Abstract in English:Phytochemical investigation of the wood from Zanthoxylum quinduense Tul. allowed the isolation and identification of norchelerythrine, decarine, 6-acetonyldihydrochelerythrine, syringaresinol, evofilin C, p-hydroxybenzaldehyde, vanillic acid, a mixture of β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol and a mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, and their esters derivatives. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques and comparison with literature data and the mixture of sterols and fatty acids were identified by GC/MS. The antifungal activity of the ethanolic extract, fractions and pure compounds against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici was determined by bioautography. Evofilin C and nochelerytrine were the only substances that present antifungal activity.
Abstract in English:In this study honey samples produced in the southwest of Bahia were characterized based on physicochemical and mineral (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Mn, Fe and Zn) composition. The metals were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The application of multivariate analysis showed that the honey colors are consequence of the mineral and physicochemical compositions. The darkest honey samples are characterized by higher values of pH and for presenting a strong relationship with Ca and Fe content.
Abstract in English:The pollutant transference among reservoirs atmosphere-hydrosphere, relevant to the atmospheric chemistry, depends upon scavenging coefficient (Λ) calculus, which depends on the raindrop size distribution as well as on the rainfall systems, both different to each locality. In this work, the Λ calculus will be evaluated to gas SO2 and particulate matter fine and coarse among five sites in Germany and two in Brazil. The results show three possible classifications in function of Λ, comparable to literature, however with a greater range due to the differences of rainfall system sites. This preliminary study supports future researches
Abstract in English:This paper proposes a methodology to predict benzene uptake rate in ambient air, using passive samplers with Tenax TA. Variations in the uptake rate were found to occur as a function of the sampling time; and were greater at the beginning of sampling. An empirical model was obtained and values for uptake rate agree with literature. Concentration prediction errors can be minimized by using sampling times of 4 to 14 days, thus avoiding the influence of excessive uptake rates in the initial days and the influence of back diffusion at the end of the sampling period.
Abstract in English:In this work the treatment of textile dyeing baths by a sequential reductive-oxidative process was evaluated, aiming its utilization in new dyeing process. The results demonstrated that reactive dyes can be easily degraded by reductive processes mediated by zero-valent iron, a fact that induces decolorizations of about 80%. Sequential photo-Fenton processes permit almost total removal of the residual color with elimination of 90% of the COD content. The reuse of treated residues permits the achievement of materials that attend practically all textile specifications, with exception of the color difference parameter (ΔE), which is unsatisfactory toward the importation standards, but adequate for the national market.
Abstract in English:A culture of P. brasilianum, isolated from soil collected at the Serra do Cipó National Park, in Minas Gerais State (Brazil), was grown for 25 days on a dextrose-peptone-salts medium. The corresponding ethylacetate extract was column chromatographed and four compounds were isolated: austin, dehydroaustin, D-mannitol and penicillic acid. This is, in the best of our knowledge, the first time that the meroterpenes austin and dehydroaustin have been isolated from this species. Activity of the extract and isolated compounds was tested against six bacteria and for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. Penicillic acid showed high activity in both tests.
Abstract in English:The present work aimed modify chemically the chitosan (QTS) surface to obtain a reticulate chitosan quaternary ammonium salt (SAQQR), and compare this anionic exchanger with an commercial ion exchanger in the extraction of available phosphorus in soils. The results showed that the two exchangers are identical, extracting similar and proportional quantities of available phosphorus in the studied soils, and the anionic exchanger of SAQQR provides a high chemical stability, not affected by the pH difference of soils.
Abstract in English:Samples of shells of oysters and mussels from sea farm around the Santa Catarina Island in south Brazil were collected and analyzed by DRX, FRX, SEM, CHN-S, FTIR, TG, AAS/Flame and AAS /GF. The results showed that the crystalline structure of mussel's shells is mainly formed by aragonite and the oyster's shells by calcite. The calcium percentage in both shells species was in the range of 33 to 35% and also 850 and 1200 mg/kg of strontium was detected in the shells of oysters and mussels, respectively. The content of organic matter was larger in the mussel's shells and the thermal degradation of both shells species occurred by three events at different temperatures from 250 to 830 ºC.
