 8,38% by the time when the daughter sporocysts of E. coelomaticum were released from B. similaris. The relation between these values and the inhibition of the reproduction observed in infected molluscs is discussed.
Abstract in English:Aedes albifasciatus is an important common mosquito in Central Argentina. Its a confirmed vector of the Western Equine Encephalitis and is responsible for loss of milk production in dairy cattle during peak populations. This paper reports the flight activity pattern of Ae. albifasciatus for different seasons, in the southern coast of the Mar Chiquita Lake (Central Argentina). Data were collected by sampling two sites between 1992 and 1993 with CDC traps and human-bait captures. Adult mosquito population density, estimated by CDC trapping and human-bait, were highly correlated. However, when compared to other species, the proportion of Ae. albifasciatus was higher in human-bait collections. Adult female populations were active only when temperature were higher than 6§C. Two daily biting peaks were observed (dusk and dawn) during the spring, summer and autumn, and only one peak during winter (around 15:00 pm). Adult abundance was significantly correlated (R²= 0.71; p<0.01) with temperature and illumination.
Abstract in English:Assembling behaviour associated with mating was investigated in Triatoma infestans. The spatial distribution of both sexes was observed by video films, in the presence or absence of a copulating pair. Males aggregated around copulating pairs. Females did not exhibit this behaviour and their mean spatial density remained unaffected. Spontaneous aggregation tendency was observed in males in the absence of a copulating pair, but the temporal course significantly differed from that observed in the presence of a mating pair. Results support the existence of an aggregation signal that is released during mating, affecting the behaviour of males.
Abstract in English:The stimulus provided by a copulating pair of Triatoma infestans significantly affects the electrical activity of the nervous system of Triatoma infestans. Electrophysiological recordings were perfomed on stationary adult males presented with stimuli of an air current carrying odors from males, females, non-copulating pairs and mating pairs. The electrophysiological response was characterized by the low frequency occurrence of biphasic compound impulses. A significant increase in the frequency of the impulses occurred in stationary males when exposed to air currents of mating pairs, when compared to that evoked by a clean air stream. Analysis of the time course of the assays, showed that the electrophisiological activity during the copula was higher than prior to or after copula. The electrophysiological evidence presented here strongly supports the existence of pheromone(s) released by one or both sexes during mating and which is perceived by male chemoreceptors located on the antennae.
Abstract in English:Blood erythrocytes of Brazilian tree-frogs, Phrynohyas venulosa were found to frequently contain single, small, densely staining inclusions. Electron microscopy showed these to be icosahedral viral particles which measured from 250-280 nm in diameter; they were devoid of an envelope, and thus differed from previously described viruses of frog erythrocytes. The infected erythrocytes lacked a crystalline body.
Abstract in English:Triatoma nitida is a wild species occurring in Mexico and Central America. In order to establish the length of its life cycle and transmission potential, the following parameters were observed: the incubation period, the interval between hatching, or moulting, and the first feeding; the number of blood meals and the time of development. The time-lapse before the bite, the length of feeding and the interval between the end of the blood meal and defecation, as well as the site of defecation were also analyzed. Average length of the egg incubation period was 18.2 days. Time interval between the food source offering and the bite was less than 4 min in 60//of the analyzed cases, except in the fifth instar, where only 38//of the insects began feeding in less than 5 min. The blood-sucking period was long and rising until the fifth instar, decreasing in adults, and ranging from 1 min to 2 and a half hours. Only 26//of the blood meals were followed by defecations within 20 min. The average length of the life cycle was 897.5 days.