Abstract in English:A total number of 300 females and 30 males of two experimental broiler lines, TT (male) and PP (female), with 39 and 36 weeks of age, respectively. Experiment 1 (TT) evaluated the effect of storage time (ST) on hatchability and embryo mortality (EM). Eggs were stored for 2 (ST1), 4 (ST2), 6 (ST3), 8 (ST4), 10 (ST5), 12 (ST6), and 24 (ST7) days and EM was assessed in the periods of 0 to 6 (EM1), 7 a 13 (EM2), 14 to 17 (EM3), 18 to 21 (EM4), and 0 to 21 (TEM) days. Experiment 2 (PP) evaluated the effect of egg weight (EW) on embryo development. Eggs were individually collected and weighed. Embryos were collected and weighed on days 9 (EW9), 11 (EW11), 13 (EW13), EW15, 17 (EW17) days of incubation and at hatching (EW21). ST linearly influenced hatchability and EM, with an estimated 1.17% reduction and a 1.15% increase, respectively for each 1.0 day of storage. Hatchability was reduced in 21% betweeb ST2 and ST7, resulting from a 462% increase in EM. The correlation between egg weight and embryo weight (EW) was significant after EW3 (0.25), reaching 0.72 for EW21, which corresponded to 70.92% of egg weight. The estimated increase in embryo weight for each 1.0g increase in egg weight was 0.71g for EW21.
Abstract in English:This study analyzed broiler breeder age (29 or 60 wk-old) effects on physical characteristics of eggs (initial mass, mass loss, volume, diameter, surface area and density) and of eggshells(weight, volume, thickness, conductance, and porosity ), as well as the influence of embryo sex on hematological parameters and body, liver and heart weights during incubation (at days 13, 15, 18 and 21). Physical parameter values were lower in 29-wk-old broiler breeder eggs than those of 60-wk-old breeders, except for relative eggshell weight, which was higher. In both male and female embryos, erythrocytic parameters and the body, liver, and heart weights increased during the incubation. The embryos and their organs were heavier when derived from 60-wk-old breeder eggs as compared to 29-wk-old breeder eggs. At hatching, hematocrit values were higher in males than in females. Thrombocytes were the most frequent leukocytes in the blood. Thrombocyte percentage decreased and lymphocyte percentage increased during the last days of incubation. The results showed maternal age influence only on body, heart and liver weights, focal sex-related influence the hematocrit at hatching, and temporal effect of incubation on body and organ weights, as well as on red blood cell count, hematocrit, hemoglobin, plasma glucose, and lymphocytes, which increased during the incubation period, while mean corpuscular volume and thrombocyte values decreased.
Abstract in English:This experiment aimed at evaluating the effect of genetic selection on embryo development of two male broiler lines (LL and LLc). LL line was selected for eight generations for growth, carcass, and reproduction traits. The LLc line was derived from LL line in 1985, and kept under a random mating system with no selection. Fertile eggs were collected and individually weighed for four periods of five consecutive days, with two-week intervals. For every period, a total of 960 eggs/line were identified and separated in four groups of 240 eggs, and then stored for subsequent incubation. At 9 (P9), 11 (P11), 13 (P13), 15 (P15), 17 (P17) and 21 (P21) days of incubation, eggs and embryos were weighed (EmW). Egg weight (EgW) was similar between the two lines. The differences in EmW started to be significant after P15, resulting in a 2.03g difference in hatchling weight, indicating genetic changes of 0.54% by generation, which can be attributed to selection for body weight. The correlation between EgW and EmW started to be significant after P13, and correlations of 0.738 and 0.712 (P21) were observed for LL and LLc, respectively. Hatchling weight corresponded to 71.94 (LL) and 68.96 (LLc) of EgW. The estimated increases in P21 resulting from each 1.0g increase in EgW were 0.73g (LL) and 0.69g (LLc).
