Abstract in English:The ONIOM method was used to calculate the proton affinities (PA) of n-alkylamines (CnH2n+1NH2, n = 3 to 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 18). The calculations were carried out at several levels (HF, MP2, B3LYP, QCISD(T), ...) using Pople basis sets and at the QCISD(T) level using basis sets developed by the generator coordinate method (GCM) and adapted to effective core potentials. PAs were also obtained through the GCM and high level methods, like ONIOM[QCISD(T)/6-31+G(2df,p):MP2/6-31G+G(d,p))//ONIOM[MP2/6-31+G(d,p):HF/6-31G]. The average error using the GCM, with respect to experimental data, was 3.4 kJ mol-1.
Abstract in English:The structural characterization of molecules used in the sterilization of blood for transfusions, such as crystal violet (CV), is relevant for understanding the action of these prophylactic drugs. The characterization is feasible by surface enhanced resonance Raman spectroscopy (SERRS) of CV in solution or on surfaces. The limit of detection of CV by SERRS, in the presence of colloidal particles, using 514.5 nm as excitation radiation, was found to be around 1 ppb. The characterization of CV was also made by SERS, by using different active-particles-containing substrates, proving the versatility of this technique for the study of such structures. The results suggest that the controlled production of highly efficient SERS-active substrates may allow qualitative and quantitative analysis, with high sensitivity, with potential applications in medical and environmental fields.
Abstract in English:This work was performed with the aim of evaluating the chemical variability among samples of Aloysia sellowii (Verbenaceae) collected in different geographical regions as well as the application of supercritical CO2 for obtaining essential oil. Thus, samples were collected in different localities and oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and supercritical CO2. Results showed existence of two chimiotypes in the species (cineole and sabinene). The supercritical CO2 extraction process was appropriate for extraction of A. sellowii essential oil at 40 ºC, 110 bar, 2 mL/min of flow and 10 min of extraction time.
Abstract in English:A solid phase extraction procedure using Amberlite XAD-1180/Pyrocatechol violet (PV) chelating resin for the determination of iron and lead ions in various environmental samples was established. The procedure is based on the sorption of lead(II) and iron(III) ions onto the resin at pH 9, followed by elution with 1 mol/L HNO3 and determination by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The influence of alkaline, earth alkaline and some transition metals, as interferents, are discussed. The recoveries for the spiked analytes were greater than 95%. The detection limits for lead and iron by FAAS were 0.37 µg/L and 0.20 µg/L, respectively. Validation of the method described here was performed by using three certified reference materials (SRM 1515 Apple Leaves, SRM 2711 Montana Soil and NRCC-SLRS-4 Riverine Water). The procedure was successfully applied to natural waters and human hair.
Abstract in English:The electrochemical properties of methylene blue immobilized on cellulose/TiO2 and mixed oxide SiO2/TiO2 matrices were investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry. The electron mediator property of the methylene blue was optimized using a factorial design, consisting of four factors in two levels. The experimental observations and data analyses on the system indicate that the lowest peak separation occurs for Sil/TiOAM, 1.0 mol L-1 KCl solution and 20 mV s-1 scan rate, while values of current ratio closest to unity were found for Cel/TiOAM independent of electrolyte concentration, 0.2 or 1.0 mol L-1, and scan rate, 20 mV s-1 or 60 mV s-1.
Abstract in English:The chemical study of the barks of the stem and roots of Bombacopsis glabra (Bombacaceae) led to the isolation and identification of 5-hydroxy-3,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (1), 5-hydroxy-3,6,7,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (2), the naphtoquinone isohemigossypolone (3), the ester triacontil p-coumarate (4) besides lupeol and a mixture of beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, including IR, ¹H and 13C NMR and MS. All these compounds, except 3, were isolated for the first time in the family.
Abstract in English:This work reports results of studies on the electrochemical and structural properties of a Ti/Zr-based metal hydride alloy covered by Ni and LaNi4,7Sn0,3 powder additives by ball milling. The effect of this treatment is investigated for the activation time, hydrogen storage capacity and equilibrium pressure, cycling stability and the hydration/dehydration kinetics. Charge and discharge cycles show a significant decrease of the activation time due to an increase of the active area caused by the milling treatment, independent of the additive. However, other results have evidenced little effect of the milling surface treatment on the charge storage capacity, hydrogen equilibrium pressure, and hydration/dehydration kinetics, for both the Ni and LaNi4,7Sn0,3 covered materials.
