Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the health situation of chukar partridges through several diagnostic methods. We investigated a total of 224 birds in eighteen populations throughout Turkey, fourteen wild and four captive. The molecular sexing method was used for gender identification. Clinically, traumatic lesions and inflammatory reactions were the most commonly observed in the eyes and extremities of the Chukar Partridges in the breeding stations. At necropsy, the most common findings were enteritis and liver lesions. At the histopathological examination, pneumonia, anthracosis, and inflammatory changes in the digestive system were among the common findings. Interestingly, liver parasites were found in wild samples. At the immunohistochemical examinations, the tissues were evaluated for Marek’s disease (MD), Adenovirus, Avian mycobacteriosis (AMB), and Aspergillosis. While MD and AMB were not found in breeding stations, we determined them from wild populations. Aspergillus was found in both wild and captive populations; Adenovirus antigens were found only in breeding stations. When the captive and wild populations were evaluated together, MD 1.3%, AMB 0.9%, Aspergillosis 1.3%, Adenovirus 1.8% were found. The relation between sex and diseases was also examined. As a result, the data of this study showed that chukar partridges from both breeding stations and wild populations are not an important source of diseases, but especially released partridges from breeding stations may carry some microorganisms. For that reason, captive populations should be regularly monitored for contagious diseases.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study was conducted to determine the effect of bee pollen inclusion on the performance and gut morphology of Ross 308 broiler chickens. A total of 240-day-old chicks (120 males and 120 females) were allocated to 4 treatments in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with sex as a block. Each experimental group was replicated 3 times with 10 chicks per replicate, with an average weight of 40 ± 5g per bird. Body weight and feed intake were measured on a weekly basis to calculate the feed conversion ratio. Gut morphology was measured on days 21 and 42. Data were analysed using the General Linear Model procedures of the Statistical Analysis System.Bee pollen inclusion in starter diets had an effect (p<0.05) on body weight and live weight gain of male Ross 308 broiler chickens. The different inclusion levels of bee pollen had an effect (p<0.05) on the gut morphology of Ross 308 broiler chickens. The ileum lengths of female broiler chickens were significantly wider (p<0.05) in comparison with male chickens. This may suggest that bee pollen inclusion has a beneficial effect on broiler chickens gut morphology during the early stages of development. It can be concluded that natural substances such as bee pollen can be a possible feed additive to replace synthetic antibiotics, since such compounds are essential for the growth and development of poultry gut.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study described changes in the serum biochemistry, morphology of genital organs, long bone, and eggshell during the daily egg formation cycle in Japanese quails. Sixty quails (18-wk) were distributed in 6 groups according to hours post-oviposition (POV): 0 hr POV (16h00), 2 hrs POV (egg in magnum), and 4, 8, 14, and 20 hrs POV (egg in uterus). The magnum had higher relative weight before the next ovulation (20 and 0 hr POV), and its tubular glands showed functional variation through periods: abundant eosinophilic, PAS+, and negative Alcian blue secretion at 0 and 2 hrs, empty glands aspect at 4 hrs, and filled again at 20 hrs POV. Serum albumin and total Ca had the highest value in the 2 hrs group, and the lowest in 8 and 14 hrs groups. Egg-cycle period affected the Ca% of the medullar bone of the femur and tibiotarsus, with the lowest mean at 14 hrs POV (06h00), and the highest mean after oviposition (0 hr POV), showing the recovery of Ca stores in long bones for the next egg cycle. Analysis of the eggshell using scanning electron microscopy evidenced that palisade layer formation starts during the night (8-14 hrs POV), and most parts are secreted during the day period. In conclusion, eggshell secretion in light periods, high magnum activity and medullary bone Ca deposition during midday and afternoon, as well as the ovulation/oviposition in the afternoon, are the main characteristics of the distinct physiological aspects of the egg cycle in quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective was to evaluate whether space allowance during pre-slaughter transport of European breeding quail affects welfare, carcass traits and meat quality. A total of 248 quails (body weight = 344.90 ± 2.09 g) were used. During pre-transport, the quails were fasted for 5 hours and 30 minutes. The poultry were caught and placed in plastic transport crates with an area of 0.40 m2. The treatments consisted of a different space allowance in each crate: 22, 28, 34 or 40 quails per crate. Immediately upon arrival at the slaughterhouse, the quails were stunned. During bleeding, blood samples were collected. The carcasses were individually weighed. The meat quality was measured. Data were analysed using the effects of space allowance during transport of quails and pickup truck as dependent variables. Death on arrival increased as the space allowance in transport crates decreased (p=0.08). Glucose and uric acid levels were not significantly different between groups (p≥0.14). The cold carcass weight presented the maximum value when the crates contained 31 quails (p=0.03). The meat pH, intensity of red, intensity of yellow and cooking losses were not different between groups (p≥0.12). The meat lightness value presented the maximum value when the crates contained 31 quails (p=0.04). In view of the above, the number of European breeding quails transported in crates must not exceed 30 animals.