Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: To determine the somatotype profile and level of physical activity in older adults. Methods: Seventy-two older adults were divided into two groups: frail (F = 33) and non-frail (NF = 39). Frailty status was determined using the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI), somatotype using the Heath and Carter method, and physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results: Somatotype analysis showed a predominance of endomorphy (F = 6.54 ± 1.65 vs NF = 6.12 ± 2.07 p ≤ 0.350) followed by mesomorphy (F = 3.44 ± 1.62 vs NF = 3.15 ± 2.19, p ≤ 0.531) and ectomorphy (F = 0.82 ± 0.99 vs NF = 0.95 ± 0.86 p ≤ 0.163), but no significant differences were observed between groups. Regarding PA, twenty-eight participants (84.7%) of the F group were classified as sedentary and insufficiently active and twenty-one (53.8%) of NF were classified as active and very active. This difference in PA explains the higher total energy expenditure found in NF (median 1,087.43; IAQ = 3,954.30) when compared to F (median = 0.0; IAQ = 462.64 p ≤ 0.001). The frailty group presented a higher endomorphic component as well as lower levels of physical activity and energy expenditure. Conclusion: Endomorphy was the predominant somatotype in F and NF older adults, followed by mesomorphy and actomorphy this profile can affect activities of daily living, functional capacity, and independent living and be associated with chronic diseases.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the levels of functional capacity and quality of life in older adult practitioners of câmbio. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytic study that evaluated men and women aged over 60 years, practitioners of câmbio in the Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The participants underwent a functional capacity assessment, composed of the sit- and stand-up and handgrip tests. In addition, quality of life was assessed through the WHOQOL-bref questionnaire. Results: Participants were 69 ± 6 years and had a body mass index of 27.9 ± 4.1 kg/m2. The participants practiced câmbio approximately 2.7 ± 1.2 times per week. Regarding the quality of life, results according to the domains of the questionnaire, it was observed that the participants presented values above 75% of the maximum possible. Regarding the performance in the sit- and stand-up test, participants had mean of 22 repetitions (95%CI: 20 to 23) and the average time for 5 repetitions was 7.1 seconds (6.8 to 7.5). In the grip strength test, participants had mean 35 kg (95%CI: 33.7 to 38.2). Conclusion: Older adult practitioners of câmbio presented satisfactory levels of quality of life and a good functional capacity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: Assess the effect of the performance order in the Concurrent Training (CT), Aerobic-Strength (AS), and Strength-Aerobic (SA), in the static balance, dynamic balance, and muscle strength in elderly people. Methods: The study involved 38 elderly people (men and women) aged 60 to 75 years old, divided into SA (n = 19) and AS (n = 19). Within 12 weeks, the aerobic training consisted of walking with intensity prescribed by the Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (6-20) and the strength training consisted of six exercises, with intensity controlled by Repetition Maximum training zones. Static balance (plantar pressure center area and displacement in bipedal support with eyes closed and open), dynamic balance (Timed Up and Go and Tandem Gait), and maximum dynamic strength of knee extension and bench press have been evaluated. For data analysis, Generalized Estimating Equations with Bonferroni's complimentary test have been used (α = 0.05). Results: For static and dynamic balance there hasn't been an effect on the 12 weeks of combined training, regardless of the performance order. Both groups maintained the balance variables within the intervention period. When it comes to strength, there has been a noticeable improvement in lower limbs (SA: 16%; AS: 11%; p < 0,001) and upper (SA: 22.0%; AS: 8.7%; p < 0.001), without any differences between the groups. Conclusion: So there is no difference between the order of performance of the CT in the variables of static and dynamic balance and strength of upper and lower limbs. Furthermore, after training, there have been significant improvements in the variables of strength and maintenance of static and dynamic balance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: To compare blood pressure (BP) responses among the different orders of execution of concurrent exercise (CE) sessions in controlled hypertensive older men. Methods: Fifteen older men (64 ± 5 years) participated in three randomized crossover sessions: control session (C), CE in aerobic-resistance order (AR), and resistance-aerobic order (RA). The CE was performed for 1 h, in which 30 min were for the resistance exercise with 5 exercises at 70% of 1RM and 30 min for the aerobic exercise on a treadmill with intensity corresponding to the first ventilatory threshold. Clinical systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and mean blood pressure (MBP) were measured at rest and over 2 h and 24 h after the session. For analysis, the Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) test was used with Bonferroni's complimentary test (α = 0.05). Results: The SBP decreased by 30 min after AR, while after RA we obtained reductions during 1 h after a session concerning rest. Between sessions, we found lower values in both CE compared to the C at 30 min, 45 min, and 90 min. In the RA there was a lower pressure in relation to the C at minute 60. The DBP reduced 30 min after the AR regarding the pre-session, however with no difference between sessions. The MBP was lower in relation to 30 min rest after AR. Among sessions, a pressure drop was observed in the AR compared to the C at 30 min and 45 min. Conclusion: We can conclude that the CE was effective in generating post-exercise hypotension regardless of the order in controlled hypertensive older men.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effects of different cadences of movement in ATI equipment on the psychophysiological parameters of older adults during the training session. Methods: Fifteen physically independent older men voluntarily participated in this study. Three 30-min exercise sessions were randomly distributed (5 min warm-up, 20 min exercise, 5 min cooldown), comprising exercises with different cadences low (L: 1 movement every 4 s), medium (M: 1 movement every 2 s), and high cadence (H: 1 movement per second); all with 30” of stimulus and 30” recovery using the following devices: elliptical, rower, surf/elliptical and leg press. Heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), rate of perceived recovery (RPR), and feeling scale (FS) were evaluated before and immediately after the three sessions. The difference between moments was analyzed by analysis of variance with a significance level of p < 0.0001). Results: Cadence L (56 ± 2 %) showed lower values of relative HR than M (70 ± 5%) and H (85 ± 5%), which also differed from each other. Significant differences (p < 0.01) for the area under the curve of RPE (L: 75 ± 26, M: 115 ± 16, H: 154 ± 4) and RPR (L: 173 ± 16, M: 139 ± 12, H: 97 ± 6; UA) were identified among the cadences. Statistical differences (p < 0.01) were found on RPE 30 min of the session (L: 4.2 ± 0.7 < M: 5.7 ± 0.7 < H: 7.4 ± 0.5). Conclusion: The performance of different cadences induced different psychophysiological responses in older adults undergoing exercise sessions in the ATI. The moderate cadence provided an increase in HR with values considered safe for the exercise and therefore can be recommended for this population when using this equipment.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: Based on the inverse relationship between the amount of weight lifted and the maximum number of repetitions (RM) performed, the intensity prescription method based on a percentage of maximum strength (%1RM) has been widely used in different populations, including older adults. However, considerable inter-individual variability in RM performed at a given %1RM has been reported in previous studies on this topic. Aim: To compare the number of repetitions performed at 60, 75, and 90%1RM in lower and upper limb resistance exercises in older adults. Methods: Fifteen men aged between 60 and 75 years performed two preliminary sessions (familiarization + and 1RM tests) and three experimental sessions (RM tests at 60, 75, and 90%1RM on knee extension and elbow flexion exercises). Movement velocity for each concentric and eccentric muscle action was 1.5-2 s. Statistical comparisons regarding the RM performed in each %1RM were tested using the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis. Results: The RM during knee extension exercise was significantly lower when compared to elbow flexion at 60% 1RM. On the other hand, the RM during knee extension exercise was significantly higher when compared to elbow flexion at 90%1RM. A similar number of repetitions at 75%1RM were performed in both exercises. Conclusion: Physically active older men can perform different RM at 60% and 90%1RM in knee extension and elbow flexion exercises, suggesting that the use of a specific RM range cannot be associated to the same percentage of 1RM in this individuals.