‘HOW IS MY TEACHING?’ TEACHING STYLES AMONG MEXICAN PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS

“COMO ESTÁ MEU ENSINO?”: ESTILOS DE ENSINO ENTRE PROFESSORES DE EDUCAÇÃO FÍSICA MEXICANOS

‘¿COMO ES MI ENSEÑANZA?: ESTILOS DE ENSEÑANZA ENTRE DOCENTES MEXICANOS DE EDUCACIÓN FÍSICA

Raúl Josué Nájera Longoria Oscar Nuñez Enriquez Ramón Candia Lujan Salvador Jesús López Alonzo Samuel Alfredo Islas Guerra Julio Cesar Guedea Delgado About the authors

Abstract

Purpose: To compare teaching styles (TS) and years of experience among Mexican Physical Education (PE) teachers. Method: 129 PE teachers from the City of Chihuahua completed the Teaching Styles in Physical Education questionnaire; average age: 42.3 (±9.6) years; average time teaching PE: 15.7 (±7.9) years. Subjects were divided in 6 groups according to years of experience: -6, 6-11, 12-17, 18-23, 24-29 and 30+. Results: no differences were found in traditional TS among groups, but all PE teachers showed high tendency to use that TS. The 30+ group showed values higher than 6-11 (p<0.05). Conclusion: There is a tendency to implement a traditional teaching style, although years of experience allow PE teachers to use teaching styles that fit students’ needs and their interest to participate in Physical Education classes.

Keywords
Physical Education and Training; Teaching; School Teachers; Professional practice

Resumo

Objetivo: comparar estilos de ensino (EE) e anos de experiência entre professores de Educação Física (EF) mexicanos. Método: 129 professores de EF da cidade de Chihuahua, média de idade: 42,3 anos (± 9,6) anos; experiência como professor de EF: 15,7 (± 7,9) anos; completaram o Questionário sobre EE em EF. Os sujeitos foram divididos em seis grupos de acordo com os anos de experiência: - 6, 6-11, 12-17, 18-23, 24-29 e 30+. Resultados: não foram encontradas diferenças em EE tradicional por grupo, mas todos os professores de EF mostraram tendência elevada a usar esse EE. O grupo 30+ apresentou valores superiores ao grupo 6-11 entre estilo cognitivo e escala criativa (p <0,05). Conclusão: há uma tendência a implementar o EE tradicional, embora os anos de experiência permitam aos professores de EF usar um EE ajustado às necessidades e interesses dos alunos em participar do curso de EF.

Palavras-chave
Educação Física e Treinamento; Ensino; Professores escolares; Pratica profissional

Resumen

Propósito: comparar estilos de enseñanza (EE) y años de experiencia entre docentes de Educación Física (EF) mexicanos. Método: 129 maestros de EF de la ciudad de Chihuahua, MX, edad: 42,3 (±9,6) años, experiencia como maestro de EF: 15,7 (±7,9) años, completaron el cuestionario de Estilos de Enseñanza en Educación Física. Los sujetos fueron divididos en seis grupos de acuerdo con los años de experiencia: -6, 6-11, 12-17, 18-23, 24-29 y 30+. Resultados: sin diferencias encontradas en grupo de EE tradicional, sin embargo, todos los docentes de EF mostraron alta tendencia al uso de este EE. El grupo de 30+ mostró valores mayores que el grupo 6-11 entre estilo cognitivo y escala creativa (p<0,05). Conclusión: hay una tendencia en implementar el EE tradicional, aunque los años de experiencia permiten que docentes de EF utilicen un EE ajustándose a las necesidades e intereses de los estudiantes en participar en la clase de EF.