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on the immune and inflammatory responses and the mRNA levels of splenic toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 signaling pathway-related genes of broilers under heat stress (HS). One hundred and sixty-two birds were allocated to three groups, each with 6 replicates, for 21 continuous days. The three treatments were as follows: the control group (22 ± 1 °C), the HS (33 ± 1 °C for 10 h d-1 and 22 ± 1 °C for the remaining time) group and the HS + resveratrol (400 mg kg-1) group. At the end of the trial, one bird per replicate close to the average body weight (BW) was selected, exsanguinated, and slaughtered. Compared with the control group, the HS treatment decreased (p<0.05) final BW, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) Y, IgA and interleukin (IL)-10 contents, and splenic IL-10 mRNA level, while it increased (p<0.05) feed/gain, mRNA levels of splenic tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), TLR-4, nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB), IL-1β, and IL-6. Compared to the HS group, the HS+resveratrol group exhibited increased (p<0.05) final BW, ADG, relative weight of bursa of Fabricius and spleen, serum IgY, IgA and IL-10 contents, and splenic IL-10 mRNA level, while it exhibited lower (p<0.05) TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 contents in serum, and splenic TLR4, TNF-α, IL-1β, and NF-κB mRNA levels. In conclusion, resveratrol prevented a HS-impairment of the immune function of broilers by blocking the abnormal activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT For smallholder farmers, indigenous village chickens (IVCs) serve as a source of food, income, and ritual items. In practice, there is a high demand for IVC products, and when this demand is coupled with low investment in production inputs, it makes IVC production a rewarding rural business. Regardless of a lot of complaints about its efficacy, the marketing system of IVCs remains a viable transaction method and perfectly matches the extensive production system. This study documented the marketing system of IVCs operating in smallholder settings using a cross-sectional study. There is high volatility in the demand for IVC products, which is attributable to the demographic structure of the community and the weak purchasing power of consumers. The market price of live birds is fixed in line with the specifics of the multifaceted demand of the local community. Agroecology significantly affects the age at which the birds reach marketable size (t = 3.508, df = 113, p = 0.001, 95% CI -1.9359 to -0.5384). There is an inclined tendency to sell live birds rather than eggs (x-squared = 46.512, df = 1, p-value = 9.104e-12) and most of the home-hatched birds are sold out. Due to the involvement of hundreds of millions of smallholder farmers that are living in rural areas, millions of actors are needed to execute the market transaction, which significantly reduces the income accrued by smallholder farmers and the utility of consumers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sunflower kernel peptides produced by enzymatic digestion, fermentation, or both on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and health status of broilers. Four diets contained 20% of sunflower kernel meal as its raw form (CON) or degraded by protease (ESM), Bacillus pumilus (FSM), or both (DSM). A total of 480 yellow broilers at one day old were randomly distributed to 4 groups with 6 replicates of 20 chicks each. The feeding trial lasted for 63 d. Results showed that peptide content was increased (p<0.001) from 3.97% (CON) to 32.5% (ESM), 24.2% (FSM), and 39.1% (DSM). The three sunflower peptide groups improved (p≤0.001) feed intake and body weight gain. The peptide groups increased (p≤0.015) ileal apparent digestibility of dry matter, energy, crude protein, and amino acids (methionine, lysine, tryptophan, and threonine). Furthermore, the peptide groups improved (p≤0.029) the health status by increasing serum immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG) and glutathione peroxidase. Additionally, among the peptide groups, DSM showed more pronounced effects (p<0.05) on these parameters than ESM or FSM. It is concluded that dual-degradation by enzymolysis and fermentation has a better improvement in the nutrition and application of sunflower kernel meal in broilers.