We provide cytogenetic data for the threatened species Gymnogeophagus setequedas, and the first record of that species collected in the Iguaçu River, within the Iguaçu National Park’s area of environmental preservation, which is an unexpected occurrence for that species. We verified a diploid number of 2n = 48 chromosomes (4sm + 24st + 20a) and the presence of heterochromatin in centromeric and pericentromeric regions, which are conserved characters in the Geophagini. The multiple nucleolar organizer regions observed in G. setequedas are considered to be apomorphic characters in the Geophagini, whereas the simple 5S rDNA cistrons located interstitially on the long arm of subtelocentric chromosomes represent a plesiomorphic character. Because G. setequedas is a threatened species that occurs in lotic waters, we recommend the maintenance of undammed environments within its known area of distribution.
Chromosomes; Conservation; Iguaçu River; Karyotype; Paraná River