Palabras Clave
Educación y entrenamiento físico; Enseñanza; Maestros; Práctica profesional

1 INTRODUCTION

Over the years a discourse built in Mexican society within the physical education (PE) context has mainly focused in utilizing a pedagogical approach based in the student-teacher power relationship, this is also known as a top-down approach (LEYVA PIÑA; GÓNGORA SOBERANES; RODRÍGUEZ LAGUNAS, 2004LEYVA PIÑA, Marco Antonio; GÓNGORA SOBERANES, Janette; RODRÍGUEZ LAGUNAS, Javier. El paradójico Sindicato Nacional de Trabajadores de la Educación. El Cotidiano, v.20, n. 128, p. 53-64, nov./dic.2004.; MÉXICO, 2017MÉXICO. Secretaria De Educación Publica (SEP). Aprendizajes claves para la educación integral. Educación física. Educación básica. Plan y programas de estudio, orientaciones didácticas y sugerencias de evaluación. Ciudad de México: Secretaría de Educación Pública, 2017.). According to Kirk (2010KIRK, David. Physical education futures. London: Routledge, 2010.; 2013KIRK, David. Educational value and models-based practice in physical education. Educational Philosophy and Theory, v. 45, n. 9, p. 973-986, Apr. 2013.) a top-down approach, in one hand, is based on what teachers are expected to do, having complete responsibility and control over the creation of the class environment and the different ways to deliver the content planned for the class, on the other hand, students are expected to follow the instructions given by teachers. Though, Castillejo Olán (2017CASTILLEJO OLÁN, Rubén. Estrategia de superación para propiciar el desarrollo de las habilidades pedagógicas profesionales, a partir de la dirección de la clase, en los profesores de Educación Física en su etapa de Adiestramiento Laboral. 2017. Tesis (Maestría en Didáctica de la Educación Física Contemporánea) - Facultad de Cultura Física, Instituto Superior de Cultura Física, [s.l.], 2017.) mentions that a characteristic has been developed as result of the dominant discourse built around the PE curriculum in Mexican society, identifying a deficiency in the planning process performed by teachers, including the use of different teaching styles.

According to Delgado Noguera (2015DELGADO NOGUERA, Miguel Ángel. Los estilos de enseñanza de la Educación Física y el Deporte a través de 40 años de vida profesional. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, n. 28, p. 240-247, dic./mar. 2015.) mentioning that even though there is a strong connection between the pedagogical approach utilized by teachers in order to help students match their interest, teaching styles implemented within the class are another important aspect to consider. Since, in diverse ways the different teaching styles can be considered as a pedagogical bridge between the approach utilized, teachers and students forming an appropriate method to deliver the content planned for the class. However, is important to say that in many cases teachers can utilize a teaching style that only matches their interest and identity within their teaching personality. This is consistent with Luguetti; Aranda; Nuñez Enriquez and Oliver (2018LUGUETTI, Carla; ARANDA, Raquel; NUÑEZ ENRIQUEZ, Oscar; OLIVER, Kimberly. Developing teachers’ pedagogical identities through a community of practice: learning to sustain the use of a student-centered inquiry as curriculum approach. Sport, Education and Society, v.24, n. 8, p. 855-866, Feb./May 2018.) describing that beliefs, costumes and values are relevant aspects shaping teachers’ pedagogical identities, and these identities can either facilitate or hinder their abilities to implement a variety of pedagogical approaches including teaching styles. Since, an aspect that teachers consider while utilizing a specific teaching style is to feel comfortable and secure enough to deliver the content planned (COTHRAN et al., 2005COTHRAN, Donetta; et al. A cross-cultural investigation of the use of teaching styles. Research quarterly for exercise and sport, v.76, n. 2, p. 193-201, Jul. 2005.; KULINNA; COTHRAN, 2003KULINNA, Pamela Hodges; COTHRAN, Donetta. Physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of various teaching styles. Learning and Instruction, v.13, n. 6, p. 597-609, Dec.2003.). Although, another aspect that PE teachers consider as tool is supported on their years of experience, because, teachers with extensive experience tend to utilize an approach and teaching style that fits students’ interest, motivation and learning (ARMOUR; YELLING, 2004ARMOUR, Kathleen; YELLING, Martin. Continuing professional development for experienced physical education teachers: Towards effective provision. Sport, education and society, v.9, n.1, p. 95-114, 2004.; OLIVER; KIRK, 2015OLIVER, Kimberly; KIRK, David. Girls, gender and physical education: An activist approach. London: Routledge , 2015.; ZAPATERO; GONZÁLEZ RIVERA; CAMPOS IZQUIERDO, 2018ZAPATERO, Jorge. Agustín; GONZÁLEZ RIVERA, María Dolores; CAMPOS IZQUIERDO, Antonio. Consolidação das metodologias ativas em educação física nas escolas de ensino médio. Movimento, v.24, n. 2, p. 509-526, abr./jun. 2018.). Therefore, it can be said that teachers seek to implement different ways that facilitate students’ engagement, while utilizing a teaching style that also fits their abilities, interest, and cultural background.