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The present study intended to identify the effects of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast on production performance and parameters related to the quality of layers’ eggs. Effects of yeast on immune titers after routine vaccinations against Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis were also studied. Fayoumi chicken (n=288) were divided in four groups (72 in each), and Black Australorp (n=288) in four groups (72 in each). Both had 12 weeks of age and were kept in 08 groups (3 replicates per treatment). Hens were fed a controlled diet along with the addition of 0.5g, 1.0 g, and 1.5 g of S. cerevisiae per kg of feed, till 25 weeks of age. Feed intake and egg production were measured on a daily basis, while body weight gain and egg weight were measured weekly. Egg quality parameters were evaluated by picking 5 eggs from every group weekly. Birds were vaccinated for Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bronchitis (IB) at the 18th week. Subsequently, 10 days after vaccination, antibody titers were determined by Hemagglutination Inhibition and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay for both diseases. Results showed no significant effect of S. cerevisiae on layers’ weight gain and feed intake. However, egg production was increased in the experimental group. Moreover, yeast supplementation impacted positively on birds’ immune system. In conclusion, probiotic supplementation improved birds’ egg production and immunity.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT MC1R plays a crucial role in controlling the type of melanin synthesized in the melanocytes, which greatly affects plumage color in birds. One g.16796362G/T SNP was found in the MC1R gene coding region, which caused a Met120Ile mutation in the amino acid sequence. The Met120Ile mutation was located in the third transmembrane domain of the MC1R protein and decreased protein stability. The g.16796362G/T locus achieved medium polymorphism and had significant association with feather melanin content in Chinese yellow quails. The contents of total melanin and pheomelanin with AA genotype were significant lower than those with AB or BB genotypes in skin tissues, while the expression levels of MC1R mRNA had no significant difference in feathers with different genotypes. This experiment indicated that the Met120Ile mutation could affect the function of the MC1R protein and change the biosynthesis of melanin in Chinese yellow quails.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with rosemary complex powder on the growth performance of native chickens. In total, 180 one day-old native chicks were assigned to one of three dietary groups (60 birds each). The control group (Group A) received the basal diet. In addition to the basal diet, the two experimental diets (Groups B and C) were supplemented with 0.2% and 0.4% rosemary complex powder, which contained rosemary leaves, sweet basil, pineapple sage and sweet lavender. Over 19 weeks, feed intake was recorded to determine the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio. In weeks 10 and 15, blood samples were taken for serum antibody titer analysis. At the end of the experiment, serum immunoglobulin A (IgA) and serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations were examined. No differences were observed among the groups in terms of the starting weight, weight in week 19, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, or average feed conversion ratio. The addition of rosemary complex powder improved total weight gain by 1.52%. Serum IgA and serum IgG concentrations were significantly lower in the experimental groups in comparison to the control group (p<0.05). Villus height, villus width, crypt depth, and villus height/crypt depth ratio were significantly higher in group B than in group A (p<0.05). In summary, rosemary complex powder improved the intestinal absorption capacity of chickens and significantly reduced their immunoglobulin concentrations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study evaluated the productive performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed diets containing prilled fats of palm oil (PFPO) or calcium soaps of palm oil (CaSPO) replacing vegetable oils (VO). A total of two hundred 1-day-old male Ross 308 chickens were allocated in a 2 × 2 randomized factorial design. Diets included 2 PFPO levels (0 and 50%) and 2 CaSPO levels (0 and 50%). The level was the percentage of substitution of VO by granulated fats. The study had two phases (starter and finisher), each lasting 21 days. In the starter phase, PFPO did not influence (main effects; p>0.05) feed intake and body weight gain, but improved (main effect; p=0.03) feed conversion. In the finisher phase and the total study, PFPO had no effect (p>0.05) on these productive variables. Throughout the study, CaSPO did not influence feed intake (main effect; p>0.50), but decreased weight gain and had a negative effect on feed conversion (main effects; p<0.05). There was no influence of fats (PFPO or CaSPO) on carcass yield, breast, drumsticks plus thighs, and wings (main effects; p>0.05). Chickens fed CaSPO had lower (main effect; p=0.02) carcass weight. The only PFPO × CaSPO interaction (p=0.04) was for back yield. Results showed that PFPO or CaSPO could be employed in formulating broiler chicken diets, as they are less expensive than conventional VO. Partial substitution of VO for PFPO had minimal effect on productive variables, although partial dietary inclusion of CaSPO might slightly reduce the production of broiler chickens.