Abstract in English:Objective of this work was identifying superficial water quality parameters, significant to semi-arid hydrographic basins, minimizing costs of water monitoring. The Salitre river basin, an important sub-basin of the São Francisco river, was used as a case study. STD, Cl-, DO, BOD, pH, NO3-, PO4(3-), Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb were considered the most significant parameters, with concentration levels found in some stretches of the basin not compliant with the current legislation. Some of the Salitre river basin sediments may represent a risk to the quality of the water body in relation to levels of nickel and zinc.
Abstract in English:This work is focused on the chemical distribution of volatile and semi-volatile compounds of 18 native populations of Maytenus ilicifolia collected all over Brazil. The extracts of bulk samples (30 plants) of each population were obtained by supercritical CO2 extraction technique, and analyzed by GC/MS. The quantification of compounds (phytol, squalene, vitamin E, limonene, stigmasterol, friedelan-3-ol, friedelin, fridelan-3-one, palmitic acid and geranyl acetate) showed significant variations within the different populations, which could be related tom microclimate characteristics.
Abstract in English:Solid solution of iron doped potassium strontium niobate with KSr2(FeNb4)O15-Δ stoichiometry was prepared by high efficiency ball milling method. Structural characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction. Crystalline structure was analyzed by the Rietveld refinements using the FullProf software. The results showed a tetragonal system with the tetragonal tungsten bronze structure - TTB (a = 12.4631 (2) Å and c = 3.9322 (6) Å, V = 610.78 (2) Å³). In this work, the sites occupancy by the K+, Sr2+ and Fe3+ cations on the TTB structure were determined. NbO6 polihedra distortion and its correlation with the theoretical polarization are discussed.
Abstract in English:Sodium faujasite zeolites with Si/Al ratio of 1.4 and 2.5 were exchanged with methylammonium cations. The influence of framework aluminum and ion exchange degree in their basic properties were evaluated. These properties were assessed in the Knoevenagel catalytic condensation. The sodium ion exchange was restricted to the supercavity and the exchange degree depended on the cation volume and on the Si/Al ratio. The higher catalytic activity is achieved for the zeolite with the lower Si/Al ratio exchanged with the monomethylammonium cation. The best performance of this catalyst is attributed to the higher basicity in combination with elevated micropore volume.
Abstract in English:The Neem tree, Azadirachta indica, provides many useful compounds that are used as pesticides. However, the efficiency in field of products like neem oil can be committed because they have not been observed reproductive content of secondary metabolic like azadirachtin. Based on reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) a new method was developed to permit the rapid quantitative analysis of azadirachtin from seeds, extracts and oil of Neem. In the present study it was evaluated the azadirachtin quantitative variation among various Neem's extracts and seeds showing the importance of quality control for reproduction of the insecticide efficiency, using S. frugiperda as target insect.
Abstract in English:This paper reports a study of electrochemical degradation of the chloramphenicol antibiotic in aqueous medium using a flow-by reactor with DSA® anode. The process efficiency was monitored by chloramphenicol concentration analysis with liquid chromatography (HPLC) during the experiments. Analysis of Total Organic Carbon (TOC) was performed to estimate the degradation degree and Ion Chromatography (IC) was performed to determinate inorganic ions formed during the eletrochemical degradation process. In electrochemical flow-by reactor, 52% of chloramphenicol was degraded, with 12% TOC reduction. IC analysis showed the production of chloride ions (25 mg L-1), nitrate ions (6 mg L-1) and nitrite ions (4.5 mg L-1).
Abstract in English:Brazil is one of the largest producers and consumers of charcoal in the world. About 50% of its charcoal comes from native forests, with a large part coming from unsustainable operations. The anatomic identification of charcoal is subjective; an instrumental technique would facilitate the monitoring of forests. This study aimed to verify the feasibility of using medium and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate native (ipê) from plantation charcoals (eucalyptus). Principal Components Analysis, followed by Discriminant Factorial Analysis formed two different groups indicated by Mahalanobis distances of 40.6 and 80.3 for near and mid infrared, respectively. Validation of the model showed 100% efficacy.
Abstract in English:The Energy Value (EV) corresponds to the sum of the energetic contributions from food macronutrients (proteins, carbohydrates and fats) and is required on the labels of pre-packaged foods. The determinations of these parameters are based on distinct analytical procedures, each one being time-consuming, laborious and producing residues. This work presents multivariate models to determine the EV contents of industrialized foods for human consumption by using X-ray fluorescence spectra of samples with known parameters, determined through conventional methods. The proposed method is an alternative to conventional analytical methods and does not require any reagent, given the demands of the "green chemistry".
