Identification and Mapping of Cross-Resistance Patterns to ALS-Inhibitors in Greater Beggarticks (Bidens spp.)

Identificação e Mapeamento de Padrões de Resistência Cruzada a Inibidores da Acetolactato Sintase (ALS) em Picão-Preto (Bidens spp.)

R.R. MENDES R.S. OLIVEIRA JR. J. CONSTANTIN V.F.V. SILVA J.R. HENCKS About the authors

ABSTRACT:

Greater beggarticks (Bidens pilosa and Bidens subalternans) biotypes have been under selection pressure of ALS-inhibitors since early 90’s in Brazil. The objectives of this work were to investigate whether there are different cross-resistance patterns among ALS-inhibitors herbicides in Bidens spp. biotypes; to understand the geographic distribution of resistance patterns in grains producing regions in Brazil; and evaluate the possibility of multiple resistance to ALS-inhibitors, EPSPs inhibitor and photosystem II inhibitors. Dose-response experiments were carried out with imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam in three populations. Sensibility to others 34 populations both from Paraná State (PR) and from others Brazilian regions were also evaluated. The dose-response assay revealed cross-resistance with different patterns. One population was resistant to all three herbicides, the second population was tolerant to both imazethapyr and chlorimuron, but not to diclosulam, while a third population was resistant merely to imazethapyr. The results exhibited different cross-resistance patterns, since they can be found in other Bidens spp. populations. However, no relationship was observed between geographic areas where samples were collected and resistance patterns. Conclusively, the most frequent resistance pattern was R2 (resistance to imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam).

Keywords:
imazethapyr; chlorimuron; diclosulam; Bidens subalternans; Bidens pilosa

RESUMO:

Biótipos de picão-preto (Bidens pilosa e Bidens subalternans) têm estado sob pressão de seleção de herbicidas inibidores da ALS desde a o início da década de 90 no Brasil. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram de investigar se existem padrões de resistência cruzada diferentes entre os herbicidas inibidores da ALS em biótipos de Bidens spp.; entender a distribuição geográfica dos padrões de resistência nas regiões produtoras de grãos do Brasil; e avaliar a possibilidade de haver resistência múltipla a inibidores da ALS, inibidor da EPSPs e inibidores do fotossistema II. Experimentos de dose-resposta foram realizados com herbicidas do grupo das imidazolinonas (imazethapyr), sulfonilureias (chlorimuron) e triazolopirimidinas (diclosulam) em três populações consideradas resistentes. Outras 34 populações coletadas no Estado do Paraná e em outras áreas do Brasil foram avaliadas quanto à sensibilidade aos três herbicidas, para verificar se os padrões ocorrem em outras regiões. Os experimentos de dose-resposta revelaram resistência cruzada com características diferentes. Uma das populações (R2) foi resistente aos três herbicidas. Outra população foi resistente a imazethapyr e chlorimuron, mas não a diclosulam (R1), e a terceira população apresentou resistência apenas a imazethapyr (R3). Os resultados evidenciaram que existem padrões diferentes de resistência cruzada, pois estes se repetem em outras populações de Bidens spp., porém sem que houvesse relação entre os padrões observados e a localização geográfica das amostras. O padrão de resistência que apresentou mais frequência foi o R2 (resistente a imazethapyr, chlorimuron e diclosulam).

Palavras-chave:
imazethapyr; chlorimuron; diclosulam; Bidens subalternans; Bidens pilosa

INTRODUCTION

Weeds species of the genus Bidens belong to the Asteraceae family, which is originally from South America and can be found in the entire Brazilian territory, especially in Midwestern, Southeastern and Southern regions. These plants are reproduced strictly by seeds and can reach up to 1.2 m. Such weeds may be found in annual crops, particularly in soybeans, corn, wheat and cotton (Kissmann and Groth, 1999Kissmann KG, Groth D. Plantas infestantes e nocivas. 2a ed. São Bernardo do Campo: Basf; 1999.; Lorenzi, 2014Lorenzi H. Manual de identificação e controle de plantas daninhas: plantio direto e convencional. 7ª.ed. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum; 2014.).