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The knowledge of biological trace minerals and phytase requirements for modern broiler genotypes is not established and the pressure to reduce their usage in animal feeding due to environmental issues is increasing. Here, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and tartarate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) of the tibia and serum of broilers fed with diets containing various levels of phytase and reduced levels of zinc, manganese, and copper was evaluated. The experiment was performed using 1,200 male Cobb broilers raised according to standard commercial husbandry techniques. Data were analyzed as a 4×3 factorial arrangement with four concentrations of zinc (0.34, 0.49, 0.64, and 0.79 ppm), manganese (0.18, 0.43, 0.68, and 0.93 ppm), or copper (0.09, 0.12, 0.15, and 0.18 ppm) and three concentrations of phytase (0, 500, and 1,000 FTU/kg) for age periods of 1-21 and 36-42 days. While the dietary supplementation with copper did not induce a significant effect in bone tissue biochemical markers, serum TRAP activity of 42-day old broilers increased with higher copper levels. Increasing dietary zinc levels linearly increased ALP activity in tibia growth, suggesting that zinc is essential for longitudinal bone growth. Phytase significantly promoted the increase of TRAP and ALP activities, suggesting that manganese increased growth plate activity, accelerated calcification, and remodeled the newly formed tissue into trabecular bone. Although not every enzymatic activity was affected by the treatments, the phytase use, along with trace minerals, improved the animal response to the rapid growth required nowadays and provided the nutrients for adequate bone metabolism.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In this study, we investigated the effects of Ganoderma lucidum extract (GLE) supplementation on the cecal microbiota of broilers challenged with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) during the starter phase. A total of 32 one-day-old, unsexed broiler chicks were randomly divided into four dietary treatments with eight birds per treatment and reared individually for 14 days (n = 8). The diet treatments were: non-DSS challenge, DSS challenge only, DSS challenge plus 0.5 mL/L GLE, and DSS challenge plus 1 mL/L GLE. The results showed that DSS challenge plus 0.5 mL GLE alleviated inflammatory gene expression in the duodenum of broilers (p≤0.01). The alpha diversity of bacterial species in the cecal digesta increased in the group treated with DSS plus 1 mL/L GLE compared with the DSS challenge-only group (p≤0.01). Principal component analysis and principal coordinate analysis indicated distinct clusters between groups treated with DSS-only and DSS plus GLE (0.5 and 1 mL/L). The abundance of the genera Ruminiclostridium 9, Enterococcus, and Sellimonas increased in the group treated with DSS plus GLE (0.5 and 1 mL/L) compared with the other groups (p≤0.01). Comparative microbial function analysis demonstrated that the immune system was promoted in the group treated with DSS plus GLE (0.5 and 1 mL/L) compared to the DSS challenge-only group (p≤0.001). These results demonstrated that GLE supplementation can modulate the cecal microbial community of broilers under DSS challenge during the starter phase.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of replacing maize with new or stored wheat on the nutrient intake, digestibility, digesta viscosity, and growth performance of growing broilers from 1-21 days of age. For this purpose, 560 one-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly divided into seven experimental treatments, each with 8 replicates of 10 birds. The control diet was a corn soybean-based diet, while six other experimental treatments replaced the corn of the control diet with either 50% or 100% of new, 1.5 year, and 2.5-year-old wheat. The results showed that the replacement of corn with new wheat at 50% and 100% in the diet of broilers significantly reduced feed intake and body weight gain, and increased FCR (p<0.05) at week 3. Similarly, in the overall period of the starter phase (1-21 days), replacement of corn with new wheat at 50% and 100% in the diet of broilers significantly reduced feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and body weight gain, and increased digesta viscosity and FCR (p<0.05). Based on the findings of the current study, it is concluded that stored wheat successfully replaces corn and new wheat in the diet of broilers. Furthermore, stored wheat has a positive impact on feed intake, performance parameter, digesta viscosity, and nutrient digestibility as compared to new wheat.