Moreover, it seems that the spectrum of teaching styles varies, for instance, Mosston and Ashworth (2002MOSSTON, Muska; ASHWORTH, Sara. Teaching physical education. 2nd. ed. online. [S.l.]: Spectrum Institute. 2002.) categorized ten different teaching styles; command, practice, reciprocal, self-check, inclusion, guided discovery, problem solving, individual, learner initiated, and self-teaching, which ultimate goal is to provide a systematic process to deliver the content planned. Similarly, Contreras, De La Torre and Velázquez (2001CONTRERAS, Ricardo Onofre; DE LA TORRE, Eduardo; VELÁZQUEZ, Roberto. Iniciación deportiva. Madrid: Síntesis, 2001.) categorized seven teaching styles; direct, task development, peer-teaching, small-sided, individual, problem solving, creativity and guided-discovery. Both authors portrayed in opposite ends of their teaching styles spectrums, in one end, a more ‘teacher-centered’ style, named command style and direct teaching style respectively. On the other end, a more ‘student-centered’, named self-teaching style and guided discovery, although, in between these ends, there are other styles offering its own decision-making structure. These spectrums, seek to influence the motivational climate within the PE class, utilizing a way fitting the context, cultural background and years of experience PE teachers hold.

In this regard, this premise has been used to categorize these different teaching styles into six groups; traditional, individualized, participative, socialize, cognitive and creative development (DELGADO NOGUERA, 1991DELGADO NOGUERA, Miguel Ángel. Los estilos de enseñanza en la Educación Física: Propuesta para una reforma de la enseñanza. Granada: Universidad de Granada, 1991.; 2015DELGADO NOGUERA, Miguel Ángel. Los estilos de enseñanza de la Educación Física y el Deporte a través de 40 años de vida profesional. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, n. 28, p. 240-247, dic./mar. 2015.). For instance, the traditional teaching group holds the direct, command and task development teaching styles, since these are based solely in the teachers’ instruction. The individualized group gathers the self-check, self-teaching and individual, promoting a ‘self-learning’ type of interaction. The participative groups hold the reciprocal, peer-teaching and small-sided, encouraging collaboration among participants. The socialize includes the practice and inclusion being a way to support the social aspects of interaction. The cognitive group gathers problem solving and guided discovery, promoting individual thinking. Lastly, the creative development groups hold the learner initiated and creative style, encouraging an original way to respond to a given situation.

