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Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 93, Issue: 4, Published: 1998
  • Potential Vectors of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856) in Itacoatiara, Oceanic Region of Niterói Municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Epidemiology

    Labarthe, Norma; Serrão, Maria Lúcia; Melo, Yuri Fontenele; Oliveira, Sebastião José de; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo

    Abstract in English:

    Dirofilaria immitis is a widespread mosquito-borne parasite that causes dirofilariasis, a commonly diagnosed disease of dogs that is rarely reported in cats and humans. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara in the State of Rio de Janeiro, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 3,667 mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae, representing 19 species and 10 genera. From those, Ae. scapularis, Ae taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. declarator, Cx. saltanensis and Wy. bourrouli were found infected with D. immitis parasites, and among those, only the first three harbored infective larvae. The majority of larvae were found in the Malpighian tubules (889/936), and larval melanization was observed in the two Aedes species. In descending order, the best vectors were Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus which alternate seasonally in importance. Cx. quinquefasciatus is suggested to be a vector to cats. The potential transmission of D. immitis parasites by these three vectors to man is discussed.
  • Unusual HPV Types in Cutaneous Warts in Association with Immunological Deficiency Epidemiology

    Cavalcanti, Sílvia MB; Deus, Flávia CC; Oliveira, Ledy HS
  • Susceptibility of Aedes scapularis (Rondani, 1848) to Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856), an Emerging Zoonosis Epidemiology

    Macêdo, Fabiane Carvalho de; Labarthe, Norma; Lourenço-de- Oliveira, Ricardo
  • Detection of Type 16 Human Papillomavirus DNA in Formalin-fixed Invasive Squamous Cells from Laryngeal Cancers by Polymerase Chain Reaction Epidemiology

    Soto, Yudira; Valdés, Odalys; Muné, Mayra; Pimentel, Tamara; Ramirez, Rosa
  • Studies on the Bacillus sphaericus Larvicidal Activity against Malarial Vector Species in Amazonia Epidemiology

    Rodrigues, Iléa Brandão; Tadei, Waderli Pedro; Dias, José Manoel C Silva

    Abstract in English:

    In this work, bioassays were carried out in laboratory conditions (average temperature 26 ± 2ºC) to test ten strains of Bacillus sphaericus, isolated from Brazilian soils against third instar larvae from anopheline species recorded as malaria vectors in Amazonian - Anopheles nuneztovari and An. darlingi. With the former mosquito, three strains - S2, S20 and S46 showed relative activity, in 24 and 48 hr exposure to the B. spahericus strains. With the latter only the S2 and S20 were effective in the 48 hr reading. The studied strains that showed the most adequate response in the Amazonian region were S2 and S20 showing broader and more efficient results. Therefore, S2 was the most effective when the 24 and 48 hr readings were considered, because it showed the greatest relative activity values.
  • The Polytene Chromosomes of Cnesia dissimilis (Edwards) and Three Species of Gigantodax Enderlein (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Lanin National Park (Argentina) Systematics

    Arias, Cecilia L Coscarón

    Abstract in English:

    Cytological studies were made on larvae of Gigantodax marginalis, G. chilensis, G. fulvescens and Cnesia dissimilis from four creeks in Lanin National Park, Neuquen province, Argentina. Chromosome maps and idiograms of these species are presented. The following inversions were observed: G. marginalis: IL-1 (X-linked inversion), IL-2 (Y-linked inversion), IIS-1.2, IIL-1, IIIL-4,5; G. chilensis: IL-4 (X-linked inversion), IIS-1.2, IIIL-4,5; G. fulvescens:IL-1 (X-linked inversion), IL-3 (Y-linked inversion), IIS-1.2, IIL-1, IIIL-4,5; C. dissimilis: IL-1, IL-5, IIIL-1. Karyological information was used to construct a cladogram and Cnesia sp. Was found to show close resemblance to the three Gigantodax spp.
  • Triatoma jurbergi sp. n. do Norte do Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) com uma Atualização das Sinonímias e outros Táxons