B. pilosa and B. subalternans are the most known weed species among the genus Bidens. The distinction between both species has been challenging for farmers, agronomists and weed scientists due to their similar morphology. The main differences between both species are in the achenes structure and their branching. B. pilosa has two to three arista in its achenes, whereas B. subalternans denotes three to four arista. In B. pilosa upper third, the branching is dichotomous, whist it is alternate in B. subalternans (Kissmann and Groth, 1999Kissmann KG, Groth D. Plantas infestantes e nocivas. 2a ed. São Bernardo do Campo: Basf; 1999.; Grombone-Guaratini et al., 2004Grombone-Guaratini MT, Solferini VN, Semir J. Reproductive biology in species of Bidens L. (Asteraceae). Sci Agric. 2004;16(2):185-9.).

Biotypes from both species have been confirmed as resistant to herbicides. B. pilosa was the first weed reported as resistant to herbicides in Brazil in the mid-1990’s, exhibiting cross-resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitors (Christoffoleti, 2002Christoffoleti PJ. Curvas de dose-resposta de biótipos resistente e suscetível de Bidens pilosa L. aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS. Sci Agric. 2002;59:513-8.). Posteriorly, similar resistance patterns were also described in B. subalternans biotypes (Gelmini et al., 2002Gelmini GA, Victoria Filho R, Novo MCSS, Adoryan ML. Resistência de Bidens subalternans aos herbicidas inibidores da enzima acelolactato sintase utilizados na cultura da soja. Planta Daninha. 2002;20(2):319-25.). Afterwards, biotypes of both species from grain-producing areas have been observed with multiple resistance to ALS and photosystem II inhibitors (Takano et al., 2016Takano HK, Oliveira Jr RS, Constantin J, Braz GBP, Franchini LHM, Burgos NR. Multiple resistance to atrazine and imazethapyr in hair beggarticks (Bidens pilosa). Cienc Agrotec. 2016;40(5):547-54.). Recently, one biotype of B. pilosa was depicted as resistant to glyphosate in Mexico (Cruz et al., 2016Cruz RA, Fernández-Moreno PT, Ozuna CV, Rojano-Delgado AM, Cruz-Hipolito HE, Domínguez-Valenzuela JÁ, et al. Target and non-target site mechanisms developed by glyphosate-resistant hairy beggarticks (Bidens pilosa L.) populations from Mexico. Front Plant Sci. 2016;7:1-12.).

ALS inhibitors comprise five chemical groups of herbicides: imidazolinones (IMI), sulfonylureas (SU), triazolopyrimidines (TP), pyrimidinyl-benzoates (PYB) and sulfonylamino-cabonyl-triazolinones (SCT). Nevertheless, commercial products are available only from the four first groups in Brazil. These herbicides inhibit the enzyme that catalyzes the first stage in the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids, such as leucine, isoleucine and valine.

The reaction catalyzed by ALS involves the decarboxylation of a pyruvate molecule, producing an enzyme-bound hydroxyethyl (HE) intermediate that reacts with either a second molecule of pyruvate or with a 2-ketobutyrate to produce (S)-2-acetolactate or (S)-2-aceto-2-hydroxybutyrate, respectively (Garcia et al., 2017Garcia MD, Nouwens A, Lonhienne TG, Guddat LW. Comprehensive understanding of acetohydroxyacid synthase inhibition by different herbicide families. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017;114(7):E1091-E1100). ALS inhibitor are selective for several crops and requires minimal doses for weed control, thus presenting low toxicity to mammals. However, the intense use of these herbicides has frequently led to the selection of more resistant weeds worldwide (Liu et al., 2015Liu W, Yuan G, Du L, Guo W, Li L, Bi Y, et al. A novel Pro197Glu substitution in acetolactate synthase (ALS) confers broad-spectrum resistance across ALS inhibitors. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2015;117:31-8.).