As well, Delgado Noguera (2015DELGADO NOGUERA, Miguel Ángel. Los estilos de enseñanza de la Educación Física y el Deporte a través de 40 años de vida profesional. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, n. 28, p. 240-247, dic./mar. 2015.) argues that despite the fact that teaching styles are ways of bridging and connecting with students’ interest and motivation to engage, in this case in physical activity, sometimes can seem rigid in form. This is not because of the teaching style itself but is related to teachers’ pedagogical style (LABILLOIS; LAGACÉ‐SÉGUIN, 2009LABILLOIS, James; LAGACÉ-SÉGUIN, Daniel. Does a good fit matter? Exploring teaching styles, emotion regulation, and child anxiety in the classroom. Early Child Development and Care, v.179, n. 3, p. 303-315, Apr. 2009.). Although, teaching styles are another way to support teachers’ pedagogical styles and abilities to create an appropriate environment that is critical and reflexive. This is consistent with Fernandez-Río; Caledrón; Hortiguela Alcalá; Pérez-Pueyo and Aznar Cebamanos, (2016FERNANDEZ-RÍO, Javier; CALDERÓN, Antonio; HORTIGÜELA ALCALÁ, David; PÉREZ-PUEYO, Ángel; AZNAR CEBAMANOS, Monica. Modelos pedagógicos en educación física: consideraciones teórico-prácticas para docentes. Revista Española de Educación Física y Deportes, n. 413, p. 55-75, mar. 2016.) arguing that a teaching style is a way to create a learning structure in order to achieve significant learning among students. However, it seems that there is an argument in regards the effectiveness of teaching styles. Several studies consider that the best teaching style is that one that allows teachers to feel comfortable with his/her practice (ZAPATERO AYUSO, 2017ZAPATERO AYUSO, Jorge Agustin. Beneficios de los estilos de enseñanza y las metodologías centradas en el alumno en educación física. E-balonmano. com: Revista de Ciencias del Deporte, v.13, n. 3, p. 237-250, ago./dic.2017.; GUEDEA DELGADO, 2010GUEDEA DELGADO, Julio Cesar. Análisis de los Estilos de Enseñanza utilizados por los profesores de Educación Física del nivel primaria en la ciudad de Chihuahua. 2010. Tesis (Doctorado en Actividad Física y Salud) -Universidad de Granada, Granada, España, 2010.; JAAKKOLA; WATT, 2011JAAKKOLA, Timo; WATT, Anthony. Finnish physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of Mosston and Ashworth’s teaching styles. Journal of teaching in physical education, v.30, n. 3, p. 248-262, Jul. 2011.; SYRMPAS; DIGELIDIS, 2014SYRMPAS, Loannis.; DIGELIDIS, Nikolaos. Physical education student teachers' experiences with and perceptions of teaching styles. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, v.14, n. 1, p. 52-59, Mar.2014.). Contrary, other studies suggest that the best teaching style is the one that fits students’ interest and generates motivation to engage in the content planned (DELGADO NOGUERA; MEDINA; VICIANA, 1996DELGADO NOGUERA, Miguel Ángel; MEDINA, J.; VICIANA, J. The teaching styles in the pre-service of physical education teachers. In: CARREIRO DA COSTA, F.; DINIZ, J. A.; CARVALHO, L. M.; ONOFRE, M. S. (org.). Research on teaching and research on teacher education: proceedings of the Lisbon AIESEP International Seminar, 1996. Cruz Quebrada, Portugal: FMH, 2000. p. 21-24.; GONZÁLEZ-PEITEADO; PINO-JUSTE, 2014GONZÁLEZ-PEITEADO, Margarita; PINO-JUSTE, Margarita. Aproximación a las representaciones y creencias del alumnado de Magisterio sobre los estilos de enseñanza. Educación XXI, v.17, n. 1, p. 83-110, 2014.; ISAZA VALENCIA; HENAO LÓPEZ, 2012ISAZA VALENCIA, Laura; HENAO LÓPEZ, Gloria Cecilia. Actitudes-Estilos de enseñanza: Su relación con el rendimiento académico. International Journal of Psychological Research, v.5, n. 1, p. 133-141,ene./jun. 2012.). However, Morgan, Kingstonand Sproule (2005MORGAN, Kevin; KINGSTON, Kieran; SPROULE, John. Effects of different teaching styles on the teacher behaviours that influence motivational climate and pupils' motivation in physical education. European physical education review, v.11, n. 3, p. 257-285, Oct. 2005.) mentions that there isn’t a better teaching style going over the others, since it is important to consider several factors that are associated to the context, teachers’, and students’ as a way to develop a connection between all these elements.