Abstract in English:|Cu x|[Si yAl]-MFI and |Co x|[Si yAl]-MFI catalysts were prepared by ion exchange from |Na|[Si yAl]-MFI zeolites (y = 12, 25 and 45). The activity of the catalysts was evaluated in the reduction of NO to N2 in an oxidative atmosphere using propane or methane as reducing agents. The Cu catalysts were only active with propane and they presented higher activity than the Co-based catalysts, the latter being active with both hydrocarbons. H2-TPR and DRS-UV/Vis data allowed correlation between the activity towards NO reduction and the presence of cationic charge-compensating species in the zeolite. It was also verified that the hydrocarbons are preferentially oxidised by O2, a reaction that occurs simultaneously with their oxidation with NO.
Abstract in English:A very simple spectrophotometric method is described for resolving binary mixture of the food colorants Sunset Yellow (INS 110) and Tartrazine Yellow (INS 102) by using the first derivative spectra with measurements at zero-crossing wavelengths. Before the spectrophotometric measurements, the dyes were sorbed onto polyurethane foam and recovered in N,N-dimethilformamide. Commercial food products (gelatine and juice powder) were analysed by using the proposed method and the HPLC technique. The results are in very good agreement and the differences between the methods is not statistically important. Therefore, the first-order derivative spectrophotometric method is accurate, precise, reliable and could be applied to the routine analysis of food samples.
Abstract in English:This work describes a systematic study for bovine liver sample preparation for Cd and Pb determination by solid sampling electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Samples were prepared using different procedures: (1) drying in a household microwave oven followed by drying in a stove at 60 ºC until constant mass, and (2) freeze-drying. Ball and cryogenic mills were used for grinding. Particle size, sample size and micro sample homogeneity were investigated. All prepared samples showed good homogeneity (He < 10) even for low sample mass, but samples dried in a microwave oven/stove and ground in a ball mill presented the best homogeneity.
Abstract in English:Zidovudine (AZT) and stavudine (D4T) are nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors extensively used in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients. In order to evaluate the quality of these drugs, two stability indicating HPLC methods were developed. The validated methods were applied in quantitative determination of AZT, D4T and their induced degradation products in capsule preparations. The stability studies were conducted at controlled temperature and relative humidity conditions based on the International Conference on Harmonization stability studies protocol for Zone IV areas. Easy sample preparation and low-cost make these methods especially useful for quality control and stability studies of AZT and D4T in drug products.
Abstract in English:The pentacyclic triterpenoid bauer-7-en-3beta-yl acetate was obtained from the chloroform extract of an unusual sample of propolis from southeast Brazil with the yield of 7%. The compound was identified by comparison of IR, MS and NMR analysis with published data.
Abstract in English:Copper content is of great concern among sugarcane-spirit producers. It is released from copper-made distillers, during the distillation process. Activated carbon has been used to remove copper. However, depending on the amount of carbon and the duration of reaction, it can also remove higher alcohols and esters, which are important in the final product. A sugarcane spirit with 9 mg L-1 of copper was shaken with 2 to 26 g L-1 of activated carbon, during 10 to 1440 minutes. Then, copper and organic compounds were measured. At least 12 g L-1 of carbon and 60 min shaking time were necessary to decrease copper bellow 5 mg L-1. However, other components of the product were also affected.
Abstract in English:TiO2 immobilization on concrete was studied using mixtures with cement, varnish and resin. The UV radiation sources were a germicide UV lamp and solar light. Aqueous solutions of chloroform (CHCl3) and of phenol were prepared and recirculated over the TiO2 immobilized surfaces. The immobilized TiO2 surfaces showed better photocatalytic efficiency for phenol degradation compared to the control. For CHCl3, the presence or absence of the catalyst did not cause any significant difference to its degradation efficiency. The micrographic results showed a more homogeneous surface for TiO2 immobilized in resin and varnish.
Abstract in English:Multi-element analyses of sediment samples from the Santos-Cubatão Estuarine System were carried out to investigate the spatial and seasonal variability of trace-element concentrations. The study area contains a rich mangrove ecosystem that is a habitat for tens of thousands of resident and migratory birds, some of them endangered globally. Enrichments of metals in fine-grained surface sediments are, in decreasing order, Hg, Mn, La, Ca, Sr, Cd, Zn, Pb, Ba, Cu, Cr, Fe, Nb, Y, Ni and Ga, relative to pre-industrial background levels. The maximum enrichment ranged from 49 (Hg) to 3.1 (Ga). Mercury concentrations were greater in the Cubatão river than in other sites, while the other elements showed greater concentrations in the Morrão river. Concentrations of Mn were significantly greater in winter and autumn than in summer and spring. However, other elements (e.g. Cd and Pb) showed the opposite, with greater concentrations in summer and spring. This study suggests that seasonal changes in physical and chemical conditions may affect the degree of sediment enrichment and therefore make the assessment of contamination difficult. Consequently, these processes need to be considered when assessing water quality and the potential contamination of biota.