In weed resistant species, different patterns of cross-resistance may be seen among chemical groups exhibiting the same mechanism of action, signifying that resistance can be related to one single herbicide, to all herbicides of a single chemical group or to herbicides from two or more different chemical groups (Deng et al., 2014Deng W, Cao Y, Yang Q, Liu M, Mei Y, Zheng M. Different cross-resistance patterns to AHAS herbicides of two tribenuron-methyl resistant flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) biotypes in China. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2014;112:26-32.). Typically, target site mechanisms related to point mutations in ALS gene are responsible for providing such different patterns. Certain mutations may cause exclusive resistance to IMI, others could affect merely SU, while others may result in tolerance to all chemical groups (Beckie and Tardif, 2012Beckie HJ, Tardif FJ. Herbicide cross resistance in weeds. Crop Prot. 2012;35:15-28.; Yu and Powles, 2015Yu Q, Powles SB. Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding. Pest Manag Sci. 2015;70:1340-50.; Tranel et al., 2018Tranel PJ, Wright TR, Heap IM. Mutations in herbicide-resistant weeds to ALS inhibitors. [acesso em: 22 jan 2018]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://weedscience.org/Mutations/MutationDisplayAll.aspx ,
http://weedscience.org/Mutations/Mutatio...
).

ALS inhibitors utilization from IMI and TRI groups are currently recommended in soybeans to provide control of glyphosate-resistant weeds, such as fleabane (Conyza spp.), sourgrass (Digitaria insularis) and goosegrass (Eleusine indica) (Peterson et al., 2018Peterson MA, Collavo A, Ovejero R, Shivrain V, Walsh MJ. The challenge of herbicide resistance around the world: a current summary. Pest Manag Sci. 2018;34(10):2246-59.). In those areas, greater beggarticks escapes have been reported, presumably due to the remaining seedbank of ALS-resistant biotypes.

The objectives of this research were: (a) to characterize and map different patterns of cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors in biotypes of Bidens spp. and (b) to evaluate whether reported field control failures are related to the occurrence of multiple resistance cases to ALS inhibitors + atrazine and/or to ALS inhibitors + glyphosate in biotypes collected from soybean-producing areas in Brazil.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Dose-response assays

One susceptible (SUS) biotype and three putative resistant biotypes (R1, R2 and R3) were used in this study. SUS biotype seeds were collected from a site in Maringá (PR) with no previous history of herbicide use. Seeds of R1 and R3 biotypes were collected, in Assis Chateaubriand (PR) and in Nova Aurora (PR), respectively. Both biotypes were collected from soybean and corn farms without past reports of ALS herbicides application in the last 10 years. Seeds of biotype R2 were sampled in Balsas (MA), from a farm cultivated with conventional (non-RR) soybeans, in which ALS inhibitor herbicides, such as diclosulam and chlorimuron, are frequently used for pre-emergent weed control.

Seeds from five to ten plants that survived to herbicide application throughout soybean cycle were collected from each site in January 2015. These seeds were then combined into a single bulk composite sample, subsequently packed in paper bags, identified and kept at room temperature for further greenhouse experiments.

Seeds were sown at approximately 0.5 cm depth in plastic trays (10 x 6 x 2 cm) filled with substrate for germination. After emergence, seedlings were transplanted to 1.0 L pots containing soil (21% clay, 68% sand, 2.1% organic matter, CEC = 9.8 mg dm-3 and pHH2O = 6.4).

Three independent experiments, one for each herbicide from a distinct chemical group (imazethapyr - IMI, chlorimuron - SU and diclosulam - TP), were carried out. All greenhouse experiments respected a 8 x 4 factorial scheme, where the first factor was composed by eight herbicide doses and the second by the four biotypes (S, R1, R2 and R3). For each experiment, herbicide dosages were equivalent to 0, 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 times the labeled doses recommended by each herbicide manufacturer for Bidens spp. control (AGROFIT, 2018Sistema Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - AGROFIT. [acesso em: 28 dez. 2018] Disponível em: Disponível em: http://agrofit.agricultura.gov.br/agrofit_cons/principal_agrofit_cons .
http://agrofit.agricultura.gov.br/agrofi...
). All experiments had four replicates per biotype, in a completely randomized design. The “x” doses for each herbicide were 106 g ha-1 of imazethapyr, 20 g ha-1 of chlorimuron and 26.2 g ha-1 of diclosulam.