Abstract in English:This work reports the growth of corundum crystals by the flux method. The main objective was the evaluation of versatility, effectiveness and real possibilities of the flux method to the synthesis and doping of monocrystals with impurities of particular interest. In this work the chosen impurities were i) Cr and ii) Fe and Ti, aiming the synthesis of rubies and sapphires, respectively. The crystals were grown by heating a mixture of Al2O3:Cr or Al2O3:Fe:Ti and flux (MoO3). The maximum crystal size obtained was 1.0 mm, all transparent, presenting well developed faces, bipiramidal hexagonal shape, and showing a typical red (ruby) and/or light blue (sapphire) color. EDX and XPD experiments were performed in order to characterize some of the synthesized crystals. All crystallized specimens presented the α-alumina atomic structure.
Abstract in English:It was carried out an electrochemical study of the cobalt electrodeposition onto HOPG electrode from an aqueous solution containing 10-2 M of CoSO4 + 1M (NH4)2SO4. Nucleation parameters such as nucleation rate, density of active nucleation sites, saturation nucleus and the rate constant of the proton reduction reaction (kPR) were determined from potentiostatic studies. An increase in kPR values with the decrease in the applied potential suggested a competition between H+ and Co2+ by the active sites on the surface. The ΔG energy calculated for the formation of stable nucleus was 8.21x10-21 J/nuclei. The AFM study indicated the formation of small clusters of 50-400 nm in diameter and 2-120 nm in height.
Abstract in English:ε-Caprolactam (CAP) is a monomer of nylon 6 used as food packaging for bologna sausage, turkey blanquettes, fowl breast, pâtés and ham luncheon meat. After polymerization a part of the monomer can remain in the packaging and migrate into the food. The aim of this work was develop and validate a single laboratory method to determine CAP in ethanol 95% that simulates fatty food characteristics. Thus, linear range was 2 to 32 mg/L of CAP, detection and quantification limits were 0.83 and 1.63 mg/L, respectively. Repeatability showed Hor Rat values lower than 2 while recovery range was 97.5 to 106.5%. The method was considered adequate for purpose.
Abstract in English:The volatile oils from Nectandra megapotamica Spreng. leaves, collected in February and August of 2007 and at 7:00 and 12:00 h (samples A - D), were extracted by hydrodistillation and the chemical composition was analyzed by GC-FID and GC/MS. A total of nineteen compounds were identified with predominance of oxygenated sesquiterpenes, among them, α-bisabolol, was the main constituent (62.3-69.4 %). After chromatographic separation procedures, this compound was purified from crude oil and its structure was confirmed by analysis of NMR data. This paper describes for the first time the composition of the leaves volatile oil from N. megapotamica.
Abstract in English:The phytochemical investigation of the ethanol extract from the aerial parts of Blainvillea rhomboidea (Asteraceae) resulted in the isolation and characterization of 8β-tigloyloxy-grazielia acid, together with the flavonoids derrone, acacetin, luteolin and luteolin 7-methyl ether, and p-(1-methyl-ethan-1-ol)-phenol. The structures of all compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods (¹H and 13C NMR and HREIMS) and comparison with published spectral data. The flavonoids luteolin and 7-O-metyl-luteolin, isolated from the active dichloromethane fraction, showed moderate cytotoxic activity.
Abstract in English:A sensitive RP-HPLC method with UV detection successfully measured phenol(s) in an ointment containing 3% Stryphnodendron adstringens extract. Chromatography used acetonitrile (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid):water (0.05% trifluoroacetic acid) (v/v), flow rate 0.8 mL min-1. Quantitation was accomplished by the external-standard method. Linearity for 2.00 to 16.00 μg mL-1 (gallic acid) and 1.14 to 18.24 μg mL-1 (gallocatechin) was established. Intra- and inter-day precision levels were under 5%. LOD and LOQ were 0.231 and 0.770 μg mL-1 (gallic acid) and 0.151 and 0.504 μg mL-1 (gallocatechin), respectively. Determination of phenols was unaffected by product excipients.