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Feed additive alternatives to antibiotics, such as organic acids, and substances rich in polyphenols, such as tangerine wort, can promote improved intestinal health in broilers by modulating the microbial population and improving nutrient utilization. In this work, a product which combines organic acids (fumaric acid 0.5%, lactic acid 5.13%, citric acid 5.44% and ascorbic acid 1.2%) and tangerine wort (Citrus reticulata) 8.36% was studied. To determine the effect and the most appropriate level of inclusion of product in the diet of broilers, an experiment was carried out with 1400-day-old male chicks, in a conventional poultry house, evaluating the performance until 42 days of age. The birds were housed in RCB design with 5 treatments and 7 replicates of 40 birds each, and the diets with the additive inclusions were evaluated: A250 (250 mg/kg), A500 (500 mg/kg), A1000 (1000 mg/kg), a negative control (NC, not supplemented), and a positive control (PC, 10 mg/kg of enramycin). The diets were formulated based on corn and soybean meal, containing added phytase and without anticoccidial; the additives replaced an inert in the basal diet. Performance characteristics, microbiota count, morphometry and jejunum morphology were evaluated. Considering the overall experimental period, the inclusion of the alternative additive based on organic acids and tangerine wort at different levels (250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg) did not result in difference from the negative control diet or the positive control with the inclusion of the antibiotic enramycin for performance traits (p>0.05), as well as for the microbiota count, morphology, jejunal morphometry and viability. Considering the period of 29-35 days alone, treatment with 500 mg/kg of alternative additive improved weight gain and feed intake of the chickens (p<0.05), but had no effect on feed conversion.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Linoleic (LA, 18:2) and alpha-linolenic (ALA, 18:3) acids are omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids considered essential to human and animal health. The optimum LA/ALA ratio for the production of fertile eggs in Japanese quail breeders has been little investigated. Thus, this study aimed to assess the effects of LA/ALA ratio on productive performance, egg quality, serum biochemical profile, body composition, and organ weight in Japanese quail. A completely randomized design was used. Birds were distributed into five treatments consisting of different LA/ALA ratios (1.48:1, 4.57:1, 7.63:1, 10.69:1, and 13.75:1), obtained by adding soybean (LA) and flaxseed (ALA) oils to the feed. Productive performance and egg quality were assessed in three cycles of 28 days each. At the end of the experiment, the birds were slaughtered and evaluated for biochemical profile, genital organ weights, and body composition. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and regression (p<0.05). LA/ALA ratio had no effect on productive performance or egg quality. Blood cholesterol in females and males and total triglycerides in females showed a quadratic response. Breeders fed the highest level of flaxseed oil (1.48:1) had the best serum levels of cholesterol and total triglycerides. Live weight and relative organ weights were not influenced by LA/ALA ratio. Differences in ash and crude protein levels were observed between groups, with LA increasing the deposition of these nutrients. It was concluded that LA/ALA ratio didn’t affect productive performance or egg quality. However, based on the results of body composition, serum triglycerides, and cholesterol, it is recommended to use an LA/ALA ratio of 1.48:1 in diets.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT We assessed the extent to which CO2 levels altered different hatching and chick parameters. In Experiments 1 and 2, a total of 16,184 eggs from Cobb 500 breeders were incubated in single stage incubators under three different conditions: (a) standard ventilated incubator (CON, Exp.1 and 2); (b) increasing CO2 levels during the first 10 days of incubation until 0.7% (V7000, Exp. 1) and (c) until 0.8% (V8000, Exp. 2). High levels of CO2 improved hatchability, possibly due to lower embryo mortality from ED18 to ED21. Internal and external pipping in experiment V8000 started later than in CON; nevertheless, the hatch still occurred before in V8000 as a result of the shorter durations of external pipping and hatch. In Experiment 3, a total of 12,138 eggs from Cobb 500 were incubated in single stage incubators under three different conditions: (a) standard ventilated incubator (CON); (b) increasing CO2 levels until 1.0% with ventilation (V10000); and (c) increasing CO2 levels until 1.0% without ventilation (NV10000). Hypercapnic conditions led to better hatchability and lower embryo mortality from ED18 to ED21. Internal pipping started earlier in NV10000, but only V10000 differed from CON in terms of the average time for hatch. Hypercapnic groups also showed shorter durations of external pipping and hatch when compared to CON. Post-hatch analysis revealed no differences among incubation conditions in terms of body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, mortality by sudden death syndrome, and production factor. Nevertheless, V10000 showed a lower mortality by ascites and a better viability when compared to CON, while NV10000 presented a higher mortality by other causes. Altogether, our findings indicate that in addition to not being detrimental to embryo survival, high CO2 levels reduce embryonic mortality at 18-21 days of incubation and increase hatchability.