Every herbicide was applied post-emergence at the two-to-three leaves per plant stage (≈10 cm). Herbicides were employed with a CO2-pressurized backpack sprayer equipped with a 1.5 m long boom containing three XR 110.02 spray nozzles (0.5 m between nozzles). The application speed was 1.0 m s-1 and the pressure was 2.1 kgf cm-2, providing a spray volume equivalent to 200 L ha-1.

Twenty-eight days after application (DAA), plant shoots were harvested, placed in paper bags, dried at 65 oC for 48 h and weighed (g per pot). Data were subjected to ANOVA and F test (p<0.05) as well as to a regression analysis using a nonlinear dose-response through the logistic Gompertz model with three parameters (Equation 1) for each herbicide:

Y = a * e x p { - exp - b * x - c } (eq. 1)

where: Y is the shoot biomass at 28 DAA (% in relation to untreated check); x is herbicide dose (g ha-1); a is the amplitude between the maximum and the minimum range of the variable; b is the dose which provides 50% response; and c is the curve slope around b.

One of the equation integral terms for the logistic model (b) is an estimate of the herbicide dose that reduces shoot dry weight by 50% (GR50). Although one of the parameters of the logistic model (b) is a GR50 estimate, a mathematical solution was appraised for these values using the inverse equation, as proposed by Carvalho et al. (2005Carvalho SJP, Lombardi BP, Nicolai M, López-Ovejero RF, Christoffoleti PJ, Medeiros D. Curvas de dose-resposta para avaliação do controle de fluxos de emergência de plantas daninhas pelo herbicida imazapic. Planta Daninha. 2005;23(3):535-42. ). Based on GR50, the resistance factor (RF) was calculated as GR50 of the putative resistant population/GR50 of the susceptible standard. Doses for acceptable control (≥85%) (GR85) were also determined.

Screening of additional biotypes from different sites

After identifying different levels of resistance, this study evaluated the response patterns of additional biotypes to ALS application.

Seeds of B. pilosa and B. subalternans were collected from soybean-producing areas along the 2016/2017 season, respecting the same procedure described for dose-response experiments. Seeds were collected from 33 sites in Brazil, but mostly from the state of Paraná (Table 1). Geographical coordinates were recorded for all sampling sites.

Table 1
Identification of biotypes and sampling sites information greater beggarticks seeds (Bidensspp.), Maringá (PR), 2018

Sowing and transplanting was analogous to the procedure previously described, except by the fact that plants were placed in 0.2 L pots. One experiment was carried out for each herbicide, with post-emergent applications at three leaves-stage for 37 biotypes (33 collected from different sites in Brazil and four screened in the dose-response experiment - SUS, R1, R2 and R3). Herbicides and respective dosages for each experiment were: Exp. 1: imazethapyr (212 g ha-1); Exp. 2: chlorimuron (40 g ha-1); Exp. 3: diclosulam (52 g ha-1); Exp. 4: atrazine (1,500 g ha-1) and Exp. 5: glyphosate (960 g a.e. ha-1). Doses of ALS inhibitors were equivalent to twice of “x” dosage used in the dose response assays. These values were established as a resistance threshold, wherein the biotypes that survived to this treatment were classified as resistant. Experiments with atrazine and glyphosate were added to investigate eventual multiple resistance to alternative mechanisms of action.

All experiments were performed in quadruplicates, respecting a completely randomized design for each biotype. Herbicide application was performed as described for the dose response assays. At 28 DAA, control (0-100%, where 0 = no injury and 100 = plant death) of each biotype was evaluated, comparing each herbicide treatment with the respective non-sprayed check of each biotype.