    Carcavallo, Rodolfo U; Galvão, Cleber; Lent, Herman

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma jurbergi n. sp. is described based on nine specimens of both sexes deposited in the Rodolfo Carcavallo Collection in the Oswaldo Cruz Institute Entomological Collection. The new species can be separated from the closely related Triatoma guazu Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979 by several characters. The most important are longer anteocular region; thin and pointed juga; the shape of the eyes without concavity in the posterior edge; much longer second rostral segment, passing the posterior edge of eye; the absence of a ventral longitudinal depression on the abdomen; the general color redish, brown and orange and the male genitalia, mainly in the vesica lightly chitinized and smaller, the phallosome with apical projection and the pointed apex of the endosome process.
  • The Immature Stages of Protodasyapha (Protodasyapha) hirtuosa (Philippi) and their Comparison with the Immature Stages of other Pangoniini (Diptera: Tabanidae: Pangoniinae) Systematics

    González, Christian R

    Abstract in English:

    The terrestrial immature stages of the Chilean horse fly, Protodasyapha (Protodasyapha) hirtuosa (Philippi), are described. P.(P.) hirtuosa resembles Ectenopsis vulpecula Macquart and Caenoprosopon trichocera (Bigot) from Australia, and Esenbeckia delta Hine from North America, in both the larval and pupal stages. Some characters that are shared between these species are unique and provide evidence of their monophyletic origin. Larvae of P. hirtuosa were found 3-5 below of the soil surface and associated with larvae of Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Diptera.
  • Description of the Oocysts of Three New Species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Iguanid Lizards (Sauria: Iguanidae) of Central and South America Systematics

    Daszak, P; Ball, SJ

    Abstract in English:

    Three new species of Eimeria are described from iguanid lizards of Central and South America. The oocysts of each species have no micropyles or residua and the sporocysts lack Stieda bodies, but all have a sporocyst residuum. Eimeria sanctaluciae n.sp. was found in the St. Lucia tree lizard, Anolis luciae, collected from the Maria Islands, Lesser Antilles. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, averaging 17.3 x 16.5 µm, with a single layered colourless wall; about 60% contain polar granules. The sporocysts are ellipsoidal and average 7.7 x 5.5 µm. Eimeria liolaemi n.sp. was recovered from the blue-gold swift, Liolaemus taenius, from Chile. The oocysts are spherical to subspherical, measuring 21 x 20.1 µm with a single-layered colourless wall. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 7.4 x 6.8 µm. Eimeria caesicia n.sp. is described from the Brazilian collared iguanid, Tropidurus torquatus. The oocysts measure 27.4 x 23.7 µm, are spherical to subspherical, with a bilayered wall, the outer surface of which appears pale blue in colour, the thin, inner wall appearing brown, when viewed by direct light under the optical microscope. The sporocysts are subspherical and average 9.4 x 7.2 µm. Unnamed polysporocystid oocysts with dizoic sporocysts are reported from the faeces of the lesser St. Vincent tree lizard, Anolis trinitatis and the possibility of spurious parasitism briefly discussed. In addition, oocysts of an unnamed Isospora sp. with a smooth oocyst wall which closely resembles I. reui were recovered from A. trinitatis.
  • Distribution Patterns of Microcotyle nemadactylus (Monogenea) on Gill Filaments of Cheilodactylus variegatus (Teleostei) Systematics

    Oliva, Marcelo E; Luque, José L
  • Variations of the External Male Genitalia in Three Populations of Triatoma infestans Klug, 1834 Systematics

    Pires, Herton Helder Rocha; Barbosa, Silvia Ermelinda; Margonari, Carina; Jurberg, José; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma infestans is the triatomine that presents the greatest dispersion area in South America. However, it is not known whether the original characteristics of this insect remained in its long dispersion process. The purpose of this work was to study comparatively the external male genitalia of insects from different populations of T. infestans, two from Brazil (Minas Gerais and Bahia) and one from Bolivia (Cochabamba Valley), and to investigate the correlation between the morphological and behavioral variations. Differences were observed in one of the structures of the external genitalia (endosoma process) that could be used to characterize the insects from the three populations studied.
  • Random by Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis of Sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi Isolates Infers from French Guiana Accurate Phylogeny Systematics

    Bastrenta, Brigitte; Brenière, Simone Frédérique
  • Evaluation of Three Mycobacterium leprae Monoclonal Antibodies in Mucus and Lymph Samples from Ziehl-Neelsen Stain Negative Leprosy Patients and their Household Contacts in an Indian Community Immunobiology

