Abstract in English:Economic growth and production process development require technological support. Technology changes production functions, enabling a higher number of goods to be produced using the same amount of input. In this review, we discuss research and development in information technology that has led to innovative actions, with the new generation of tools, known as precision agriculture tools, that can be applied in Brazilian poultry production. In this context, research and development have focused on producing technological innovations based on increasingly specialized tools that go beyond human mind power, and are related to the acquisition, access, and processing of a huge number of data. The technology generated to date has assimilated the knowledge of experts, transferring it to the computing environment, providing steady, consistent, inexpensive, and fast tools to support decision-making in corporate farms. This will produce more precise and documented decisions, based on accessible and reproducible knowledge. There would be no direct interference of the global market, bringing benefits to producers, consumers, and also ensuring the welfare of birds. This review also highlights the interest of researcher in developing intelligent applications to support best practices, methods, and processes in order to monitor the production chain. It also shows that a few changes may affect the process as a whole, enabling fast decision-making, and promoting a preventative and less aggressive management of birds.
Abstract in English:This study aimed at evaluating the thermal performance of a modular ceiling system for poultry houses. The reduced- and distorted-scale prototypes used ceiling modules made of reforested wood and were covered with recycled long-life package tiles. The following parameters were measured for 21 days: tile internal surface temperature (ST), globe temperature and humidity index (WBGT), and radiant heat load (RHL). Measurements were made at times of highest heat load (11:00 am, 13:00 pm, and 03:00 pm). Collected data were analyzed by "R" statistics software. Means were compared by multiple comparison test (Tukey) and linear regression was performed, both at 5% significance level. The results showed that the prototype with the ceiling was more efficient to reduce internal tile surface temperature; however, this was not sufficient to provide a comfortable environment for broilers during the growout. Therefore, other techniques to provide proper cooling are required in addition to the ceiling.
Abstract in English:An experiment was carried out at the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different nutritional plans on the performance of male and female Ross broilers. A completely randomized experimental design with a 6x2 factorial arrangement (six nutritional plans x two sexes) with six replicates of 20 birds per experimental unit was applied. The nutritional plans adopted for males and females included 3, 5, or 28 feeds, and the other 3 plans included 28 feeds containing 92.5, 100, and 107.5% of digestible lysine requirements established according to a mathematical model developed exclusively for Ross broilers. The results showed that the tested 28-feed feeding programs are equivalent, and allow similar performance as compared to 3- and 5-feed feeding programs. Based on the lysine levels included in the different nutritional plans, it was possible to fit the equations: Y = -0.0079x + 1.2435 (R² = 0.981) for males and Y = -0.0084x + 1.1925 (R² = 0.978) for females, where "Y" is digestible lysine level (%) and "x" is average age in days. These equations are specific for multiple-phase feeding programs. The performance of male and female broilers fed the lysine levels established by the mathematical models was similar as to that of birds fed the other nutritional plans. This demonstrates that it is possible to determine broiler lysine.
Abstract in English:A trial was carried out at the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of Viçosa to evaluate the performance of heavy and light layers. During four periods of twenty-eight days, 432 layers in the second production cycle, being 216 Hy Line W36 (light birds) and 216 Hy Line Brown (heavy birds), were used. A completely randomized experimental design with a 1+(4x2x2) factorial arrangement (one control treatment, four oil sources, two inclusion levels, and two genetic lines) with four replicates of six birds per experimental unit, was applied. The treatments consisted of diets containing 16.5% crude protein, formulated to supply the nutritional requirements, and the inclusion of each oil source at 2 or 4%. Soybean, canola, linseed and fish oils were used. The control diet did not contain any oil. The studied parameters were: feed intake (g/hen/day), egg production (%), egg weight (g), egg mass (g/hen/day), feed conversion ratio (kg feed /dozen of eggs and per kg eggs). Oil levels and sources did not influence egg mass, feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs), or egg production. During the first three periods, independently of oil source or genetics, eggs from layers fed 4% oil were the heaviest, except for those of light birds fed soybean oil during the third period, which egg weight was similar for the 2 and 4% levels. Light layers presented lower feed intake and better feed conversion ratio (per kg eggs and dozen eggs) as compared to heavy layers, and there was no influence of the evaluated oil sources on feed intake.
Abstract in English:This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of dietary trace mineral levels and sources on egg quality parameters of second-cycle semi-heavy layers. A number of 360 72-week-old layers were submitted to forced molting. Upon return of lay (83 weeks of age), birds were distributed according to a completely randomized experimental design of six treatments with six replicates of 10 birds each. The control treatment consisted of 0.10% dietary supplementation of trace minerals from inorganic sources, which was proportionally replaced by five levels (110, 100, 90, 80, 70%) of an organic trace mineral supplement containing 30, 30, 40, 6, 0.61, and 0.3 g/kg product of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, I, and Se, respectively. All diets contained equal protein, energy, and amino acid levels. Every 28 days of the experimental period (112 days) four eggs per replicate were collected for egg quality evaluation. The following parameters were evaluated: specific gravity, yolk, albumen and eggshell percentages, yolk index, Haugh units, and eggshell thickness and breaking strength. One sample per replicate, consisting of the pool of the yolks of three eggs collected at the end of each experimental period, was used to assess protein and mineral (Ca, P, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn) contents. The results were submitted to ANOVA, and means to the test of Tukey at 5% significance level. The evaluated trace mineral levels and sources did not influence any of the studied egg quality parameters. It was concluded that reducing organic trace mineral supplementation in up to 70% relative to 100% inorganic trace mineral supplementation does not affect egg parameters and therefore, can be applied to the diet of semi-heavy layers in their second cycle of lay.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to determine the energy values of soybean oil (SBO) and tallow (T) combined in different ratios, and to evaluate their effects on the performance, body composition, and serum lipid levels of starter broilers. In experiment I, a digestibility trial was performed to determine the energy value of the SOB and T mixtures using 100 12 - to 21 -day-old broilers. In experiment II, 930 one-day-old broilers were used. Treatments consisted of the inclusion of 4% SBO and T inclusions at the following ratios: 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 100:0. Each treatment included six replicates. In experiment I, AME and AMEn linearly increased (P<0.01), as SBO participation in the mixture increased. In experiment II, the different lipid ratios quadratically influenced (P<0.01) body weight and weight gain at 21 days of age, increasing up to the ratio of 65.87:34.13. Serum lipids linearly decreased (P<0.05) as SOB inclusion in the diet increased. It was concluded that AME and AMEn of SBO and T at ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0 were 7.882 and 7.542, 8.384 and 8.076, 8.701 and 8.385, 8.801 and 8.727, and 9.478 and 9.271 kcal/kg, respectively. The best performance with no detrimental effect on carcass yield was obtained with the mixture of 75% SBO with 25% T. The highest dietary soybean oil level reduced serum lipid levels of 21-day-old broilers.