Control data were subjected to analysis of variance (p≤0.05) and the means of significant variables were grouped by the Scott-Knott test (p≤0.05), using SISVAR statistical package. Maps presenting the coordinates C of greater beggarticks biotypes were elaborated using Qgis.2012 software. A color scale based on control rates was used for expressing the final control results in this study (red = resistant (R); yellow = moderately resistant (MOR); green = non-resistant (NR).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Dose-response assays

Dose-response experiments demonstrated three different patterns of cross-resistance for imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam (Table 2). Biotype R1 was considered resistant to both imazethapyr (RF 13.8) and chlorimuron (RF 3.9). However, its GR85 for diclosulam was 28.5 g ha-1, which is within the labeled doses range and, therefore, the biotype was classified as susceptible. Biotype R2 portrayed elevated FR values for all three herbicides: >29.9 for imazethapyr, 15.7 for chlorimuron and >271.6 for diclosulam. In contrast, biotype R3 exhibited resistance only to imazethapyr (RF 11.4), whilst further chlorimuron and diclosulam provided satisfactory control levels once respecting the labeled doses recommended for each herbicide (Table 2).

Table 2
Model parameters, doses for 50% (GR50) and 85% (GR85) reduction of biomass in relation to non-treated check and resistance factors (RF) for greater beggarticks (Bidens subalternans) biotypes resistant to ALS inhibitors. Maringá (PR), 2018

In Brazil, previous research with B. pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes resistant to ALS inhibitors have brought to light higher resistance levels for chlorimuron (López Ovejero et al., 2006López-Ovejero RF, Carvalho SJP, Nicolai M, Abreu AG, Grombone-Guaratini MT, Toledo REB, Christoffoleti PJ. Resistance and differential susceptibility of Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Sci Agric. 2006;63(2):139-45.) and for imazethapyr (Monquero et al., 2000Monquero PA, Christoffoleti PJ, Dias CTS. Resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas inibidores da ALS na cultura da soja (Glycine max). Planta Daninha. 2000;18(3):419-25.). Lamego et al. (2009Lamego FP, Charlson D, Delatorre CA, Burgos NR, Vidal RA. Molecular basis of resistance to ALS-inhibitor herbicides in Greater beggarticks. Weed Sci. 2009;57(5):474-81.) acquired preeminent levels of cross-resistance for imazethapyr (IMI), chlorimuron (SUL) and cloransulam (TP) in a biotype from Goiás State, which is an outcome similar to the pattern found in this work for biotype R2.

Screening of additional biotypes from different sites

After describing patterns SUS, R1, R2 and R3, seed samples were analyzed from biotypes collected from other areas to evaluate if they presented similar patterns of cross-resistance. Groups provided by Scott-Knott test were used to rank each biotype according to their control level (Table 3).

Table 3
Classification of resistance levels in biotypes of greater beggarticks (Bidens subalternans and Bidens pilosa) based on groups formed by Scott-Knott (5% probability). Maringá (PR), 2018

The largest quantity of biotypes classified as green (non-resistant - NR) was found for treatments with diclosulam (48.6%), followed by those comprising chlorimuron (37.8%) and imazethapyr (18.9%). For the yellow group, representing intermediate levels of control (moderately resistant - MOR), chlorimuron was the most frequent herbicide (48.6%), followed by imazethapyr (37.8%) (Table 4). A relatively low frequency (8.1%) was perceived in biotypes submitted to diclosulam. When comparing samples to the lowest control levels (red) to assess the uppermost resistance levels (resistant - R), imazethapyr and diclosulam stood out as the herbicides with highest frequencies (43.2%), whilst chlorimuron denoted the nethermost occurrence (13.5%) (Table 4). All biotypes were susceptible to both atrazine and glyphosate, indicating that no multiple resistance was found (data not shown).

Table 4
Number (no) and frequency (%) of Bidens subalternans and Bidens pilosa biotypes with different resistance class to ALS inhibitors in Maringa (PR), Brazil, 2018

Although differential susceptibility may be present between B. subalternans and B. pilosa (López-Ovejero et al., 2006López-Ovejero RF, Carvalho SJP, Nicolai M, Abreu AG, Grombone-Guaratini MT, Toledo REB, Christoffoleti PJ. Resistance and differential susceptibility of Bidens pilosa and B. subalternans biotypes to ALS-inhibiting herbicides. Sci Agric. 2006;63(2):139-45.), no clear differences were found to separate the two species. This suggests that greater beggarticks sensibility to ALS inhibitor herbicides may depend more on the selection pressure applied to a particular biotype than on the species involved.

