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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 91, Issue: 2, Published: 1996
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  • Man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and An. (Kerteszia) neivai (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Pacific Lowlands of Colombia Epidemiology

    Solarte, Yezid; Hurtado, Camilo; Gonzalez, Ranulfo; Alexander, Bruce

    Abstract in English:

    The daily man-biting activity of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and An. (Kerteszia) neivai was determined in four ecologically distinct settlements of the Naya River, Department of Valle, Colombia. Differences were found among the settlements with respect to the mosquito species present, intradomiciliary and extradomiciliary biting activity and population densities.
  • Human parvovirus B19 infection and hydrops fetalis in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Epidemiology

    Cubel, Rita CN; Garcia, Aparecida GP; Pegado, Claudia S; Ramos, Hilda I; Fonseca, Maria EF; Clewley, Jonhatan P; Cohen, Bernard J; Nascimento, Jussara P

    Abstract in English:

    Formalin-fixed paraffin embedded lung and liver tissue from 23 cases of non immune hydrops fetalis and five control cases, in which hydrops were due to syphilis (3) and genetic causes (2), were examined for the presence of human parvovirus B19 by DNA hybridisation. Using in situ hybridisation with a biotynilated probe one positive case was detected. Using 32P-labelled probes in a dot blot assay format, five further positives were obtained. These were all confirmed as positive by a nested polymerase chain reaction assay. Electron microscopy revealed virus in all these five positive cases. The six B19 DNA positive cases of hydrops fetalis were from 1974, 1980, 1982, 1987 and 1988, four of which occurred during the second half of the year, confirming the seasonality of the disease.
  • Onchocerciasis in Ecuador: changes in prevalence of ocular lesions in Onchocerca volvulus infected individuals over the period 1980-1990 Epidemiology

    Cooper, Philip J; Proaño, Roberto; Beltran, Carlos; Anselmi, Mariela; Guderian, Ronald H

    Abstract in English:

    Trends in prevalence rates of onchocercal ocular lesions were examined over the period 1980 to 1990 using data from two cross-sectional surveys. There was evidence for increasing prevalence of anterior chamber microfilariae, iridocyclitis, optic atrophy, and chorioretinopathy. Large increases in prevalence, in particular, were seen for posterior segment lesions: optic atrophy increased from 2.7% to 6.4% and chorioretinopathy from 8.8% to 35.6%. Greatest increases in these lesions were seen in the Chachi which was attributed to the large increases in prevalence of microfilariae in the anterior chamber particularly in those aged 30 years or greater. The study findings suggest that ocular onchocerciasis is evolving in parallel with the well documented parasitological changes.
  • Seasonality of Phaeotabanus fervens (Diptera: Tabanidae) in the Pantanal region, Brazil Epidemiology

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu M
  • Biological control of Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in trap tyres by Mesocyclops longisetus (Copepoda: Cyclopidae) in two field trials Epidemiology

    Santos, Luciana Urbano; Andrade, Carlos Fernando S; Carvalho, Gílcia A
  • Kudoa thyrsithes (Myxozoa, Multivalvulida) causing "milky condition" in the musculature of paralichthys adspersus (Neopterygii, Pleuronectiformes, (Paralichthyidae) from Chile Sistematics

    Castro R, Raúl; Burgos, Rodrigo
  • Monogeneans of leatherjackets, Oligoplites spp. (Osteichthyes: Carangidae), with the description of a new species of Metacamopia (Monogenea: Allodiscocotylidae) from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Sistematics

    Takemoto, Ricardo M; Amato, JFR; Luque, José Luis

    Abstract in English:

    Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp., a gill filament parasite of carangid fishes of three species of Oligoplites Gill, O. palometa (Cuvier), O. saurus (Bloch & Schneider), and O. saliens (Bloch), from the coast of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described and illustrated. Metacamopia oligoplites n. sp. differs from M. indica by: the shape of the body; the pre-, para-, and post-germarial testes; vaginas lacking sclerotized structures; well-developed seminal receptacles; muscular sleeves around the constriction between the vaginas and the seminal receptacles; and the haptor highly asymmetric, with a large, heel-like area; and differs from M. chorinemi by: the esophagus lacking diverticles; a larger number of testes (26-55) and not just, approximately 10; and the vaginas lacking sclerotized structures of any kind. This is the first record of Metacamopia in the South Atlantic Ocean. The generic diagnosis of Metacamopia is emended. Hargicola oligoplites is reported for the first time in the South Atlantic Ocean. Oligoplites palometa and O. saliens are new host records for Hargicola oligoplites.
  • Redescription of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) souzalopesi Martins, Silva & Falcão, 1970 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) Sistematics

    Dias, Edelberto Santos; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima

    Abstract in English:

    The authors redescribe the male and the female of Lutzomyia (Lutzomyia) souzalopesi Martins, Silva & Falcão, 1970. Taxonomic remarks, geographic distribution and drawings are presented.
  • Neotropical planorbid snails with apertural lamellae: I. Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835) Sistematics

    Paraense, W Lobato

    Abstract in English:

    A definition of Biomphalaria helophila (Orbigny, 1835) is presented, based on examination of the shell and reproductive system of topotypic specimens and extended to a number of samples from other localities. The following nominal species and subspecies, collected from type localities, proved junior synonyms of B. helophila: Planorbis albicans Pfeiffer, 1839; Planorbis dentatus Gould, 1844; Planorbis dentiferus CB Adams, 1845; Planorbis dentiferus edentatus CB Adams, 1851; Planorbis dentiens Morelet, 1849; Planorbula dentiens edentula Fischer & Crosse, 1880; Planorbis stagnicola Morelet, 1851; and Tropicorbis shimeki FC Baker, 1945. B. helophila was also identified in samples from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico and Barbados.
  • Biomphalaria subprona (Martens, 1899) (Gastropoda: Planorbidae) Sistematics

    Paraense, W Lobato

    Abstract in English:

    A description is given of the shell, head-foot, pulmonary wall, reproductive system and radula of Biomphalaria subprona (Martens, 1899). A diagnosis between it and two other congeneric species under 10 mm in shell diameter occurring in Middle America (Biomphalaria helophila and B. schrammi) is presented.
  • Evaluation of Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for the serodiagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS in Cuba Diagnosis

    Montoro, Ernesto; Díaz, Raúl; Echemendía, Miguel; Valdivia, José A
  • Montenegro skin test - evaluation of the composition and stability of the antigen preparation Diagnosis

    Costa, Carlos Alberto da; Toledo, Vicente de Paulo Coelho Peixoto de; Genaro, Odair; Williams, Paul; Mayrink, Wilson
  • The use of polyvinyl alcohol glutaraldehyde as solid-phase in ELISA for plague Diagnosis

    Araujo, Aureci Maria; Petribú, André Tavares S; Barbosa, Gustavo Henrique T Sales; Diniz, José Ricardo P; Almeida, Alzira MP de; Azevedo, Walter Mendes; Malagueño, Elizabeth; Carvalho Jr, Luiz B

    Abstract in English:

    Discs of polyvinyl alcohol cross-linked with glutaraldehyde were synthesized under acid catalysis (H2SO4). Then, the antigen F1 purified from Yersinia pestis was covalently linked to this modified polymer. Afterwards, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was established for the diagnosis of plague in rabbit and human. The best conditions for the method were achieved by using 1.3 ¼g of F1 prepared in 0.067 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 1 M NaCl (PBS); anti-IgG peroxidase conjugate diluted 6,000 times and as a blocking agent 3% w/v skim milk in PBS. The titration of positive rabbit serum according to this procedure detected antibody concentrations up to 1:12,800 times. The present method, the conventional ELISA and passive haemagglutination assay are compared.
  • Evaluation of the rabbit as a model for Chagas disease - II: histopathologic studies of the heart, digestive tract and skeletal muscle Clinical Studies And Pathology

    Silva, Arnaldo Moreira da; Ramirez, Luiz Eduardo; Vargas, Marlene; Chapadeiro, Edmundo; Brener, Zigman

    Abstract in English:

    In order to investigate the value of the rabbit as an experimental model for Chagas' disease, seventy one animals were inoculated with different Trypanosoma cruzi strains and routes. The rabbits were submitted to necropsy in acute (earlier than three months of infection), recent chronic (three to six months) and late chronic (later than six months) phases. Myocarditis, generally focal and endomysial, occurred in 94.1%, 66.7% and 70.8% of the infected rabbits respectively in the acute, recent chronic and late chronic phases. The myocardial inflammatory exudate was composed by mononuclear cells, and also polymorphonuclear cells in the acute phase. In most cases of the late chronic phase, the myocarditis was similar to that described in the indeterminate form of human chagasic patients. Initial fibrosis occurred in the three phases but was more severe and frequent in the early chronic. Advanced fibrosis occurred only in the late chronic phase. Tissue parasites occurred only in the acute phase. The digestive tract and skeletal muscles showed mild and occasional lesions. Our data indicate that experimentally infected chagasic rabbits repeat some lesions similar to that of humans chagasic patients, specially that of the indeterminate form. So, it may be a useful, however not an ideal, model.
  • High and low doses of antimony (Sb v) in American cutaneous leishmaniasis: a five years follow-up study of 15 patients Clinical Studies And Pathology

    Oliveira-Neto, MP; Schubach, A; Araujo, ML; Pirmez, C

    Abstract in English:

    Seventeen patients proceeding from the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil presenting with the cutaneous ulcerative form of American leishmaniasis were treated with one ampoule of pentavalent antimony daily for 30 days. With this regimen the individuals doses varies greatly: from 3.8 mg/kg of body weight to 22.3 mg/kg. After five years, patients receiving either a smaller dose or a bigger one, showed the same therapeutic result: cutaneous scars and no mucosal lesions.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi infection in offspring born to chagasic C3H/He mice Clinical Studies And Pathology

    Araújo, Silvana Marques de; Chiari, Egler

    Abstract in English:

    This study reports the effects of Trypanosoma cruzi infection induced in C3H/He male and female mice born to chagasic mice. An experimental model was established infecting female C3H/He mice with a low virulent T. cruzi clone. In this model, mating, fertilization, pregnancy evolution and delivery was carried out successfully. The offspring was infected at four, six and eigth weeks of age. The results showed that the offspring born to chagasic mothers present decreased resistance to acquired T. cruzi infection. This decreased resistance was expressed by higher levels of parasitaemia and higher mortality rates in offspring born to chagasic mothers than in controls. Age and sex were shown to be important factors of this phenomenon. The results suggest that maternal immune system products can modulate the immune response of the offspring.
  • Trypanosoma cruzi strains and autonomic nervous system pathology in experimental chagas disease Clinical Studies And Pathology

    Souza, Márcia Maria de; Andrade, Sonia G; Barbosa Jr, Aryon A; Santos, Raimunda Telma Macedo; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Andrade, Zilton A

    Abstract in English:

    Lesions involving the sympathetic (para-vertebral ganglia) and para-sympathetic ganglia of intestines (Auerbach plexus) and heart (right atrial ganglia) were comparatively analyzed in mice infected with either of three different strain types of Trypanosoma cruzi, during acute and chronic infection, in an attempt to understand the influence of parasite strain in causing autonomic nervous system pathology. Ganglionar involvement with neuronal destruction appeared related to inflammation, which most of the times extended from neighboring adipose and cardiac, smooth and striated muscular tissues. Intraganglionic parasitism was exceptional. Inflammation involving peripheral nervous tissue exhibited a focal character and its variability in the several groups examined appeared unpredictable. Although lesions were generally more severe with the Y strain, comparative qualitative study did not allow the conclusion, under the present experimental conditions, that one strain was more pathogenic to the autonomic nervous system than others. No special tropism of the parasites from any strain toward autonomic ganglia was disclosed.
  • Tumor necrosis factor-α in human American tegumentary leishmaniasis Clinical Studies And Pathology

    Da-Cruz, Alda Maria; Oliveira, Márcia Pereira de; De Luca, Paula Mello; Mendonça, Sergio CF; Coutinho, Sergio G

    Abstract in English:

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine produced by activated macrophages and other cells. In order to verify whether the serum levels of TNF-α in American tegumentary leishmaniasis patients are associated with the process of cure or aggravation of the disease, 41 patients were studied: 26 cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and 15 of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). During active disease the serum levels of TNF-α of MCL patients were significantly higher than those of CL patients and control subjects (healthy individuals and cutaneous lesions from other etiologies). The MCL patients had serum titers of TNF-α significantly lower at the end of antimonial therapy than before therapy. After a six-month follow-up, the MCL patients had serum levels of TNF-α similar to those observed at the end of the therapy as well as to those of CL patients and control subjects. No significant variation in the serum levels of TNF-α was observed in CL patients throughout the study period (before, at the end of therapy and after a six-month follow-up). The possible relationship between the high TNF-α serum levels and severity of the disease is discussed.
  • Biochemical, immunological and toxicological characteristics of the crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. medellin Biochemistry

    Orduz, Sergio; Diaz, Thais; Restrepo, Nora; Patiño, Maria M; Tamayo, Martha C

    Abstract in English:

    Characterization of the insecticidal and hemolytic activity of solubilized crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. medellin (Btmed) was performed and compared to solubilized crystal proteins of isolates 1884 of B. thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) and isolate PG-14 of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (Btm). In general, at acid pH values solubilization of the Bt crystalline parasporal inclusions (CPI) was lower than at alkaline pH. The larvicidal activity demonstrated by the CPI of Btmed indicated that optimal solubilization of CPI takes place at a pH value of 11.3, in Bti at pH values from 5.03 to 11.3 and in Btm at pH values from 9.05 to 11.3. Hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells was mainly found following extraction at pH 11.3 in all Bt strains tested. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions revealed that optimal solubilization of the CPI in all Bt strains takes place at the alkaline pH values from 9.05 to 11.3. An enriched preparation of Btmed crystals was obtained, solubilized and crystal proteins were separated on a size exclusion column (Sephacryl S-200). Three main protein peaks were observed on the chromatogram. The first peak had two main proteins that migrate between 90 to 100 kDa. These proteins are apparently not common to other Bt strains isolated to date. The second and third peaks obtained from the size exclusion column yielded polypeptides of 68 and 28-30 kDa, respectively. Each peak independently, showed toxicity against 1st instar Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Interestingly, combinations of the fractions corresponding to the 68 and 30 kDa protein showed an increased toxicity. These results suggest that the 94 kDa protein is an important component of the Btmed toxins with the highest potency to kill mosquito larvae. When crystal proteins of Bti were probed with antisera raised independently against the three main protein fractions of Btmed, the only crystal protein that showed cross reaction was the 28 kDa protein. These data suggest that Btmed could be an alternative bacterium for mosquito control programs in case mosquito larval resistance emerges to Bti toxic proteins.
  • Reproductive behavior of Ravinia belforti (Prado & Fonseca,1932) (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) females reared, in isolation, in the laboratory at Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil General Biology

    d'Almeida, José Mario
  • Comparison of the blood meal size among Triatoma infestans, T. guasayana and T. sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) of Argentina under laboratory conditions General Biology

    Pietrokovsky, Silvia; Bottazzi, Victoria; Schweigmann, Nicolás; Haedo, Ana; Wisnivesky-Colli, Cristina
  • The effect of different proportions of males and females over the Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann 1819) (Diptera, Calliphoridae) biotic potential and longevity under laboratory conditions General Biology

    Queiroz, Margareth Maria de Carvalho; Mello, Rubens Pinto de; Freire, Nicolau Maués da Serra

    Abstract in English:

    Chrysomya albiceps specimens were derived from colonies kept under laboratory conditions. The oviposition period, total number of eggs-mass and the weight of the eggs-mass (average/female) presented significant differences between colonies regarding the sexual ratio of 1male/1female (situation I), when compared to the other ratios (1male/3female, situation II), (1male/5female, situation III), (3male/1female, situation IV) and (5 male/1female, situation V). It was ascertained that the increase in the proportion of females, resulted in higher weight and greater number of ovipositions and lenghtening of the period of oviposition, leads to a decrease in their lifespan.
  • Bionomical aspects of de Squamatoides trivittatus (Diptera, Sarcophagidae) under laboratory conditions

    Salviano, Ricardo JB; Mello, Rubens Pinto de; Beck, Lilian CNH; d'Almeida, José Mario

    Abstract in English:

    Experiments with Squamatoides trivitattus were carried out in two different controlled temperatures (16±1°C/50-60% RH and 27±1°C/70-80% RH). The viability of larvae and pupae at 27°C was 89.82% and 92.75% respectively. Larvae did not develop at 16°C. Larval development lasted for 20±4 hr, 16±8 hr and 60±7 hr for the first, second and third instars, respectively, completing a total of 96±6 hr. The mean pupal period lasted for 15.7±1.6 days. In longevity tables for the adults, life-expectancy for 50% of the colony submitted to 16°C was of 1.78 weeks for males and 2.42 for females. At 27°C a life-expectancy of 1.15 weeks for males and 0.78 week for females was recorded. The average life-spans for males and females at 16°C were 3.5±2.0 and 3.8±2.6 weeks, respectively, and 1.9±1.2 weeks for both sexes. At 27°C, the longevity recorded was of 2.1±1.3 weeks for males and 1.7±1.1 week for females.
  • Ultrastructural aspects of the replication of dengue virus type 2 isolated in Brazil General Biology

    Barth, Ortrud Monika; Cortes, Luzia MC; Farias Filho, José; Schatzmayr, Hermann G
  • Theoretical estimates of consumable food and probability of acquiring food in larvae of Chrysomya putoria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) General Biology

    Godoy, WAC; Von Zuben, CJ; Reis, SF dos; Von Zuben, FJ

    Abstract in English:

    An indirect estimate of consumable food and probability of acquiring food in a blowfly species, Chrysomya putoria, is presented. This alternative procedure combines three distinct models to estimate consumable food in the context of the exploitative competition experienced by immature individuals in blowfly populations. The relevant parameters are derived from data for pupal weight and survival and estimates of density-independent larval mortality in twenty different larval densities. As part of this procedure, the probability of acquiring food per unit of time and the time taken to exhaust the food supply are also calculated. The procedure employed here may be valuable for estimations in insects whose immature stages develop inside the food substrate, where it is difficult to partial out confounding effects such as separation of faeces. This procedure also has the advantage of taking into account the population dynamics of immatures living under crowded conditions, which are particularly characteristic of blowflies and other insects as well.
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