    Cardona-Castro, Nora; Ortega-Rodríguez, Gustavo; Agudelo-Flórez, Piedad

    Abstract in English:

    Mucus and lymph smears collected from leprosy patients (9) and their household contacts (44) in the Caño Mochuelo Indian Reservation, Casanare, Colombia, were examined with monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) against Mycobacterium leprae. The individuals studied were: 5 borderline leprosy (BB) patients, 4 with a lepromatous leprosy (LL), all of whom were undergoing epidemiological surveillance after treatment and 44 household contacts: 21 of the LL and 23 contacts of the BB patients. The MoAb were reactive with the following M. leprae antigens: 65 kd heat shock protein, A6; soluble antigen G7 and complete antigen, E11. All the samples were tested with each of the MoAb using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique and 3,3 diaminobenzidine as chromogen. The patients and household contacts studied were all recorded as Ziehl-Neelsen stain negative. The MoAb which showed optimal reaction was G7, this MoAb permited good visualization of the bacilli. Five patients with BB diagnosis and one with LL were positive for G7; of the BB patients' household contacts, 9 were positive for G7; 7 of the LL patients' household contacts were positive for the same MoAb. MoAb G7 allowed the detection of bacillar Mycobacterium spp. compatible structures in both patients and household contacts. G7 permited the visualization of the complete bacillus and could be used for early diagnosis and follow-up of the disease in patients.
  • Adenosine Deaminase Activities in Sera, Lymphocytes and Granulocytes in Patients with Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Immunobiology

    Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Gurel, Mehmet Salih; Bulut, Vedat; Seyrek, Adnan; Ozdemir, Yuksel

    Abstract in English:

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) activities in sera, lymphocytes and granulocytes in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis were investigated and compared with control groups. Fifty patients and 50 healthy individuals were studied. The clinical diagnosis was parasitologically confirmed by culture and Giemsa stain. ADA activities were measured by colorimetric method. Serum ADA activities 37.80 ± 11.90, 18.28 ± 6.08 IU/L (p<0.0001), lymphocyte specific ADA activities 14.90 ± 7.42, 8.38 ± 7.42 U/mg protein (p = 0.04), granulocyte specific ADA activities 1.15 ± 0.73 , 1.09 ± 0.67 U/mg protein ( p>0.05) were found in patients and control groups, respectively. ADA activity increases in some infectious diseases were cell mediated immune mechanisms are dominant. In cutaneous leishmaniasis, lymphokine-mediated macrophage activity is the main effector mechanism. Increase in serum and lymphocyte ADA activities in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis may be dependent on and reflects the increase in phagocytic activity of macrophages and maturation of T-lymphocytes.
  • Humoral Immune Response to the Anti-malaria Vaccine SPf66 in the Colombian Atrato River Region Immunobiology

    Lopera, TM; Restrepo, M; Blair, S; García, HI

    Abstract in English:

    The immunogenicity of anti-malaria synthetic vaccine SPf66 was tested in a region of the Colombian middle Atrato river. The specific serum antibodies against SPf66 were quantified in vaccinees and placebo injected controls for a two-years period post-immunization. The frequency of individuals showing seroconversion of anti-SPf66 antibodies three months after completion of the immunization schedule was higher in vaccinees than in controls (52.7% and 25.5%, respectively, p<0.01). However, an over than four-fold increase of the specific anti-SPf66 antibody titers was observed only in 1.4% of vaccinees and 0.2% of the controls (p<0.01). The anti-SPf66 antibody titers augmented in vaccinees from first dose application to three months after the third dose, continuously decreasing thereafter to reach below baseline values two years after completion of the immunization schedule. The results show that SPf66 has very low immunogenicity and induces a short term humoral immune response (six months).
  • Immunodiagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas' Disease) Infection in Naturally Infected Dogs Diagnosis

    Lauricella, MA; Castañera, MB; Gürtler, RE; Segura, EL

    Abstract in English:

    This study reports on the standardization of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detecting specific antibodies anti-Trypanosoma cruzi in naturally infected dogs. Sera from 182 mongrel dogs of all ages residing in four rural villages in Santiago del Estero, Argentina, were collected in November 1994 and preserved in buffered neutral glycerin. All sera were tested by indirect hemagglutination test (IHAT), indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT), and ELISA using the flagellar fraction of T. cruzi as antigen. Dog sera from an area without vectorial transmission were used to calculate ELISA specificity and cut-off value. Eighty-six percent of sera had concordant results for all tests. All sera reactive for IHAT and IFAT were also reactive for ELISA, except in one case. Sera tested by ELISA when diluted 1:200 allowed a clearer division between non-reactive and reactive sera than when 1:100 with greater agreement among serologic techniques. The specificity of ELISA was 96.2%. Among 34 adult dogs with a positive xenodiagnosis, sensitivity was 94% both for ELISA and IFAT. ELISA is the first choice for screening purposes and one of the pair of techniques recommended for diagnostic studies in dog populations
  • Morphometric Analysis of McCoy Cells Inoculated with Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Rabies Diagnosis

    Nogueira, Yeda L

    Abstract in English:

    To demonstrate the potential of McCoy cells for the isolation of rabies virus from the cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid of a patient with a diagnosis of rabies, McCoy cells were inoculated with CSF from a patient with a clinical diagnosis of rabies and investigated in terms of morphometric aspect using the JAVA analysis system for the quantification of the increased size of infected cells compared to noninfected cells. The cells were also examined in terms of specific staining for the diagnosis of rabies by the method of Sellers for the observation of intracytoplasmic inclusions and by specific immunofluorescence staining for rabies virus. Infected cells showed changes in cell permeability and morphologic modifications which differed significantly compared to normal cells (P<0.001) when analyzed by the Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Intense activity of the endoplasmic reticulum was also observed, as indicated by the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusions visualized by specific staining. The present study demonstrated the isolation of rabies virus from the CSF of a patient with rabies, showing that McCoy cells can be used for the laboratory diagnosis of patients suspected to have rabies.
  • Failure of Albendazole as an Alternative Treatment of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Hamster Model Chemoterapy

    Travi, B; Osorio, Y
  • In vitro Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Methods for Neisseria gonorrhoeae Chemoterapy

    Castillo, Marta C de; Saab, Olga A de; Nader, Olga M de; Holgado, Aída P de Ruiz

    Abstract in English:

    At present, most Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing is done with ß-lactamase and agar dilution tests with common therapeutic agents. Generally, in bacteriological diagnosis laboratories in Argentina, study of antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae is based on ß-lactamase determination and agar dilution method with common therapeutic agents. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) has recently described a disk diffusion test that produces results comparable to the reference agar dilution method for antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae, using a dispersion diagram for analyzing the correlation between both techniques. We obtained 57 gonococcal isolates from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina. Antibiotic susceptibility tests using agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques were compared. The established NCCLS interpretive criteria for both susceptibility methods appeared to be applicable to domestic gonococcal strains. The correlation between the MIC's and the zones of inhibition was studied for penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, spectinomycin, cefotaxime, cephaloridine, cephalexin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and kanamycin. Dispersion diagrams showed a high correlation between both methods.
  • Adhesion and Co-stimulatory Molecules in the Pathogenesis of Hepatic and Intestinal Schistosomiasis Mansoni Pathology And Clinical Studies

    Jacobs, Werner; Marck, Eric Van

    Abstract in English:

    Infection of a susceptible host with the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni results in the formation of periovular granulomas and subsequent fibrosis in the target organs. Granulomogenesis and fibrogenesis are mediated by immunological events which require cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In this review, the role of adhesion and co-stimulatory molecules in the genesis of the schistosomal pathology (granulomogenesis and fibrogenesis) is outlined. These molecules provide essential immunological interactions not only for the initiation of granuloma formation but also for the maintenance and modulation of the schistosomal granuloma during chronic infection. Furthermore, the role of secreted soluble adhesion molecules in the different clinical forms and in the modulation of the schistosomal granuloma is discussed. Recent new insights into the role of adhesion molecules for the induction of pathology by other developmental stages of the parasite (other than eggs) will be presented.
  • Parasite Genotypically Related to a Monoxenous Trypanosomatid of Dog's Flea Causing Opportunistic Infection in an HIV Positive Patient Pathology And Clinical Studies