A relationship between geographical coordinates and ALS cross-resistance patterns was not observed, since different standards may have occurred in biotypes collected from proximate sites. Meanwhile, biotypes presenting similar patterns may have arisen from spatially distant geographies for imazethapyr (Figure 1), chlorimuron (Figure 2) and diclosulam (Figure 3).

Figure 1
Dispersion of greater beggarticks (Bidens spp.) biotypes resistant to imazethapyr in Paraná and other regions of Brazil. Maringá (PR), 2018.

Figure 2
Dispersion of greater beggarticks (Bidens spp.) biotypes resistant to chlorimuron in Paraná State and other regions of Brazil. Maringá (PR), 2018.

Figure 3
Dispersion of greater beggarticks (Bidens spp.) biotypes resistant to diclosulam in Paraná State and other regions of Brazil. Maringá (PR), 2018.

Resistance patterns observed in greater beggarticks biotypes were compared to those found in SUS, R1, R2 e R3 biotypes from the first dose-response experiments. Four biotypes were comparable to pattern R1, ten biotypes exhibited R2 pattern and five biotypes presented R3 pattern. Six biotypes were classified as pattern SUS, while the remaining (12) were resistant to at least one of the ALS herbicides. Nevertheless, these biotypes portrayed distinct patterns from those previously identified (Figure 4).

Figure 4
Dispersion of greater beggarticks (Bidens spp.) biotypes with different patterns of cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors in Paraná State and other regions of Brazil. Maringá (PR), 2018.

Three distinct patterns of cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors were identified in greater beggarticks: resistance to imazethapyr and chlorimuron (pattern R1), resistance to imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam (pattern R2) and an exclusive resistance to imazethapyr (pattern R3). Resistance patterns in these herbicides can be likely defined by the point mutations in ALS gene, the major resistance strategy to this mechanism of action (Deng et al., 2014Deng W, Cao Y, Yang Q, Liu M, Mei Y, Zheng M. Different cross-resistance patterns to AHAS herbicides of two tribenuron-methyl resistant flixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) biotypes in China. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2014;112:26-32.; Yu and Powles, 2015Yu Q, Powles SB. Resistance to AHAS inhibitor herbicides: current understanding. Pest Manag Sci. 2015;70:1340-50.). For other weed species, mutations conferring resistance to all chemical groups (IMI, SU, TP, PYB and SCT) have been found. In addition, the most common substitutions that result in this cross-resistance pattern are Trp-574-Leu, Ala-122-Thr, Asp-376-Glu and Pro-197-Ser (Tranel et al., 2018Tranel PJ, Wright TR, Heap IM. Mutations in herbicide-resistant weeds to ALS inhibitors. [acesso em: 22 jan 2018]. Disponível em: Disponível em: http://weedscience.org/Mutations/MutationDisplayAll.aspx ,
http://weedscience.org/Mutations/Mutatio...
).

Contrasting with Bidens species, the Ala-122-Thr substitution in Echinochloa crus-galli may result in resistance to IMIs, but not to TRI (Riar et al., 2013Riar DS, Norsworthy JK, Srivastava V, Nandula V, Bond JA, Scott RC. Physiological and molecular basis of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). J Agric Food Chem. 2013;61(2):278-89.) Similarly, Ser-653-Thr in Sorghum bicolor causes tolerance to IMI, but not to SU (Werle et al., 2017Werle R, Begcy K, Yerka MK, Mower JP, Dweikat I, Jhala AJ, et al. Independent evolution of acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicide resistance in weedy sorghum populations across common geographic regions. Weed Sci. 2017;65(1):164-76.). However, in Conyza canadensis, the Pro-197-Ser substitution result in resistance to all chemical groups, except for IMI (Zheng et al., 2011Zheng D, Kruger GR, Singh S, Davis VM, Tranel PJ, Weller SC, et al. Cross-resistance of horseweed (Conyza canadensis) populations with three different ALS mutations. Pest Manag Sci. 2011;67(12):1486-92.). In Brazil, one biotype of Bidens subalternans was identified with Trp-574-Leu substitution, thus resistant to four chemical groups of ALS inhibitors (IMI, SU, TP and PYB) (Lamego et al., 2009Lamego FP, Charlson D, Delatorre CA, Burgos NR, Vidal RA. Molecular basis of resistance to ALS-inhibitor herbicides in Greater beggarticks. Weed Sci. 2009;57(5):474-81.). Differences of cross-resistance patterns, both those from the present work and those from other studies, suggest that alternative substitutions in the ALS gene related to resistance could occur as well as other non-target-site-based mechanisms, such as metabolization, reduced absorption, translocation and/or vacuolar sequestration (Délye, 2012Délye C. Unravelling the genetic bases of non-target-site-based resistance (NTSR) to herbicides: a major challenge for weed science in the forthcoming decade. Pest Manag Sci. 2012;69:176-87.).

