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First records of Pantophthalmidae (Insecta: Diptera) for the state of Tocantins, Brazil

Abstract

Pantophthalmidae (Diptera) are recorded exclusively in the Neotropical Region. Despite the large size of adults, their species are often rare and poorly represented in entomological collections. Only two genera and 20 species are known, of which 12 are recorded in the five regions of Brazil. In the North region, the family is reported from all states, except in Tocantins. The present work provides the first records of the family for Tocantins, expanding the distribution of two species, Pantophthalmus kerteszianus (Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.) and P. tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x.. Both species are recorded for the first time in the Cerrado biome. In addition, we provide photographs of the species and a distribution map.

Keywords:
Taxonomy; Biodiversity; Timber flies; Giant flies; Cerrado biome

INTRODUCTION

Pantophthalmidae are a small family of Diptera also known as timber flies or giant flies. They are robust flies, with adult body varying from 18 to 45 mm (Woodley, 2009Woodley, N.E. 2009. Pantophthalmidae (Pantophthalmid Flies). In: Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M.; Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera. Volume 1. Ottawa, NRC Research Press. p. 513-515.). The family is found only in the Neotropical Region, with only two genera and 20 valid species: PantophthalmusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x., with 19 species and Opetiops Enderlein, 1921, with only one species (Val, 1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164.; Papavero, 2009Papavero, N. 2009. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Pantophthalmidae. Neotropical Diptera, 19: 1-11.). Of these, 11 species of Pantophthalmus and Opetiops alienus (Hermann, 1916) occur in Brazil, distributed in the five major regions of the country. Currently, eight species of Pantophthalmidae are reported from the states of the North region of Brazil, however, no records of the family have been reported from the state of Tocantins so far (Barros et al., 2019Barros, L.M.; Soares, M.M.M. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2019. First records of Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera) from Roraima state, Brazil. Check List, 15: 169-174. https://doi.org/10.15560/15.1.169.
https://doi.org/10.15560/15.1.169...
; Fachin, 2023Fachin, D.A. 2023. Pantophthalmidae. In: Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. Available: Available: http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/1980 . Access: 22/03/2023.
http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobr...
).

Pantophtalmids have economic importance due to the xylophagous habit of the larvae, which feed mainly on large trees. In Brazil, at least 13 native species are hosts of the family: Araucaria brasiliana A. Rich., Chlorophora tinctoria (L.) Gaudich., Colubrina rufa (Vell.) Reissek., Erythrina falcata Benth., Esenbeckia leiocarpa Engl., Lonchocarpus spruceanus Benth., Mimosa scabrella Benth., Nectandra lanceolata Ness & Mart., Nectandra sp., Persea pyrifolia (D. Don) Spreng, Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth., Schizolobium parahyba (Vell.) S.F. Blake, and Tachigali multijuga Benth (Lunz, 2021Lunz, A.M. 2021. Moscas-da-madeira. In: Lemes, P.G. & Zanuncio, J.C. (Orgs.). Novo manual de pragas florestais brasileiras. Montes Claros, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. p. 646-655.). The North region has the highest number of species of Pantophthalmidae reported and this is possibly due to the wide diversity of tree species in the Amazon Forest biome (Carrera & d’Andretta, 1957Carrera, M. & d’Andretta, M.A.V. 1957. Sobre a família Pantophtalmidae (Diptera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 10: 253-330.).

Pujol-Luz & Morgado (2018Pujol-Luz, J.R. & Morgado, G.S. 2018. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 58(28): 1-3. https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.28.
https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018....
) reported only three species of Pantophthalmidae in the Cerrado, the predominant biome in Tocantins: Pantophthalmus planiventris (Wiedemann, 1821) in Anapólis, state of Goiás, P. vittatus (Wiedemann, 1828) in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, and P. pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) in Brasília and Águas Claras, Federal District. Here, we recorded for the first time P. kertezianus (Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.) and P. tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x. in this biome by reporting them for the first time from Tocantins.

MATERIAL & METHODS

The examined specimens are deposited at the Coleção de Entomologia da Universidade Federal do Tocantins (CEUFT) and were collected in the municipalities of Colinas do Tocantins, Paraíso, and Porto Nacional, both located in the state of Tocantins, North region of Brazil.