Abstract in English:Pyrohydrolysis is proposed for fossil fuels sample preparation for further fluorine and chlorine determination. Samples were heated during 10 min at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Water vapor was passed through the reactor and the volatile products were condensed and collected in NH4OH solution. Fluoride was determined by potentiometry using an ion selective electrode (ISE) and Cl by ICP OES and DRC-ICP-MS. The results are in good agreement with certified values and the precision is better than 10% (n = 4). Sample preparation by means of pyrohydrolysis is relatively simple, whereas chlorine and fluorine can be determined at low concentrations.
Abstract in English:Cellulose acetate polymeric membranes had been prepared by a procedure of two steps, combining the method of phase inversion and the technique of hydrolysis-deposition. The first step was the preparation of the membrane, and together was organomodified with tetraethylortosilicate and 3-aminopropyltrietoxysilane. Parameters that exert influence in the complexation of the metallic ion, as pH, time of complexation, metal concentration, had been studied in laboratory using tests of metal removal. The membranes had presented resistance mechanics and reactivity to cations, being able to be an alternative for the removal, daily pay-concentration or in the study of the lability of metals complexed.
Abstract in English:The volatile oils from leaves of five Brazilian specimens of Swietenia macrophylla King (Meliaceae) collected in three different Amazon Rainforest Conservation Areas in the States of Mato Grosso, Pará, and Rondônia were extracted and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The oils showed to be composed by terpenoids, majority hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes, being germacrene D (20.5-46.8%) and bicyclogermacrene (8.3-11.1%) the main components. Besides these derivatives, only α-cubebene, β-caryophyllene, β-gurjunene and γ-cadinene were detected in all of the analyzed samples. This analysis indicated a great diversity of constituents in the oils obtained from specimens collected in these regions, which could be associated to the different susceptibility in the attack of H. grandella in S. macrophylla cultures.
Abstract in English:Simultaneous measurements of outdoor and indoor pollution were performed at three schools in Lisbon. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde and NO2 were passively monitored over a two-week period. Bacterial and fungal colony-forming units and comfort parameters were also monitored at classrooms and playgrounds. The highest indoor levels of CO2 (2666 μg/m³), NO2 (40.3 μg/m³), VOCs (10.3 μg/m³), formaldehyde (1.03 μg/m³) and bioaerosols (1634 CFU/m³), and some indoor/outdoor ratios greater than unity, suggest that indoor sources and building conditions might have negative effects on air indoors. Increasing ventilation rates and use of low-emission materials would contribute towards improving indoor air quality.
Abstract in English:A dissolution test for in vitro evaluation of tablet dosage forms containing 10 mg of rupatadine was developed and validated by RP-LC. A discriminatory dissolution method was established using apparatus paddle at a stirring rate of 50 rpm with 900 mL of deaerated 0.01 M hydrochloric acid. The proposed method was validated yielding acceptable results for the parameters evaluated, and was applied for the quality control analysis of rupatadine tablets, and to evaluate the formulation during an accelerated stability study. Moreover, quantitative analyses were also performed, to compare the applicability of the RP-LC and the LC-MS/MS methods.
Abstract in English:Hydrogen bonds formed through the interaction between a high electronic density center (lone electron pairs, π or pseudo-π bonds) and proton donors cause important electronic and vibrational phenomena in many systems. However, it was demonstrated that proton donors interact with hydrides, such as alkali and alkaline earth metals (BeH2, MgH2, LiH and NaH), what yields a new type of interaction so-called dihydrogen bonds. The characterization of these interactions has been performed at light of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM), by which the electronic densities ρ are quantified and the intermolecular regions are characterized as closed-shell interactions through the analysis of the Laplacian field ∇2ρ.
Abstract in English:α,β-unsaturated lactones possessing an alkylidene appendage group at the γ-position, are frequently termed γ-alkylidenebutenolides. Over the past decades, an increasing number of these compounds have been isolated from various natural sources. Members of this class of substances vary greatly in structural complexity and functionality. Besides that, many of them have been shown to display a wide range of biological activities. The γ-alkylidenebutenolides has attracted the attention of the organic synthetic chemists resulting in the development of a variety of process to synthesize them. This article review is concerned with the different approaches that can be utilized to prepare γ-alkylidenebutenolides.