In the early 80’s, herbicides from the IMI and SU groups were the first ALS products available for soybeans in Brazil, while diclosulam (TP) was released only in 1993 (Beckie and Tardif, 2012Beckie HJ, Tardif FJ. Herbicide cross resistance in weeds. Crop Prot. 2012;35:15-28.; Deng et al., 2017Deng W, Yang Q, Zhang Y, Jiao H, Mei Y, Li X, Zheng M . Cross-resistance patterns to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides of fixweed (Descurainia sophia L.) conferred by different combinations of ALS isozymes with a Pro-197Thr mutation or a novel Trp-574-Leu mutation. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 2017;136:41-5.). Another fact that may have contributed to the relatively decrease in diclosulam use in relation to both imazethapyr and chlorimuron is the quantity of companies manufacturing these commercial herbicides with those actives (eight and nine, respectively), which is significantly superior to a single company producing herbicides based on diclosulam (AGROFIT, 2018Sistema Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - AGROFIT. [acesso em: 28 dez. 2018] Disponível em: Disponível em: http://agrofit.agricultura.gov.br/agrofit_cons/principal_agrofit_cons .
http://agrofit.agricultura.gov.br/agrofi...
). The lack of market competitiveness for this commercial product has led diclosulam to cost relatively more than other options, which also influences on its adoption by farmers. These facts certainly help to explain the more elevated frequency of NR biotypes than diclosulam (Table 4).

Plants belonging to genus Bidens have prolific gene recombination due to cross-fertilization rates of up to 10%, which implies that biotypes from relatively close sites may present different features. Concomitantly, the efficient seed dispersal of these species may assist in gene flow and, therefore, in resistance spread (Vidal et al., 2007Vidal RA, Nunes AL, Resende LV, Lamego FP, Silva PR. Análise genética de genótipos de Bidens pilosa através da técnica RAPD. Sci Agr. 2007;8(4):399-403.). Combined with plant biology, the particular history of herbicide application for each field may contribute to the understanding about the geographically scattered distribution patterns in Brazil (Figure 4).

It is likely that other cross-resistance patterns related to regional practices and with the history of each field may occur. The investigation of resistance mechanisms involved in each biotype (R1, R2 and R3) in greater beggarticks is currently under investigation and will provide important scientific knowledge to establish the causes of such distinct cross-resistance patterns to ALS inhibitors.

Biotypes of Bidens spp. with cross-resistance to ALS inhibitors are relatively frequent in Brazil, particularly in Paraná. At least three distinct resistance patterns were identified: resistance to imazethapyr and chlorimuron (pattern R1), resistance to imazethapyr, chlorimuron and diclosulam (pattern R2) (the most frequent), and exclusive resistance to imazethapyr (pattern R3). Concisely, patterns were not site-specific but were rather geographically dispersed in different grain producing areas. Cases of multiple resistance to ALS inhibitors + atrazine or ALS inhibitors + glyphosate were not found.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    04 Nov 2019
  • Date of issue
    2019

History

  • Received
    05 Mar 2018
  • Accepted
    21 May 2018
Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas Departamento de Fitotecnia - DFT, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, 36570-000 - Viçosa-MG - Brasil, Tel./Fax::(+55 31) 3899-2611 - Viçosa - MG - Brazil
E-mail: rpdaninha@gmail.com