According to Fernandez-Río; Calderón; Hortiguela Alcalá; Pérez-Pueyo and Aznar Cebamanos (2016FERNANDEZ-RÍO, Javier; CALDERÓN, Antonio; HORTIGÜELA ALCALÁ, David; PÉREZ-PUEYO, Ángel; AZNAR CEBAMANOS, Monica. Modelos pedagógicos en educación física: consideraciones teórico-prácticas para docentes. Revista Española de Educación Física y Deportes, n. 413, p. 55-75, mar. 2016.) when teaching styles are used in a balanced way and none of them are juxtaposed over the others, it favors a positive development among students’, facilitating their motivation, interpersonal relationships, learning and autonomy. At the same time, it also encourages teachers to find an optimal way to create a positive learning environment, despite the discomfort created while utilizing a teaching style that goes against their teaching identity. As such, the purpose of this research was to identify what is the current situation in regards of teaching practice and predominant teaching style among elementary physical education teachers from the City of Chihuahua, Mexico and its relationship with years of experience.

2 METHOD

This was a comparative research, utilizing a transversal analysis approach, in order to establish comparison based on PE teachers’ years of experience and the use of the different teaching styles in elementary physical education classes in the City of Chihuahua, Mexico.

2.1 PARTICIPANTS

Participants of this research project were 129 elementary PE teachers from the City of Chihuahua, Mexico (n=55 females and 74 males). The average age was of 42 years old ± 9.9, among women was 42.2 ± 9.7 and males 41.7 ± 10.3. In regards, their teaching years of experience the average was 15.7 ± 9.9 years of experience, women had an average of 16.3 ± 7.5 and males 15 ± 8.6. Inclusion criteria involved being PE teachers from the City of Chihuahua at elementary level. Permits and authorizations were requested through the Chihuahua Board of Education. Once the procedures required for this study were explained and authorized, the questionnaire was applied and answered.

2.2 PROCEDURE

This research project was approved by the Research Committee Board of the Faculty of Physical Culture Sciences at the Autonomous University of Chihuahua. It included presenting the project to the Chihuahua Board of Education, the Physical Education department heads, and the Physical Education curriculum supervisors from the different school districts in the City of Chihuahua, Mexico. It was also presented to all PE teachers (N=182) during a school district scheduled meeting. From the total of PE teachers’, the City of Chihuahua holds, only 129 teachers accepted an open invitation to be part of the project. Signing a voluntary consent to be included as participants. Participants were divided according years of experience as PE teachers (<6; 6-11; 12-17; 18-23; 24-29; >30) in accordance with their professional life expectancy (FARIAS, 2018FARIAS, Gelcemar Oliveira et al. Ciclos da trajetória profissional na carreira docente em Educação Física. Movimento, v.24, n.2, p.441-454, 2018.; HUBERMAN, 2000HUBERMAN, Michel. O ciclo de vida profissional dos professores. In: NÓVOA, A. (org.) Vida de professores. Porto: Porto Editora, 2000. p. 31-62.) and in teacher’s career phases (GONÇALVES, 2009GONÇALVES, José Alberto. Desenvolvimento profissional e carreira docente: fases da carreira, currículo e supervisão. Sísifo: Revista de Ciências da Educação, n. 8, p. 23-36, jan./abr. 2009.).

2.3 EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

All participants completed the questionnaire Estilos de enseñanza en educación física [Teaching Styles in Physical Education] (MERINO-BARRERO; VALERO-VALENZUELA; MORENO-MURCIA, 2017MERINO-BARRERO, Juan Andrés; VALERO-VALENZUELA, Alfonso; MORENO-MURCIA, Juan Antonio. Análisis psicométrico del cuestionario estilos de enseñanza en educación física (EEEF). Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte / International Journal of Medicine and Science of Physical Activity and Sport, v.17, n. 66, p. 225-241, jun. 2017.). The questionnaire has values of internal consistency and homogeneity of 0.82 and Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.79. It included 20 items divided in 5 categories: traditional, individualized, participative and social, cognitive and creative. The questionnaire was applied during a scheduled meeting that each school district held separately. Although, the data was collected over a period of three months.