Abstract in English:A study on the occurrence of epididymal lithiasis (EL) in Gallus gallus domesticus of different breeds and from different geographical regions of Brazil was carried out. Forty breeding roosters were collected in the states Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espírito Santo and Goiás, representing two specific pathogen free Leghorn lines (SPF), one commercial Leghorn layer breeder (Hy-Line) line, two commercial broiler breeder lines (Ross and Cobb), and two backyard chicken flocks. In commercial poultry breeders, EL was observed mainly after 55 weeks of age, and lithus resulted in lower fertility caused by inadequate maturation of spermatozoa and testicular atrophy, which evolved to more severe testicular dysfunction at 100 weeks of age. One hundred percent of the sampled roosters of the evaluated SPF lines presented epididymal lithiasis, which was also observed in all commercial genetic lines. The analysis of EL occurrence revealed no differences among regions and breeds: all regions and genetic lines presented epididymal calculi and the occurrence seemed higher in the more intensively-reared chickens. As for the backyard roosters, 50% presented calculi. Considering the occurrence of EL in the SPF flocks, its primary association with infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection was discarded, despite its contribution to fertility loss.
Abstract in English:This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of different levels of phytase on broiler performance, bone densitometry, and phosphorus and nitrogen excretion. Nine hundred and sixty one-day old broilers, 50% males and 50% females, were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design into five treatments and six replicates 32 birds each. The treatments consisted of a control diet and four diets with the addition 25, 50, 75, and 100 g/ ton of phytase (250, 500, 750 and 1000 FTU of phytase/kg fed). Diets were formulated to contain equal nutritional levels, and considered the phytase product nutritional levels. In general, the addition of phytase resulted in a linear decrease in broiler performance. However, the performance results obtained with the level of 250 FTU phytase/kg feed were not different from the control treatment. The best bone density results were observed in the control treatment, with no phytase. The results of this experiment indicate that the nutritional matrix of the phytase product needs to be reviewed when added in levels higher 250 FTU/kg to broiler diets.
Abstract in English:Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the inclusion of vegetable oils with different fatty acid content in starter and pre-starter broiler diets. In Experiment I 480 1- to 9-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were fed diets containing corn oil (CO), acid corn oil (ACO), linseed oil (LO) or coconut fat (CoF). Chicks were distributed according to a factorial 2x2x2arrangement (2 free fatty acids - FFA ) x (2 n6:n3 ratios) x (2 medium-chain fatty acids levels - AGMC). Performance responses and dry matter (DMM), crude protein (CPM), and crude fat (CFM) metabolizability were evaluated. In Experiment II, 480 1- to 20-day-old male Ross 308 broilers were offered the free choice of 2 different diets: with no fat addition, or with 10% addition of the following fat sources: CO, LO, CoF, soybean soapstock (SBS), acid soybean oil (ASO), or acid cottonseed oil (ACtO). Performance responses and diet selection were evaluated. In experiment I, there were no significant effects of the diets on performance, DMM, or CPM; however, the inclusion of FFA depressed CFM. In experiment II, there was a marked preference of birds of the diets with fat inclusion, leading to the selection of diets with more than 3100 kcal/kg ME in the period of 1 to 20 days, independently of fat source. The broilers selected the high fat and energy diets since the first days of age, which resulted in better bird performance.
Abstract in English:This experiment studied the effect of four calcium (3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5%) and four available phosphorus levels (0.25, 0.30, 0.35, and 0.40%) in the diet of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting. Hisex Brown® layers between 90 and 108 weeks of age were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with a 4x4 factorial arrangement with 16 treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. mortality, egg production, feed intake, egg mass, average egg weight, calcium and phosphorus intake, feed conversion ratio (per dozen eggs and per kg eggs), eggshell percentage and thickness, eggshell strength, eggshell weight per surface area (ESWSA), yolk percentage and color, albumen percentage, albumen and yolk heights, and blood and excreta calcium and phosphorus concentrations. There was no interaction (P>0.05) between dietary Ca and avP for any of the studied parameters. There were linear increases in Ca intake (P<0.01), eggshell percentage (P<0.05); ESWSA (P<0.05); yolk color (P<0.05); Ca concentration in the blood (P<0.05) and excreta (P<0.01) as dietary Ca level increased. The intake of avP linearly increased (P<0.01) with dietary avP levels. The remaining parameters were not influenced (P>0.05) by dietary Ca and avP levels. The diet containing 4.5% calcium improved feed conversion ratio per dozen eggs and eggshell quality. The lowest avP level fed (0.25%) is sufficient to maintain the performance and the egg quality of semi-heavy commercial layers after molting.