Abstract in English:Simaba polyphylla is a small tree found in the Amazon region, known by the common names "marupazinho" or "serve para tudo". It is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of fevers. This work describes the phytochemical study of the hexane extract and chloroform fraction obtained by partitioning the methanol extract of stems, which led to isolation and identification of the triterpenes niloticin, dyhidroniloticin, taraxerone and of the cytotoxic alkaloid 9-methoxy-canthin-6-one. These compounds are described for the first time in S. polyphylla.
Abstract in English:In this work we present a new parametrization in molecular mechanics for studying iron complexes. This force field was implemented in the FORCES 2000 program, developed in our group for studying in coordination compounds of interest in bioinorganic chemistry. Mononuclear and dinuclear iron complexes were studied using this program with good success.
Abstract in English:Here we present an overview of electroluminescent devices that use conjugated polymers as the active media. The principal components of the devices are described and we show some examples of conjugated polymers and copolymers usually employed in polymeric light emitting devices (PLED). Some aspects of the photo and electroluminescence properties as well as of the energy transfer processes are discussed. As an example, we present some of the photophysical properties of poly(fluorene)s, a class of conjugated polymers with blue emission.
Abstract in English:An overview of the current literature on the chemical processes involved in the ion formation from low molecular weight organic compounds by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is given.
Abstract in English:Fumonisins are mycotoxins occurring worldwide, mainly in maize and maize-based food products, which could affect animal and human health. This paper reviews analytical methodologies for the determination of these fungal toxins in foods. It includes extraction, cleanup, derivatization procedures, detection, quantification, and confirmation procedures. Initial attempts at gas chromatographic methods and thin layer chromatography were supplanted by liquid chromatographic methods, mainly performed with fluorometric detection, or mass spectrometry detection, enabling the analysis of polar and thermolabile chemicals without chemical derivatization, which results in lower limits of detection. Alternative methods, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay or zone capillary zone electrophoresis, are also described.
Abstract in English:Monolithic stationary phases represent a new generation of chromatographic separation media. These phases consist of a continuous separation bed prepared by in situ polymerization or consolidation inside the column tubing. In recent years, their simple preparation procedure, unique properties and excellent performance have attracted quite remarkable attention in liquid chromatography and capillary electrochromatography. This review summarizes the preparation, characterization and applications of monolithic stationary phases. The analytical potential of these columns is demonstrated with separations involving various families of compounds in different separation modes.
Abstract in English:Efforts presented by the scientific community in recent years towards the development of numerous green chemical processes and wastewater treatment technologies are presented and discussed. In the light of these approaches, environmentally friendly technologies, as well as the key role played by the well-known advanced oxidation processes, are discussed, giving special attention to the ones comprising ozone applications. Fundamentals and applied aspects dealing with ozone technology and its application are also presented.
Abstract in English:Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.
Abstract in English:Natural products have been utilized by humans since ancient times and the relief and cure of their diseases was the first purpose for using natural products in medicine. The history of the oriental and occidental civilizations is very rich in examples of the utilization of natural products in medicine and health care. Chinese traditional medicine is one of the most important examples of how natural products can be efficient in the treatment of diseases, and it points to the importance of scientific research on natural products, concerning the discovery of new active chemical entities. The complexity, chemical diversity and biological properties of natural products always fascinated people, and during the last 200 years, this led to the discovery of important new drugs. In the last 30 years, the development of new bioassay techniques, biotechnology methods, bio-guided phytochemical studies, automated high throughput screening and high performance analytical methods, have introduced new concepts and possibilities of rational drug design and drug discovery. In this context, natural products have played an important and decisive role in the development of modern medicinal chemistry.
Abstract in English:This work describes, through examples, a simple way to carry out experimental design calculations applying an spreadsheets. The aim of this tutorial is to introduce an alternative to sophisticated commercial programs that normally are too complex in data input and output. An overview of the principal methods is also briefly presented. The spreadsheets are suitable to handle different types of computations such as screening procedures applying factorial design and the optimization procedure based on response surface methodology. Furthermore, the spreadsheets are sufficiently versatile to be adapted to specific experimental designs.
Abstract in English:Novel and quantitative mass spectrometry methods for rapid and accurate enantiomeric excess determination are presented. These methodologies use electrospray ionization (ESI) and mass spectrometry (MS) to detect and analyze, via collision-induced dissociation (CID), mass-selected transition metal complexes that promote enantio especific interactions. The data from CID are conveniently treated by the kinetic method, a sensitive linear free energy method of treating mass spectrometric results. Four different variations of this methodology are described: single ratio method (S R), quotient ratio method (Q R), fixed ligand method (S Rfixed), and quotient ratio method with fixed ligand (Q Rfixed). These individual methods are compared and their main features discussed in detail.