Abstract in English:The fact that biologically relevant molecules exist only as one of the two enantiomers is a fascinating example of complete symmetry breaking of chirality and has long intrigued our curiosity. The origin of this selective chirality has remained a fundamental enigma with regard to the origin of life since the time of Pasteur, 160 years ago. The symmetry breaking processes, which include autocatalytic crystallization, asymmetric autocatalysis, spontaneous crystallization, adsorption and polymerization of amino acids on mineral surfaces, provide new insights into the origin of biomolecular homochirality.
Abstract in English:The organic acids (tartaric, malic, citric, lactic and succinic) are de main components responsible for the acidity in the wine. This method for simultaneous determination of organic acids and interfering peaks in wines can be achieved in 16 min. The sample preceded by a dilution and filtration step. The chromatographic separation required one reversed phase column, isocratic mobile phase (acetonitrila, formic acid in water) and detection wavelength was set at 212 nm. The validation confirmed good repeatability, recovery and application in red and white wines.
Abstract in English:Conventional sample holder cells used to the electric characterization of ceramics at high temperature consists of an alumina tube and platinum wires and plates using a complex design. The high cost materials used in the conventional sampler holder cell were replaced by stainless steel and conventional ceramics. The sample holder was validated by characterizing yttria-stabilized-zirconia in a temperature range of 25 to 700 ºC. The results do not present variations, discontinuity or unusual noise in the electric signals. Several samples were characterized without maintenance, which demonstrates that the sample holder is electric and mechanic adequate to be used to electrical characterization of ceramics up to 700 ºC.
Abstract in English:Monitoring of sewage sludge has proved the presence of many polar anthropogenic pollutants since LC/MS techniques came into routine use. While advanced techniques may improve characterizations, flawed sample processing procedures, however, may disturb or disguise the presence and fate of many target compounds present in this type of complex matrix before analytical process starts. Freeze-drying or oven-drying, in combination with centrifugation or filtration as sample processing techniques were performed followed by visual pattern recognition of target compounds for assessment of pretreatment processes. The results shown that oven-drying affected the sludge characterization, while freeze-drying led to less analytical misinterpretations.
Abstract in English:The decomposition of detergent powder samples in a microwave oven and autoclave was evaluated. To establish the best experimental conditions a 2(5) factorial design was performed, varying the conditions in autoclave and microwave digestion and flow system parameters for the determination of phosphorus. The best composition was: 0.2 mL sulfuric acid; 500 W power and a 2 min time interval; 6 mmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and 16 mmol L-1 of molybdate to flow system. This factor levels use less reagents than the reference method. No statistically significant differences were found between the autoclave and microwave oven responses at the 95% confidence level.
Abstract in English:This article describes the use of a projection spectrograph based on an overhead projector for use in classroom demonstrations on light polarization and optical activity. A simple adaptation on a previously developed apparatus allows illustrating several aspects of optical activity, such as circular and linear birefringence, including their wavelength dependence. Specifically, we use the projection spectrograph to demonstrate the optical activity of an aqueous solution of sugar (circular birefringence), of a quartz plate and of an overhead projector transparence film (linear birefringence). A historical survey about the optical activity discovery and the main principles involved is also presented.
Abstract in English:Quantum chemical calculations were performed in order to obtain molecular properties such as electronic density, dipole moment, atomic charges, and bond lengths, which were compared to qualitative results based on the theories of the organic chemistry. The quantum chemistry computational can be a useful tool to support the main theories of the organic chemistry.
Abstract in English:The importance of the patent system for researchers, especially in chemistry and related areas, is undeniable. In this context, this work aims at guiding the search in major search engines of patents, in order to map the patents related to a specific chemical compound and identify the material that each patent document protects. In this case study, it was performed a search for the drug efavirenz to demonstrate how to conduct a literature search in patents databases and to map patent applications at national and international levels.
Abstract in English:In this research, we seek to corroborate the contributions of Chemistry to the identification, extraction and classification of minerals in the XVIII century, as well as, to approach the discussion that History of Chemistry shouldn't be understood in terms of a tight line of thoughts. For that, we analyze the work of Johann Andreas Cramer (1710-1777), Elements of the Art of Assaying Metals. Cramer proposed a method of mineral assaying based on the chemical behavior of the bodies, which allowed him to identify, extract and classify the minerals with more assertiveness.