The specimens were identified with Val’s (1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164.) key and compared with photos of the types deposited at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany (MfN) (Fig. 2) and also with additional material from the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). Images of the adults were obtained through a Leica M165C stereomicroscope with a coupled camera. Editing of photos and plates were done with Adobe Photoshop. For plotting the distribution of each species on a map, we checked all the literature known to us, providing the approximate coordinates based on the center of the locations using Google Earth™ and informing which study was the source of each locality record (Table 1). The distributional map was elaborated with QGIS (2022)QGIS Development Team. 2022. QGIS Geographic Information System. Open Source Geospatial Foundation. Available: https://qgis.org.
https://qgis.org...
and the shapefile with the Brazil limits and the Brazilian biomes were obtained from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE) (https://www.ibge.gov.br) and that with South and Central America limits from Efran Maps (https://www.efrainmaps.es/english-version/free-downloads/americas). In the examined material section of each species, the label information was reproduced exactly as one can read from the labels and complementary data when added, is between parentheses [ ].

Figure 1
Pantophthalmus kerteszianus (Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.), female. (A) Habitus, dorsal view. (B) Head, frontal view. (C) Head, anterolateral view. (D) Base of wing. (E) Apex of hind femur, anterior view. The ventral spine is indicated by the red arrow.

Figure 2
Photograph of the Pantophthalmidae drawer deposited at the Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin (MfN). Dashed rectangles indicate types of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus (Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.) and P. tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x. (as P. immanis (Wiedemann, 1830)). © Museum für Naturkunde, Berlin, Germany.

Table 1
Distribution records of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus (Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.) and P. tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x.. (*) = New records.

RESULTS

Pantophthalmus kerteszianus ( Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586. )

Figs. 1 , 2 , 4

Acanthomera kertézianaEnderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.: 578. Lectotype: female (MfN, examined by photo; according to Val, 1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164., the two females syntypes should be in Warsaw and Budapest, one in each collection, but no specimen was found in Warsaw; a female labeled as the type was found in the Berlin collection and designated as lectotype, see Val, 1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164.: 79). Type locality: Peru, Mariscal Cáceres, Juanjui. [For nomenclatural history, see Papavero (2009Papavero, N. 2009. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Pantophthalmidae. Neotropical Diptera, 19: 1-11.: 3), no changes are proposed here].

Diagnosis: Female - Body predominantly brownish to black (Fig. 1 A). Frons and antenna orangish-brown (Fig. 1 B, C). Face with a very prominent beak (Fig. 1 C). Thorax covered with grayish pruinosity and three dark brown longitudinal bands; lateral bands thicker and almost parallel, medial band narrower than lateral bands and interrupted near the posterior margin of scutum (Fig. 1 A). Wing with yellowish-brown base, most visible at the level of humeral vein (Fig. 1 D). Legs reddish-brown to dark brown, except all tarsomeres 1-2 yellow (Fig. 1 A), ventral spine of hind femur reduced in size (Fig. 1 E). Abdomen black with small white spots on lateral margins of tergites 2 and 3.

Material examined: Brazil, TO [Tocantins], Porto Nacional, Jardim Querido [-10.704158°, -48.400074°], Casa, x.2018, coleta manual, Gaizer, F. leg. (1 ♀ CEUFT 005849); idem, Setor Vila Operária [-10.725103°, -48.385207°], 25.iii.2021, Silva, R.M. leg. (1 ♀ CEUFT 005850); idem, iv.2014, Krolow, T.K. leg. (1 ♀ CEUFT 005851).

Comments:Val (1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164.: 79, fig. 102, female) mentioned the presence of a dark triangular spot on the posterior region of the scutum. In the examined specimens, the triangular mark is small, barely visible, similar to that observed in the lectotype and additional female deposited in Berlin (Fig. 2). In addition, the studied specimens have considerable variation in size, the smallest measures 19 mm and the largest, 26 mm. This size difference was also noted by Carrera & d’Andretta (1957Carrera, M. & d’Andretta, M.A.V. 1957. Sobre a família Pantophtalmidae (Diptera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 10: 253-330.), who mentioned that the body length of this species varied between 20 and 35 mm.

Pantophthalmus tabaninus Thunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x.

Figs. 2, 3, 4

Pantophthalmus tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x.: vii, pl., figs. 1-4. Type: 1 specimen, likely male as stated by Thunberg (UUZM, see Wallin & Wallin, 2001Wallin, L. & Wallin, H. 2001. Catalogue of type specimens. 1. C.P. Thunberg (1743-1828), INSECTA. Revised version 6. Uppsala University, Museum of Evolution, Zoology section (UUZM). Available: http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/samling/UUZM01_Thunberg.pdf.
http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/samlin...
: 27; according to Val, 1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164. only one male specimen, not labeled as type, was found in Thunberg’s collection in UUZM, but labeled from Brazil; presumed lost according to Papavero, 2009Papavero, N. 2009. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Pantophthalmidae. Neotropical Diptera, 19: 1-11.: 5). Type locality: Lesser Antilles, Saint Barthélemy (Forsström). [For nomenclatural history, see Papavero (2009Papavero, N. 2009. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Pantophthalmidae. Neotropical Diptera, 19: 1-11.: 3), no changes are proposed here].