2.4 DATA ANALYSIS

The descriptive statistics were expressed as a median for each variable. Analysis of the variance (ANOVA) and the Post Hoc with Bonferroni correction test were carried out to determine the effects for each Teaching Style considering years of experience in PE class. The significance was set at an alpha level of 0.05 in SPSS version 18.

3 RESULTS

Median, quartiles, and comparison between groups are reported in Figure 1: Contrast post-hoc analysis suggests no differences between the Traditional teaching style scales. However, there is a growing tendency as years of experience increase. Additionally, all the groups are above the mean, which represents a high tendency to the traditional teaching style within the physical education class.

Figure 1 -
Comparison within groups in the Traditional teaching style scale.

Figure 2 shows higher values within the Individualized teaching style scale in the 30+ group compared to the 6-11, 18-23 and 24-29 years of working experience. Similar performance occurred in the Participatory and Social teaching style scale (Figure 3) and this includes lower values of this scale on group 24-29 compared to the 12-17 group.

Figure 2 -
Comparison within groups in the Individualizer teaching style scale. *Statistical differences to the 30+ group.

Figure 3 -
Comparison within groups in the Participatory and Social teaching style scale. * Statistical differences to the 30+ group. # Differences to the 12-17 group.

Analysis of the Cognitive teaching style scale data it is presented in Figure 4, all groups are equal with values reported below the mean except the 30+ group, which it is higher than 6-11 group.

Figure 4 -
Comparison within groups in the Cognitive teaching style scale. *Statistical differences to the 30+ group

In relationship to the Creative teaching style scale as the fifth groups of teaching styles it was observed that values are just below the score 2 out of 5 points. This scale measured the creativity teaching style during PE class, similarly, the 30+ group showed higher values than both 6-11 and 24-29 years of experience groups. (Figure 5).

Figure 5 -
Comparison within groups in the Creative teaching style scale. *Statistical differences to the 30+ group

4 DISCUSSION

The acceptance in utilizing different teaching styles it seems to be global, including physical education teachers in Mexican contexts. It is relevant to say the influence context and cultural background a society has, plays an important aspect to consider while implementing a teaching style, since teachers have a tendency to implement one that makes them feel comfortable (LUGUETTI; ARANDA; NUÑEZ ENRIQUEZ; OLIVER, 2018LUGUETTI, Carla; ARANDA, Raquel; NUÑEZ ENRIQUEZ, Oscar; OLIVER, Kimberly. Developing teachers’ pedagogical identities through a community of practice: learning to sustain the use of a student-centered inquiry as curriculum approach. Sport, Education and Society, v.24, n. 8, p. 855-866, Feb./May 2018.). This is consistent with Cuellar-Moreno (2016CUELLAR-MORENO, Maria. Effects of the command and mixed styles on student learning in primary education. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, v.16, n. 4, p. 1159-1168, Nov. 2016.) mentioning that it’s important for teachers in dance to feel comfortable utilizing a teaching style that fits their teaching identity in order to portray the specific need in dance (CUELLAR-MORENO, 2016CUELLAR-MORENO, Maria. Effects of the command and mixed styles on student learning in primary education. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, v.16, n. 4, p. 1159-1168, Nov. 2016.). Similarly, Abad Robles; Gímenez Fuentes-Guerra; Robles Rodríguez and Rodríguez López (2011ABAD ROBLES, Manuel Tomás; GÍMENEZ FUENTES-GUERRA, Francisco Javier; ROBLES RODRÍGUEZ, José; RODRÍGUEZ LÓPEZ, José María. Perfil, experiencia y métodos de enseñanza de los entrenadores de jóvenes futbolistas en la provincia de Huelva. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, n. 20, p. 21-25, nov./mayo 2011.) mentioned that this also true in a sport-based program, where teachers/coaches have implemented a teaching style that allows them to feel comfortable and most importantly to be in control of the situation. This is because in some cases teachers are expected to have an active participation, thus, having a feeling that everything is under their control is an aspect to consider as part of their teaching strategy (AELTERMAN; VANSTEENKISTE; VAN KEER; DE MEYER; VAN DEN BERGHE; HAERENS, 2013AELTERMAN, Nathalie; VANSTEENKISTE, Maarten; VAN KEER, Hilde; DE MEYER, Jotie; VAN DEN BERGHE, Lynn; HAERENS, Leen. Development and evaluation of a training on need-supportive teaching in physical education: Qualitative and quantitative findings. Teaching and Teacher Education, v.29, p. 64-75, Jan./Sept. 2013.).