    Pacheco, Raquel S; Marzochi, Mauro CA; Pires, Marize Q; Brito, Célia MM; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa-Santos, Elizabeth GO

    Abstract in English:

    An HIV positive patient presenting a clinical picture of visceral leishmaniasis co-infection was submitted to a bone marrow aspiration after admission to hospital. Amastigotes forms were seen in the bone marrow aspirate and the parasite grew in culture as promastigotes. Molecular analyses showed that the flagellates isolated did not belong to the genera Leishmania, Trypanosoma or Sauroleishmania. It was not possible to establish infection in laboratory animals. In vitro culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages revealed the invasion of the host cells by the flagellates and their killing 48 hr after infection. Opportunistic infection with an insect trypanosomatid was suspected. Further hybridization analyses against a pannel of different monoxenous and heteroxenous trypanosomatids showed kDNA cross-homology with Leptomonas pulexsimulantis a trypanosomatid found in the dog's flea
  • Life Cycle and Reproductive Patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), under Laboratory Conditions General Biology

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Pinto, Zeneida Teixeira; Lima, Marli Maria

    Abstract in English:

    The life cycle and reproductive patterns of Triatoma rubrofasciata were studied along with laboratory conditions for the establishment of a prolific colony. The insects were divided into four groups: two of them were maintained at room temperature (20.5°C to 33°C and 85% ± 5% of relative humidity), the other two in a climatic chamber (CC) (temperature: 29°C, humidity: 80% ± 5%). The groups were fed weekly or fortnightly on Swiss mice. The females from the group kept in the CC and fed weekly had longer life span, as well as a higher number of eggs, fertile eggs and hatchings; the group kept in the CC and fed fortnightly had a shorter life span for the 1st, 2nd and 3rd instars and a lower mortality rate for all instars. It was concluded that a constant high temperature (CC at 29°C) is the most suitable condition for the maintenance of a colony of T. rubrofasciata regardless of the interval between repasts.
  • Ultrastructural Observations of the Vitelline Cells of Metamicrocotyla macracantha (Monogenea, Microcotylidae) General Biology

    Baptista-Farias, Maria de Fatima D; Kohn, Anna

    Abstract in English:

    An electron microscopic study of the vitelline follicles of Metamicrocotyla macracantha (Alexander, 1954) Koratha,1955 showed that they are composed of cells in different stages of development. The immature cells have a large nucleus, nucleolus, cytoplasm with free ribosomes and few mitochondria. The developing vitelline cells present granules which are small in the early stages, increasing with maturity. The mature cells have an extensive granular endoplasmic reticulum and droplets of shell-protein; with maturation, clusters of shell protein and yolk bodies are formed and released in the ciliated vitelline ducts. Vitelline development is continuous and all of the cellular stages involved can be found in each follicle.
  • Resistance to Starvation of Triatoma rubrofasciata (De Geer, 1773) under Laboratory Conditions (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) General Biology

    Rojas Cortéz, Mirko G; Gonçalves, Teresa Cristina M

    Abstract in English:

    The present work aims at learning the period of resistance to starvation (molting/death) of Triatoma rubrofasciata in different stages of development and the respective loss of weight until death. Eggs of specimens from the greater area of the city of São Luis in the State of Maranhão, Brazil, yielded approximately 300 nymphs. These nymphs were placed in labelled Borrel glasses, in which they were weekly fed on rats (Rattus norvegicus), until reaching the stage to be observed. The experiments were conducted in a climatic chamber regulated at 29 ± 1° C, 70% relative humidity and 12 hr photoperiod. The resistance to starvation increased according to the stage of development, except for adult bugs, whose results were similar to the 3rd stage nymphs. In all these development stages there was an abrupt loss of weight in the first week, followed by a gradual loss until death. Comparing this work with those of other authors, it was observed that T. rubrofasciata is among the less resistant triatomine species.
  • Massive Experimental Inoculation of Trypanosoma rangeli (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) in Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) and Mus musculus General Biology

    Braga, Marina Vianna; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha
  • Book Review

    Benenson, Abram S
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