Diagnosis: Female - Body predominantly brown to black (Fig. 3 A). Frons yellow (Fig. 3 A, B). Face with a slightly prominent beak (Fig. 3 B, C). Antenna dark brown, covered with yellowish pruinosity, flagellum with the first two flagellomeres wider than the others, last flagellomere tapering towards apex, with an orange tip (Fig. 3 D). Thorax predominantly brown with a wide yellowish longitudinal median stripe. (Fig. 3 A). Wing with brown base (Fig. 3 E). Legs reddish brown to dark brown, hind femur without ventral spine (Fig. 3 F). Abdomen black with small white spots on lateral margins of tergites 2 and 3.

Figure 3
Pantophthalmus tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x., female. (A) Habitus, dorsal view. (B) Head, frontal view. (C) Head, anterolateral view. (D) Flagellum, ventral view. (E) Base of wing. (F) Hind femur, anterior view.

Material examined: Brazil, TO [Tocantins], Paraíso [-10.201604°, -48.884114°], Aneliese, A.F. leg. (1 ♀ CEUFT 005852); idem, Colinas do Tocantins [-8.059549°, -48.477156°], 07.v.2013, coleta manual, Nascimento, W.P.L. leg. (1 ♀ CEUFT 005853).

Comments: The beak on the face of one examined specimen is dented, giving the impression that the structure is excavated. In the illustration provided by Val (1976Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164.: 121, fig. 80, female) of P. tabaninus, it is possible to verify that the beak, although not very prominent, does not have a recess.

DISCUSSION

Pantophthalmus kerteszianus is now reported from 15 localities in the Neotropical Region, of which six are in Brazil. Three of these records are in the Amazon Forest biome (states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Pará), one in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul), and now two in the Cerrado biome (state of Tocantins). Pantophthalmus tabaninus seems to be a more common species, often collected, reported from 67 localities, of which 22 are in Brazil. More than half of the Brazilian records of P. tabaninus are in the Atlantic Forest (13 records), followed by the Amazon Forest (six records), one record in the state of Bahia, this without information on the specific location, and now one in the Cerrado (Fig. 4).

Figure 4
Geographic distribution of Pantophthalmus kerteszianus (Enderlein, 1914Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.) and P. tabaninusThunberg, 1819Thunberg, C.P. 1819. Beskrifning och teckning pa en forut okand westindisk fluga, Pantopthalmus tabaninus. Vetenskaps- och Vitterhets-Samhället I Göteborg 3: vii-x..

Despite the economic importance of pantophtalmids, the group is still poorly studied, and the distribution of its species not completely understood. Pantophthalmus kerteszianus, for example, has already been recorded feeding on plants in the states of Amazonas (Abreu & Rocha, 2003Abreu, R.L.S. & Rocha, R.A. 2003. Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein (Diptera: Brachycera) em Croton lanjowvensis (Euphorbiaceae) em Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. Neotropical Entomology, 32(2): 361-362.) and Pará (Lunz et al., 2010Lunz, A.M.; Batista, T.F.C; Rosário, V.S.V.; Monteiro, O.M. & Mahon, A.C. 2010. Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus e P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae) em paricá, no Estado do Pará. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30 (61): 71-74. https://doi.org/10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71.
https://doi.org/10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.7...
), neighboring states of Tocantins. Thus, the expansion of sampling in remote or poorly studied regions, such as Tocantins, will contribute to understanding the distributional patterns and feeding preferences of the family.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS:

We also thank to FINEP Systematics Laboratory for the use of the stereomicroscope to acquire the images and Jenny Pohl (MfN) for making available an image of the drawer of Pantophthalmidae of the MfN Diptera collection. To Wanieulli Pascoal Lopes Nascimento for collecting and photographs the specimen of from Colinas do Tocantins.