Physical Education Teacher Education programs tend to have a similar situation. Where faculty members utilize a teaching style that fit their abilities, context allows them to feel in control of the situation (CARRERAS DUAIGÜES, 2010CARRERAS DUAIGÜES, José Carlos. Metodología de enseñanza utilizada en la enseñanza del tenis durante la etapa de iniciación. Retos: nuevas tendencias en educación física, deporte y recreación, n. 18, p. 60-65, jul./dic.2010.; GUEDEA DELGADO, 2010GUEDEA DELGADO, Julio Cesar. Análisis de los Estilos de Enseñanza utilizados por los profesores de Educación Física del nivel primaria en la ciudad de Chihuahua. 2010. Tesis (Doctorado en Actividad Física y Salud) -Universidad de Granada, Granada, España, 2010.). Despite the fact that it’s becoming a highly accepted recommendation to implement a non-traditional teaching style, that can facilitate student’s interest and allows them to engage, in this case in physical activity. Although, it is important to recognize that the variety of teaching styles present similarities and differences that can either facilitate or hinder teachers’ abilities, but teachers tend to utilize a teaching style that allows them to feel comfortable.

Fanarioti (2014FANARIOTI, Maria. The influence of direct and indirect teaching method in the development of selected technical skills in the sport of football to children aged 12-14 years old. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, v.14, n. 3, p. 413, Sept.2014.), mentions that despite the comfortableness that teachers present while implementing or utilizing a teaching style that fits their teaching identities, that are indirect factors that influence the teaching environment. She mentions that there are indirect teaching ways that affect the utilized teaching style. For instance, utilizing a teaching style such as the individualized, sometimes novice teachers tend to consider implementing a variety of teaching styles within their practice, however, this affects their decision-making. Because sometimes the adequate teaching style and forms to measure the effectiveness of this teaching style becomes a problem that experienced teachers tend to solve more precisely (DUDLEY; OKELY; PEARSON; COTTON, 2011DUDLEY, Dean; OKELY, Anthony; PEARSON, Philip; COTTON, Wayne. A systematic review of the effectiveness of physical education and school sport interventions targeting physical activity, movement skills and enjoyment of physical activity. European Physical Education Review, v.17, n. 3, p. 353-378, Nov. 2011.; KULINNA; COTHRAN, 2003KULINNA, Pamela Hodges; COTHRAN, Donetta. Physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of various teaching styles. Learning and Instruction, v.13, n. 6, p. 597-609, Dec.2003.).

Physical education can be considered a significant form of human development; thus, it can be pertinent to say that PE teachers can be encouraged to understand the implications of the different teaching style utilized or overused. Because there is little evidence regarding PE teaching styles in Mexico. In this way, Cognitive centered teaching style can be described as a personality dimension which influence attitudes and values, allowing us to demonstrate our results are above the scale median, thus indicating a positive influence of this factor over the participants (RIDING; CHEEMA, 1991RIDING, Richard.; CHEEMA, Indra. Cognitive styles: an overview and integration. Educational psychology, v.11, n. 3-4, p. 193-215, 1991.).