Abstract in English:Three experiments were carrie out to evaluate the influence of cage density on the performance of 25- to 84-week-old laying hens. Forty hundred Lohmann-LSL layers were distributed in cages (100x40x 45x50cm) according to a completely randomized experimental design with split plot in time.Three treatments (10, 12, or 14 hens per cage, corresponding, to 450, 375, and 321cm²/bird, respectively), with 15 assessment periods (four weeks each), and eight replicates per treatment were applied. Considering that layer's production cycle is affected by age, three experimental trials (25 to 44; 45 to 64 and 65 to 84 weeks of age) were carried out, and the data collected in each trial was individually analyzed. Increasing cage density significantly reduced feed intake in all phases studied. Increasing birds/cm² significantly decreased feed intake and improved feed conversion at all stages of study, and egg production was only affected in 45-week-old birds. The number of birds per cage should be reduced as birds age in order not to affect their performance. Birds with more cage space in the presented higher feed intake; however, this did not result in higher egg production or lower mortality. These results suggest that up to 45 weeks of age, 375 cm² per layer results in the best performance, and from then on, 450 cm² per bird is required to maintain egg production and to reduce hen mortality.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present study was to evaluate white blood cell counts and serum protein profiles of commercial layers experimentally infected with Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) in order to better understand the pathophysiology of the disease caused by this bacterium. 180 five-day-old commercial layers were divided into 3 groups (G); G1 and G2 received 0.2 mL of inoculate containing 3.3x10(8) CFU or 3.3x10(5) CFU SG resistant to nalidix acid (Nal r)/mL, respectively, directly into their crops. G3 group did not receive the inoculum. Birds were sacrificed 24 hours before (T1) and 24 hours after the infection (T2), and three (T3), five (T4), seven (T5), and ten (T6) days after the administration of the inoculum. White blood cell counts were carried out in a Neubauer hemocytometer and in blood smears. Serum protein concentrations, including acute-phase proteins, were determined using sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by Tukey's test (P <0.05). G1 and G2 groups presented higher leukocyte counts on T4 and T5, respectively, due to the increase of circulating lymphocytes and heterophils, with a significant difference relative to G3. In electrophoresis, an increase in the serum levels of ceruloplasmin, haptoglobin, and hemopexin and a decrease in transferrin, which are acute-phase proteins, was verified. IgA serum levels did not change; however, IgG concentration increased during the infection. In conclusion, the results provide information for the better understanding of the pathophysiology of fowl typhoid.
Abstract in English:Although Salmonella Pullorum and Salmonella Gallinarum cause different diseases in poultry, they are very similar. Both are non-motile and present the same somatic antigenic structure. They are differentiated by biochemical tests. Certain atypical strains are very difficult to distinguish. They do not produce the expected results when dulcitol and ornithine descarxboxylase tests are performed. Therefore, additional tests could be helpful. Many studies have chose the part I of the gene that encodes flagellin (fliC) to differentiate serotypes. Most Salmonella strains have two structural genes (fliC and fliB) that encode flagellins. Non-motile strains generally present these structural genes, but are not able to build a functional flagellum. It was demonstrated that enzymatic restriction of the amplified fliC gene using Hinp1I enzyme can differentiate SG from SP. In the present study, this method was adopted to analyze 14 SP and 22 SG strains, including some strains with atypical results in biochemical tests assessing the utilization of dulcitol and ornithine. The results showed that all SG strains were broken by the enzyme, whereas the 14 SP strains were not.
Abstract in English:Ratite farming of has expanded worldwide. Due to the intensive farming methods used by ratite producers, preventive medicine practices should be established. In this context, the surveillance and control of some avian pathogens are essential for the success of the ratite industry; however, little is known on the health status of ratites in Brazil. Therefore, the prevalence of antibodies against Newcastle Disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma synoviae, and Salmonella Pullorum were evaluated in 100 serum samples collected from commercial ostriches and in 80 serum samples from commercial rheas reared in Brazil. All sampled animals were clinically healthy. The results showed that all ostriches and rheas were serologically negative to Newcastle disease virus, Chlamydophila psittaci, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, and Mycoplasma synoviae. Positive antibody responses against Salmonella Pullorum antigen were not detected in ostrich sera, but were detected in two rhea serum samples. These results can be considered as a warning as to the presence of Salmonella spp. in ratite farms. Therefore, the implementation of good health management and surveillance programs in ratite farms may contribute to improve not only animal production, but also public health conditions.