REFERENCES

  • Abreu, R.L.S. & Rocha, R.A. 2003. Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus Enderlein (Diptera: Brachycera) em Croton lanjowvensis (Euphorbiaceae) em Manaus, Estado do Amazonas. Neotropical Entomology, 32(2): 361-362.
  • Amat, E.C. 2005. New records of Timber flies (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae) from Colombia. Entomotropica, 20(2): 95-96.
  • Barros, L.M.; Soares, M.M.M. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2019. First records of Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera) from Roraima state, Brazil. Check List, 15: 169-174. https://doi.org/10.15560/15.1.169
    » https://doi.org/10.15560/15.1.169
  • Carrera, M. & d’Andretta, M.A.V. 1957. Sobre a família Pantophtalmidae (Diptera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 10: 253-330.
  • Enderlein, S. 1914. Dipterologische Studien. XIII. Weitere Beiträge zur Kenntniss der Pantophthalmiden. Zoologischer Anzeiger, Leipzig, 44: 577-586.
  • Fachin, D.A. 2023. Pantophthalmidae. In: Catálogo Taxonômico da Fauna do Brasil. PNUD. Available: Available: http://fauna.jbrj.gov.br/fauna/faunadobrasil/1980 Access: 22/03/2023.
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  • Lunz, A.M. 2021. Moscas-da-madeira. In: Lemes, P.G. & Zanuncio, J.C. (Orgs.). Novo manual de pragas florestais brasileiras. Montes Claros, Instituto de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. p. 646-655.
  • Lunz, A.M.; Batista, T.F.C; Rosário, V.S.V.; Monteiro, O.M. & Mahon, A.C. 2010. Ocorrência de Pantophthalmus kerteszianus e P. chuni (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae) em paricá, no Estado do Pará. Pesquisa Florestal Brasileira, 30 (61): 71-74. https://doi.org/10.4336/2010.pfb.30.61.71
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  • Maronezi, A.L.M. 2020. First record of wood fly Pantophthalmus Tabaninus (Thunberg, 1819) in Peruíbe, south coast of São Paulo, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Animal and Environmental Research, 3(4): 4208-4217. https://doi.org/10.34188/bjaerv3n4-116
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  • Papavero, N. 2009. Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Pantophthalmidae. Neotropical Diptera, 19: 1-11.
  • Pujol-Luz, J.R. & Morgado, G.S. 2018. New record of Pantophthalmus pictus (Wiedemann, 1821) (Diptera, Pantophthalmidae) in the Cerrado vegetation of central Brazil. Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia, 58(28): 1-3. https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.28
    » https://doi.org/10.11606/1807-0205/2018.58.28
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  • Santos, J.C.; Tizo-Pedroso, E. & Fernandes, G.W. 2005. A case of phoresy of Semeiochernes armiger Balzan, 1892 (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae) on the giant tropical fly Pantophthalmus tabaninus Thunberg, 1819 (Diptera: Pantophthalmidae) in an Amazonian rain forest, Pará. Lundiana, Belo Horizonte, 6: 11-12.
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  • Val, F.C. 1976. Systematics and evolution of the Pantophthalmidae (Diptera, Brachycera). Arquivos de Zoologia de São Paulo, 27: 51-164.
  • Wallin, L. & Wallin, H. 2001. Catalogue of type specimens. 1. C.P. Thunberg (1743-1828), INSECTA. Revised version 6. Uppsala University, Museum of Evolution, Zoology section (UUZM). Available: http://www.evolutionsmuseet.uu.se/samling/UUZM01_Thunberg.pdf
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  • Wolff, M.; Ramos-Pastrana, Y. & Vallejo, F. 2016. Family Pantophthalmidae. Zootaxa, 4122(1): 306-311. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4122.1.25
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  • Woodley, N.E. 2009. Pantophthalmidae (Pantophthalmid Flies). In: Brown, B.V.; Borkent, A.; Cumming, J.M.; Wood, D.M.; Woodley, N.E. & Zumbado, M.A. (Eds.). Manual of Central American Diptera. Volume 1. Ottawa, NRC Research Press. p. 513-515.
  • FUNDING INFORMATION:

    We would like to thank the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the scholarship granted to LPO (grant 130326/2022-4) and to TKK (grant 310214/2021-1), and to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) to support DAF (Finance Code 001, grant 88887.473150/2020-00).
  • Published with the financial support of the "Programa de Apoio às Publicações Científicas da Universidade de São Paulo"

Edited by

Edited by:

Rafaela Lopes Falaschi

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    22 Sept 2023
  • Date of issue
    2023

History

  • Received
    24 Apr 2023
  • Reviewed
    27 June 2023
  • Accepted
    01 Aug 2023
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