Cognitive teaching style it’s considered as an autonomous/independent way to promote self-learning, thus PE teachers with high development on this structure tend to become more autonomy-supportive and this would boost student’s needs and diminish their frustration towards PE class. This overall pattern was found in a recent report by Cheon; Reeve and Song (2019CHEON, Sung Hyeong; REEVE, Jhonmarshall; SONG, Yong-Gwan. Recommending goals and supporting needs: An intervention to help physical education teachers communicate their expectations while supporting students’ psychological needs. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, v.41, p. 107-118, Mar. 2019.) conducting an intervention program in PE using autonomy-supported structure, showing high levels of motivation, physical self-concept, and health self-care compared with PE teachers in no intervention conditions. This is relevant because it provides an understanding of the influence these provide to a teaching context, and that can either facilitate or hinder students’ interest, motivation and learning.

Although there is a little controversy regarding learning teaching techniques, because among teachers’ responsibilities are not to take literality what students’ want, but to identify what are their pedagogical gaps and create certain ways challenging enough for students to learn significantly (DEMBER, 1965DEMBER, William. The new look in motivation. American Scientist, v. 53, n. 4, p. 409-427, Dec.1965.; VAUGHN; BAKER, 2001VAUGHN, Lisa; BAKER, Raymond. Teaching in the medical setting: balancing teaching styles, learning styles and teaching methods. Medical teacher, v.23, n. 6, p. 610-612, 2001.).

Lastly, creative teaching style encourage students to think independently and offers the possibility to express freely. Although, our results show a lack of this component, what this means is that PE teachers are not allowing students to choose or express their interest in a PE class. However, the group with 30+ years of experience shows a tendency to stimulate creative ways among students. This is contrary with what was reported by Zhang (2007ZHANG, Li-fang. Do personality traits make a difference in teaching styles among Chinese high school teachers? Personality and Individual differences, v.43, n. 4, p. 669-679, Sept.2007.) since she identified than less experienced teachers tend to use more frequently the creative output style than experienced teachers´.

5 CONCLUSION

A dominant discourse built within physical activity and physical education contexts is a prevailing top-down approach. What this means is that teachers are expected to take full responsibility and control over the environment and content planned for the class. This tendency is true among Mexican PE teachers utilizing a traditional teaching style that allows them to have the control over the class environment regardless years of experience. However, it is important to say that experience provides a privileged opportunity for them because it brings the chance to diversify and utilize an appropriate teaching style that fits the students’ needs and interest. This is consistent with other studies mentioning that teachers should implement an enjoyable, fun and attractive teaching style that fits the students’ interest, motivation, and learning in physical education contexts.

The analysis of these aspects is supported by a strong line of research arguing that the benefits provided by years of experience among PE teachers develops an awareness to seek improvement, thus, an interest in creating, providing, and building-in an appropriate class environment. This awareness gathers different aspects such as the quality in students’ learning experience, using adequate ways to deliver the content planned for the class. Since experience is a process that can be only built with the willingness of individuals, in this case, among PE teachers. However, 30 or more years of experience are not common to be found in a Mexican context, because, educational policies allow teachers to retire once they have reached 30 years of tenure or 65 years of age. As such, despite the positive effect years of experience provides to a teaching context, Mexican teachers face a challenge, since there is a lack of professional development to be reached out. Therefore, it can be said that it is important to consider as a viable option way to expand the pedagogy that PE teacher utilize to deliver the content planned, but at the same time to provide ways how they can understand in-depth the similarities differences between teaching styles and the influence a cultural background provides to implement them.

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NOTAS EDITORIAIS

  • FINANCIAMENTO

    O presente trabalho foi realizado com apoio da Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua Mexico.
  • EDITORES DE SEÇÃO

    Alex Branco Fraga*, Elisandro Schultz Wittizorecki*, Ivone Job*, Mauro Myskiw*, Raquel da Silveira* *Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Escola de Educação Física, Fisioterapia e Dança, Porto Alegre, RS, Brasil

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    18 Nov 2020
  • Date of issue
    2020

History

  • Received
    08 Jan 2020
  • Accepted
    19 June 2020
  • Published
    20 Aug 2020
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