Abstract in English:Catalysis by solid acids has received much attention due to its importance in petroleum refining and petrochemical processes. Relatively few studies have focused on catalysis by bases and even les on using basic molecular sieves. This paper deals with the potential application of micro and mesoporous molecular sieves in base catalysis reactions. The paper is divided in two parts, the first one dedicated to the design of the catalysts and the second to some relevant examples of catalytic reactions, which find a huge field of applications essentially in the synthesis of fine chemicals. Here, recent developments in catalysis by basic molecular sieves and the perspectives of applications in correlated catalytic processes are described.
Abstract in English:A new passive sampling system for monitoring NO2 in air has been developed to measure gas concentrations in indoor and outdoor air. The sampler is inexpensive, and easy to construct and operate. Nitrogen dioxide forms a derivative after reaction with a filter coated with triethanolamine and ethyleneglycol. The nitrogen dioxide derivative is extracted from the filter, and the concentration is determined by colorimetry. To test the sampler for measuring ambient level nitrogen dioxide, measurements were carried out inside homes and in a range of workplace environments.
Abstract in English:Malaria is still one of the major diseases in the world, causing physical and economic problems in tropical regions. Artemisinin (Qinghaosu), a natural compound identified in Artemisia annua L. , is an effective drug mainly against cerebral malaria. The action of this drug is immediate and parasitaemia in the treatment of drug-resistant malaria is rapidily reduced, justifying the industrial production of artemisinin. This article focuses on the industrial production of this potent antimalarial drug, including strategies for enhancing yield using inexpensive and easy steps.
Abstract in English:A method is proposed for the determination of the moisture content of aromatic plants. This method is based on the co-distillation of the starting material in a modified Clevenger apparatus with four organic solvents (toluene, cyclohexane, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride). The results were compared with those obtained by oven drying at 105 ºC and steam distillation of the essential oil. The efficiencies of the methods were shown to be equivalent. The solvent distillation method was more practical, especially with respect to operating time (2 h).
Abstract in English:The microwave oven became an important source of heating for many laboratory procedures including accelerating organic reactions. Reactions that require long reflux times can sometimes be carried out in a few hours or minutes in a conventional microwave oven. However, longer reflux times can be troublesome since domestic microwave ovens are not prepared for these harsh conditions. This technical note presents our finding on heterogeneous catalysis transesterification reactions between b-keto-esters and carbohydrate derivatives under heating or microwave irradiation using an adapted domestic microwave oven.
Abstract in English:The purpose of the study was to observe eletrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of luminol using different materials as electrodes such as wires, nails, coins, razor blades, etc. Based on the experimental observations and the mechanisms proposed in the literature, students should be capable of analyzing their results in order to understand the phenomena studied. Students could then elaborate a mechanism of action consistent with the experimental results which could rationalize the formation of intermediates in the reaction and the dependence of ECL on solution pH in addition to other points of interest
Abstract in English:The trans-dichlorobis(ethylenediamine)cobalt(III) chloride was synthesized in an undergraduate laboratory and its aquation reaction was carried out at different temperatures. This reaction follows pseudo-first-order kinetics and the rate constants, determined at 25, 35, 45, 55 and 70 º C, are 1.44 x 10-3; 5.14 x 10-3; 1.48 x 10-2; 4.21 x 10-2 and 2.21 x 10-1 s-1, respectively. The activation energy is 93.99 ± 2.88 kJ mol-1.
Abstract in English:The work of Newton exerted a profound influence on the development of science. In chemistry this newtonian influence was present in Query 31 of Newton's Optics. However, the incursion of Newton's thought into chemistry brought upon the chemists an epistemological question, that of the nature of their discipline. Would chemistry be a discipline in its own right, or simply a branch of physics? In this work we present the newtonian program for chemistry, as well as the reaction of traditional chemists to it. We conclude by proposing that Lavoisier carried through a synthesis between newtonian methodology and the singularity of traditional chemistry.
Abstract in English:Beginning students in chemistry usually do not realize that wastes generated in their experimental classes constitute an environmental problem and that residues must be treated or disposed of in a suitable way. In this manuscript we describe the work that we have been doing in the inorganic chemistry course of the Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul with the objective of creating a critical consciousness in the students about the chemical wastes they generate. With this policy, students are required to take into account the nature of the residues they generate, how they can treat or segregate them, and how they can keep them in a suitable way for final destination, instead of simply throwing them away.
Abstract in English:The University of Brasília (UnB) uses a diversity of chemical products, generating residues in a significant way in its multiple activities - teaching, research and community services. The UnB Comission on Chemical Residues Management was established in November 2002, aiming at three main objectives: 1) correct destination for the accumulated residues; 2) implantation of a chemical residues management system and 3) implantation of a UnB Unit for Treatment of Chemical Residues. To fulfil these commitments, a diagnosis of chemical residues produced by the University was performed, which is here presented with an evaluation of their future use, limitations and possibilities.