Abstract in English:Two metabolism assays were carried out to determine corn and soybean meal metabolizable energy when enzymes were added. In the first trial, 35 cockerels per studied feedstuff (corn and soybean meal) were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments of seven replicates of one bird each. The evaluated treatments were: ingredient (corn and soybean meal) with no enzyme addition, with the addition of an enzyme complex (xylanase, amylase, protease - XAP), xylanase, or phytase. Precise feeding method was used to determine true metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (TMEn). The use of enzymes did not result in any differences (p>0.05) in soybean meal TMEn, but phytase improved corn TMEn in 2.3% (p=0.004). In the second trial, 280 seven-day-old broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design with seven treatments of five replicates of eight birds each. Treatments consisted of corn with no enzyme addition or with the addition of amylase, xylanase, phytase, XAP complex, XAP+phytase combination, or xylanase/ pectinase/β-glucanase complex (XPBG). Corn was supplemented with macro and trace minerals. Total excreta collection was used to determine apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn). Differences were observed (p=0.08) in AMEn and dry matter metabolizability coefficient (p=0.03). The combination of the XAP complex with phytase promoted a 2.11% increase in corn AMEn values, and the remaining enzymes allowed increased between 0.86% and 1.66%.
Abstract in English:The interference of low or high maternal antibodies titers on the attenuated infectious bursal disease (IBD) virus (IBDV) vaccine infection and its effects on the performance of broilers vaccinated at the 18th day of incubation (in ovo), at one day of age (subcutaneously-SC), or at 15 days of age (drinking water-DW) were investigated. After a series of three live vaccinations, breeders were given or not an IBD oil emulsion vaccine (IBD-OEV) prior to sexual maturity. At day 18 of incubation (in ovo), a commercial vaccine containing HVT and an intermediate IBDV strain or the single HVT vaccine was given. An intermediate IBDV vaccine was given SC at one day of age, or at 15 days of age via DW. The progeny of unvaccinated breeders presented higher neutralizing IBDVspecific antibody (IBDVab) titers at 25 and 40 days of age than those of the progeny of IBD-OEV breeders (p<0.05) at any broilers vaccination age and route. The lower IBDV RNA detection by RT-PCR in the bursa of Fabricius (BF) and the lower IBDV antibody titers in the serum of the groups vaccinated at one and 15 days of age derived from IBD-OEV breeders may indicate antibody-mediated IBDV neutralization. The inovo and one-day vaccinations did not interfere with performance, both in low and high antibody-titered progenies. The in-ovo vaccination against IBD is considered convenient and safe for industrial chickens, irrespective their maternal antibody levels.
Abstract in English:The protective effect of various Salmonella vaccines regimens against an experimental Salmonella Gallinarum challenge (SGNalr strain at 12 wk of age) was evaluated in two experiments. In Experiment 1 commercial brown layers were vaccinated according to one of the following programs: (i) two doses of a SE bacterin (Layermune SE; group 1); (ii) a first dose of a live SG9R vaccine (Cevac SG9R) followed by a SE bacterin (Layermune SE; group 2); (iii) one dose of each of two different multivalent inactivated vaccines containing SE cells (Corymune 4 & Corymune 7; group 3) or (iv) not vaccinated (group 4). In Experiment 2, broiler breeders were given the same vaccination treatments except for the group vaccinated with the multivalent vaccines. Overall, in both experiments, all vaccination schemes were effective in reducing mortality after challenge with a SG field strain. Primary vaccination with an initial dose of a live SG9R vaccine followed some weeks later by a dose of an inactivated SE bacterin was the most effective (p<0.05) vaccination program against mortality induced by field SG experimental challenge in both experiments. In conclusion, Salmonella vaccination programs containing SE bacterins alone or in combination with a live SG9R vaccine are effective in preventing mortality induced by infection of field SG. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that any vaccination program against any Salmonella serotype will only be effective if it is part of a sound and comprehensive biosecurity program designed for Salmonella control in poultry farms.