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding Japanese quail chicks with diets containing different levels of Moringa oleifera leaf and canola seed powder on growth performance, carcass yield, blood plasma constituents, and egg production. The trial lasted for a total of 7 weeks, with 5 weeks of fattening and two weeks of laying. The first group was the control group, while the second group was supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves (4g/kg diet), the third group was supplemented with canola seed powder (4g/kg diet), the fourth group was supplemented with a mix of Moringa oleifera leaves and canola seed powder (8g/kg diet). The results showed that canola seed powder from 0-3 weeks of age increased body weight in comparison to the control group, but there were no significant differences (p<0.05) among groups in terms of the final body weight and feed conversion ratio. Average daily feed intake was significantly different (p<0.05). However, body weight, carcass weight, liver weight, gizzard weight, and abdominal fat weight increased significantly compared to the control group. Feeding Moringa oleifera leaves and canola seed powder significantly increased the total plasma protein, as compared to the control group. There were significant decreases in cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL levels among groups, with no significant differences in glucose, ALT and LDL among all treatments. The addition of Moringa oleifera leaf and canola seed powder showed significant effects on calcium and magnesium. Both Moringa oleifera leaf and Moringa-canola mixture significantly reduced the presence of some pathogenic bacteria in the digestive system, which was seen as an important contribution to the digestive and immune systems.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study determined the metabolizable energy of DDGS for broiler quails (Experiment I) and evaluated the effect of different dietary levels of DDGS on performance, carcass, organ weight, meat quality, and economic viability (Experiment II). In Experiment I, 72 broiler quails were randomly distributed into two treatments (reference or test diets). The experimental period consisted of 5 days of adaptation, followed by 5 days of total excreta collection. Experimental diets consisted of a reference or a test diet containing 800 g/kg reference diet and 200 g/kg DDGS. In experiment II, 432 unsexed broiler quails were randomly distributed into groups fed six levels of DDGS (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, or 250 g/kg). At 43 days of age, birds were slaughtered and evaluated for carcass yield, organ weight, and meat quality. Apparent metabolizable energy values corrected for nitrogen retention of DDGS were 2,488 and 2,466 kcal/kg for males and females, respectively. In the growth phase and the overall period, feed intake increased linearly (p=0.015 and 0.040) and feed conversion ratio worsened (p=0.038 and 0.001) with the inclusion of DDGS in the diet, respectively. A linear increasing (p=0.001) of gizzard weight was observed with increasing dietary DDGS levels, while the economic variables were affect depending on seasonal feedstocks prices. It is concluded that dietary levels up to 250 g/kg DDGS do not affect growth, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of broiler quails. However, the prices of ingredients in the harvest and off-season period should be considered to determine the level of inclusion of DDGS.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation pelleted Tenebrio molitor (TM) powder with chokeberry by-product (CBP) meal on duck production and meat quality traits. A total of 180 0-day-old Pekin ducks were allocated randomly between three dietary groups viz., control, Treatment 1, and Treatment 2, with three pens per group and twenty birds per pen, characterized by increasing levels of pelleted TM powder with CBP meal in concentration of 0%, 1.5%, and 3%, respectively, and reared until 42 days of age in a completely randomized design. On day 42, the ducks were sacrificed, and breast and thigh muscles were used for meat quality evaluations. Feeding pelleted TM powder with CBP meal resulted in a significant difference in final body weight, weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). Additionally, a significant difference was observed in the pH of the breast meat samples (p<0.05). As the only significant difference between the breast and thigh meat, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryhydrazyl radical scavenging was influenced significantly by the dietary inclusion of pelleted TM powder with CBP meal (p<0.05). However, the values of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and meat color in both breast and thigh meat were insignificant (p>0.05) different among all groups. To conclude, the inclusion of up to 3 % of pelleted TM powder with CBP meal in the diets of ducks did improve the growth production and antioxidant characteristics effects, which could decrease TBARS and reflected by changes in 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl free DPPH radical scavenging values.